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the parallel of 31 deg. 20 min. north latitude ; that is to say, below the intersection of the thence along the said parallel of 31 deg. 20 min. 31 deg. 47 min. 30 sec. parallel of latitude, with to the 111th meridian of longitude west of Green- the boundary line established by the late treaty wich; thence in a straight line to a point on the dividing said river from its mouth upwards, acColorado River twenty English miles below the cording to the fifth article of the treaty of junction of the Gila and Colorado Rivers ; Guadalupe. thence up the middle of the said river Colorado Art. 5. All the provisions of the eighth and until it intersects the present line between the ninth, sixteenth and seventeenth articles of the United States and Mexico.

treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, shall apply to the For performance of this portion of the territory ceded by the Mexican Republic in the treaty, each of the two governments shall nomi- first article of the present treaty. nate one commissioner, to meet in the city of Art. 6. No grants of land within the territory Paso del Norte, three months after the exchange ceded by the first article of this treaty bearing of the ratifications of this treaty, to survey and date subsequent to the day-twenty-fifth of Sepmark the dividing line stipulated by this article, tember-when the minister and subscriber to where it shall not have already been surveyed this treaty on the part of the United States proand established by the mixed commission, ac- posed to the Government of Mexico to terminate cording to the treaty of Guadalupe.

the question of boundary, will be considered The line established by this commission shall valid or be recognized by the United States, nor be final, and be considered an integral part, will any grants made previously be respected or without the necessity of ulterior ratification or be considered as obligatory which have not been approval, and without room for interpretation located and duly recorded in the archives of of any kind by either of the parties contracting. Mexico.

In consequence, the stipulation in the 5th ART. 7 reaffirms articles 21 and 22 of the article of the treaty of Guadalupe upon the treaty of Guadalupe in reference to any future boundary line therein described is no longer of disagreement between the two nations. any force, wherein it may conflict with that here ART. 8. The Mexican Government having on established.

the 5th of February, 1853, authorized the early ART. 2. The government of Mexico hereby re-construction of a plank and railroad across the leases the United States from all liability on Isthmus of Tehuantepec, and, to secure the staaccount of the obligations contained in the ble benefits of said transit way to the persons eleventh article of the treaty of Guadalupe Hi- and merchandise of the citizens of Mexico and dalgo; and the said article and the thirty-third the United States, it is stipulated that neither article of the treaty of amity, commerce and government will interpose any obstacle to the 'navigation between the United States of America transit of persons and merchandise of both naand the United Mexican States concluded at tions; and at no time shall higher charges be Mexico, on the fifth day of April, 1831, are made on the transit of persons and property of hereby abrogated.

citizens of the United States, than may be made Art. 3. In consideration of the foregoing stipu-l on the persons and property of other foreign lations, the government of the United States nations, nor shall any interest in said transit agrees to pay to the government of Mexico, in way, nor in the proceeds thereof, be transferred the city of New York, the sum of ten millions of to any foreign government. dollars, of which seven millions shall be paid im- The United States shall have the right to trangmediately upon the exchange of the ratifications port across the isthmus, in closed bags, the mails of this treaty, and the remaining three millions of the United States not intended for distribuas soon as the boundary line shall be surveyed, tion along the line of communication; also the marked and established.

effects of the United States government and its Art. 4. The provisions of the 6th and 7th arti- citizens, which may be intended for transit, and cles of the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo are not for distribution on the isthmus, free of cushereby abrogated, and the provisions as herein tom-house or other charges by the Mexican expressed substituted therefor. The vessels and government. Neither passports nor letters of citizens of the United States shall, in all time, security will be required of persons crossing the have free and uninterrupted passage through isthmus and not remaining in the country. the Gulf of California, to and from their posses- When the construction of the railroad shall be sions situated north of the boundary line of the completed, the Mexican government agrees to two countries. It being understood that this open a port of entry in addition to the port of passage is to be by navigating the Gulf of Cali- Vera Cruz, at or near the terminus of said road fornia and the river Colorado, and not by land, on the Gulf of Mexico. without the express consent of the Mexican The two governments will enter into arrange. government; and precisely the same provisions, ments for the prompt transit of troops and mu. stipulations and restrictions, in all respects, are nitions of the United States, which that governhereby agreed upon and adopted, and shall be ment may have occasion to send from one part scrupulously observed and enforced by the two of its territory to another, lying on opposite sides contracting governments in reference to the Rio of the continent. Colorado, so far and for such distance as the The Mexican government having agreed to middle of that river is made their common protect with its whole power the prosecution, boundary line by the first article of this treaty. preservation and security of the work, the

The several provisions, stipulations and re- United States may extend its protection as it strictions contained, in the 7th article of the shall judge wise to it when it may feel sanctioned treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo shall remain in and warranted by the public or international force only so far as regards the Rio Bravo del law. Norte, below the initial of the said boundary Art. 9 provides for the exchange of ratificaprovided in the first article of this treaty;'tions within six months.

TREATY WITH JAPAN-NATIONAL FINANCES.

45

Expenditures for said year were: TREATY WITH JAPAN. Civil list...

$4,649,384 98 Foreign intercourse..

7,726,677 13 In our Almanac for 1854 we gave a historical ac

Miscellaneous..

13,531,310 33 Interior department..

2,609,054 79 count of the operation of the Japanese Expedition War department..

11,733,629 48 under Com. Perry. We now have the pleasure Navy department..

10,768,192 89 of announcing the entire success of Com. Perry Redemption of public debt, in

terest and premium... iu opening commercial and friendly relations

24,386,330 66 between the Empire of Japan and the Republic Total expenditure... $75,354,630 26 of the United States. On the 31st of March, Balance in the Treasury on July 1, 1854, a treaty was signed at Yedo which opens 1854

$20,137,967 50 the port of Simodi, near the entrance to the Bay

The receipts of the first quarter of the fiscal of Yedo, and the port of Hakodadi (near Mats- year, ending Sept. 80, 1854, were as fnllows: mai) on the Straits of Sangad, to our commerce.

From customs....

$18,639,798 45 From lands.

2,781,654 12 The treaty secures assistance to our vessels in

Miscellaneous

149,850 28 case of distress, provides that they shall be furnished with wood, water, coal, provisions, &c., Total...

. $21,521,302 85 at fixed and reasonable prices ; establishes & The expenditures for the same first quarter scale of the value of coin, a standard of weights were: and measures, and provides for the carrying on

Civil, miscellaneous and foreign

intercourse.. of commerce with Japan by the citizens of the Interior Department...

$6,241,749 81

2,175,737 13 United States. The treaty arranges for the War Department...

3,867,039 92 residence of American citizens at these ports, Navy Department..

2,508,791 09 and also for the residence of consuls, if, in Redemption of public debt, in

terest and premium..

1,876,613 17 future, either party should desire it. It also stipulates that Americans residing in or visiting

*Total expenditures... .$16,169,330 62 these ports, shall be free to visit the interior to

The receipts of the remaining three quarters the distance of ten or twelve miles without of the year are estimated as follows : molestation.

From customs...

.$36,000,000 00 From lands........

6,000,000 00 Miscellaneous

500,000 00 NATIONAL FINANCES.

Total.....

. $42,500,000 00

The receipts for the first quarter, the estimated From the Annual Report of the Secretary of receipts for the remaining three quarters, and the Treasury we learn that the receipts into the the balance in the Treasury on the first day of Treasury for the fiscal year ending June 30, July, 1854, make a total sum of $84,107,967 50

for the service of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1854, were as follows:

1855. 1st quarter-from customs. . $19,718,822 00 The estimated expenditures for the remaining from lands...

1,489,562 05 three quarters of the year are as follows: miscellaneous... 147,994 37 Civil list, foreign intercourse, and

miscellaneous...

$15,066,931 13 $21,356,378 42 Deficiency in the Post-Office De2d quarter-from customs. $13,587,821 27

partment..

2,719,464 00 from lands.. 2,223,076 39 Interior Department.

3,133,655 25 miscellaneous. 101,963 64 War Department...

13,628,350 90 Navy Department.

11,258,095 71 $15,912,861 30 Interest on the public debt.... 2,370,093 60 3d quarter-from customs... $16,896,724 83 from lands..

2,012,908 36
Making...

- $48,176,590 59 miscellaneous... 486,091 93 Total estimated expenditures for

the year 1855...

..$64,345,921 21 $19,395,725 12 4th quarter-from customs.... $14,020,822 17 The expenditures of the first quarter, and the from lands.........

2,745,251 59 estimated expenditures for the remaining three miscellaneous.. 118,666 10 quarters, are $64,345,921 21, leaving an esti

mated balance in the Treasury, on the 1st day of

$16,884,739 86 July, 1855, of $19,762,046 29. Making...

. $78,549,705 20 The amount of the public debt outBalance in the treasury 1st of

standing on the 1st of July, July, 1853.. 21,942,892 56 1853, was....

$67.3 10,628 78

And on the 1st day of July, 1851.. 47,130,506 05 Total sum for the service of the

fiscal year ending June 30, 1854, $95,492,598 76| Being a reduction of....... $20,160,122 78 The estimated receipts for the fiscal year ending the price of public lands, and this has been ing June 30, 1856, are as follows:

done, except where the reservation was for a From customs..

$56,000,000 00 fixed period, or have already been made. In From lands....

6,000,000 00 view of the increase of business consequent on Miscellaneous...

500,000 00 the operations of the law graduating the price

of the public lands, and the decrease in the com

$62,500,000 00 pensation of the land offices, caused by that reAdd estimated balance in the

duction, the Commissioner recommends better Treasury July 1, 1855........... 19,762,046 29 provision for remunerating land officers, with

allowances for clerk hire and office rent. Of the Making the estimated sum of $82,262,046 29 operation of the graduation law, the report says: for the service of the fiscal year 1856.

"Judging from the reports received, it has been Estimated expenditures for the fiscal year 1856: productive of much fraud and perjury, and provBalance of former appropriations,

ed seriously injurious to the actual settlers on to be expended this year... :$11,212,905 20

the public domain. As far as practicable, these Permanent and indefinite appro

evils have been remedied by construction and priations, to be expended this

instructions ; but the law is inherently defective. year.....

If it be designed to engraft this feature perma

7,934,411 70 Appropriations asked for and to

nently on our land system, the privilege of purbe expended this year....... 41,722,516 47 chasing at the graduated price should have been

limited to preëmptors or made general to all. Total...

$60,869,833 37 Now, it is alleged, that persons take the oath releaving the sum of $21,392,212 92 on the 1st of quired by the law. with the mental qualification July, 1856.

that the land will be required for actual settlement and cultivation at some future time.

Others, it is stated, have employed men to go REPORT OF THE GENERAL LAND OFFICE. forward and make the affidavit, paying all their

expenses, and also paying for the land—the emThe general facts contained in this document ployer agreeing to give his employés, in fee simare as follows: During the year ending June 30, ple, a portion, say an eighth or a quarter of the there were 7,035,000 acres sold for cash; 3,402,- land so entered, retaining the balance."

The 000 located by land warrants, and 14,000 by other difficulties are further explained, as will be seen certificates ; 11,000,000 reported as swamp lands, in the report. The Commissioner discusses at and 1,751,000 for internal improvement-making length the granting of land to the States, and for a total of 23,238,813 acres. For the last quarter, railroad and other improvements. With regard 4,780,000 acres were disposed of, being all togeth- to the Pacific Railroad, he says, the necessity er an increase of sales amounting to 5,600,000 of such a mode of communication becomes daily acres over the previous year, though there is a di- more apparent, and that the only way it can be minution of 2,000,000, including land warrant and secured is by grants of land ; and adds, that swamp transactions—the difference being caused should the land system be crippled, this work, by the fact that the most of the grants for bounty and all others of like character, will be rendered lands, swamps, railroads, etc., had previously impracticable. If the object sought in the Gradubeen disposed of. The sales for the third quarter ation Act was to get rid of the lands as soon as of the current calendar year are more than twice practicable, he says, there is but little doubt that as heavy as those for the corresponding quarter object will be attained by it. If, on the contrary, of the previous year, though the locations are the supposition was that the lands would not seli less numerous. From the 30th of September, for more, his statements, he presumes, will satis1853, to the 30th of September, 1884, 9,384,464 factorily show that supposition to be erroneous. acres were surveyed, chiefly in Wisconsin, Iowa, The sales have always been equal to the demand; Minnesota and Florida, and 8,190,917 acres were the supply far, very far beyond it. The demand brought into market. This is exclusive of the at the reduced prices will be increased, but chiefly surveys in California, Oregon and Washington, for purposes of speculation, and the hardy and amounting to 1,686,471 acres, which have not enterprising settler, instead of dealing with a yet been proclaimed for sale. The Commissioner kind and paternal Government in the purchase says, on an average, full one-third more business of his lands, and securing a perfect title, will has been done in the office during the past year have to look to the wealthy monopolist, and trust than in the preceding; of the 26,543,760 acres to his tender mercies, with the risk that his title embraced by the land warrants now issued, is encumbered by prior liens aud mortgages. 22,335,880 acres have been located-leaving only With such views, the Commissioner says the na4,307,880 acres to be satisfied. The report gives tural suggestion is, that the graduation law be a minute detail of the labors of the Department, radically amended, if it be the pleasure of Conand recommends more secure deposits for the gress to engraft it permanently on the land sys. books and papers; and then presents the ope- tem; and, in that event, it is further suggested rations of the various State and Territorial Sur- that the 12 1-2 cent class be abolished, or rather veyors. With regard to railroad lands, it is donated to the States respectively in which they stated that at the instance of several Members lie, as the profit will scarcely defray the expense of Congress and others, about 31,000,000 of acres of disposing of them. in several of the land States had been withdrawn from market, in anticipation of grants for railroad and other internal improvements. As such

REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. grants were not made, it was deemed expedient to restore these masses of land to market, espe

THE whole number of Post-Offices in the United cially in view of the passage of the bill graduat-1 States on the 30th June, 1854, was 23,548 ; net

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REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE NAVY.

47

increase for the year ending that date, 1,228. (of Postmasters, under the act of Congress, passThe total number of offices on the first of De- ed June 22, 1854, and to another law of Congress, cember, 1854, was 23,925. On the 30th June last making provision for the postal service in the there were in operation 6,697 mail routes. The State of California, and the Territories of Oregon number of contractors was 5,167. The length of and Washington. The following figures, howthese routes is estimated at 219,935 miles. The ever, are made. Estimated expenditures for the total annual transportation of mails was 63,387,- year 1855, exclusive of payments for foreign 005 miles, costing $4,630,676, and divided as fol- postages accruing within the year, $9,841,921 23. lows, viz: 21,267,603 miles by modes not speci- The means of the year, Mr. Campbell states, will fied, at $1,092,833, about 5 cents per mile ; 20,- probably amount to $9,989,944 96. Estimated 890,530 miles by coach, at $1,290,095, about 6 surplus, June 30, 1855, $148,023 63. Mr. Campcents per mile ; 15,433,389 miles by railroad, at bell recommends the passage of a law authorizing $1,758,610, about 11 cents 4 mills per mile; 5,795,- the establishment of a system of registration of 483 miles by steamboat, at $489,138, about 8 cents all valuable letters, at the option of the corre4 mills per mile. Compared with the services of the spondents-five cents additional postage being year ending 30th June, 1853, there is an increase charged for registration, and all registered letof 1,494,463 miles of transportation, or about 21-2 ters to be made up under the special Post bill, per cent., and of $134,703 cost, being about 3 per and sent under a special envelop to the Postcent. The increase of railroad service is 2,446,- masters. A system of checks and accounts is 684 miles, and the expense $157,281, being 19 per also suggested, in order the more readily to ascent. in transportation, and not quite 1 per cent. certain when valuable letters are missing, and in cost. The increased transportation by modes to give an easier clue to mail robberies. The not specified is 377,157 miles, or about 1 per cent., Postmaster compliments the Collins' line of at a cost of $37,520, or 3 35-100 per cent. The steamers highly, and thinks the original allowtransportation by coaches is less by 439,796 miles, ance made to it by the Government was too low, or about 2 per cent., though at an increased cost but that the present pay is too high. He does of $83,137, or 6 88-100 per cent. The steamboat not, however, recommend any decided course transportation during the past year was reduced with reference thereto. He thinks the California 889,582 miles, or 15 3-8 per cent., at a reduced mail steamers' service costs too much, and sugcost of $143,230, or 29 7-10 per cent. There gests that unless contractors will give weekly serwere in service on the 30th June last, 236 route vice for the present contract price, the Governagents, at a compensation of $181,600 per an- ent had better exercise their right and abrogate num; 21 local agents at $15,490 per annum; the contract by a purchase of the company's ships. and 968 mail messengers, at $92,131 80 per annam; making a total cost of $289,221 80 per annum to be added to the other cost of transporta- REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE NAVY. tion.

The Auditor reports the expenditure of the THE Secretary of the Navy recommends an adDepartment for the last fiscal year at $8,577,424 ditional but gradual increase of the Navy; its 12, and the gross revenue, including foreign post- reorganization, and the enactment of new reguages, etc., at $6,955,586 22. This revenue includes lations for the discipline and improvement of the balance against the Department of $138,565 seamen. The movements of the various squad. 61, resulting from our postal accounts with Great rons are reported in detail. The sloop-of-war Britain, Prussia and Bremen. One of the results Albany was last heard from at Aspinwall on the of the eat activity and expansion which have 28th September, when she left for New-York. prevailed in the general business operations of Painful anxiety is felt touching her fate. The the country during the past year, is manifest in steamer Princeton was sent in search of her seyan extraordinary increase in the Post-Office re- eral days since. Lieut. Strain and party are venue, amounting to nearly one million of dol- complimented for enterprise, and exhibition of lars.

powers of endurance and generous devotion to Revenue of 1854..

$6,955,586 22 duty in the exploration of the Darien Ship Canal Revenue of 1853..

5,940,724 70 route. The result arrived at is that the proposed

Canal is totally impracticable; and this, the SecDifference.

. $1,014,861 52 retary apprehends, settles the question forever. Deduct the balance in each year, resulting from The bombardment of Greytown by the sloop-ofour postal accounts with England, etc., viz: in war Cyane is narrated, and indirectly approved. 1853, $94,466 27, and in 1854, $138,928 31, and Commodore Perry is highly complimented for the total increase in 1854 is $970,399 48, or 18 his success in Japan. The Secretary does not 85-100 per cent. In view of the trivial increase propose to increase the number of officers nor of the postage on printed matter, and of the ex- materially enlarge the squadrons, and thereby tremely low rates, particularly for newspapers largely increase the current expenses, nor have and periodicals, the Postmaster-General recom- a navy of the immense size and extent of some mends that the law be so changed as to omit the of the navies of European powers, but to increase clause referred to, leaving the department to fall the material of our Navy so as at least to apback upon the act of 1825, under which quarterly proximate to a state of readiness for emergencies, payments in advance on newspapers and peri- which wise statesmen strive to avoid, but wiser odicals have heretofore always been required. statesmen prepare to meet.

The Postmaster-General states, that the ex. The Secretary renews his recommendations of penditure of the current year, ending June 30, last year for the reorganization of the Navy; 1855, owing to causes not within the control of the creation of a retired list for infirm officers; the Department, will greatly exceed those of the the discharge of the inefficient, and to have last year, Among the causes of this increase, promotions regulated by capacity and merit in Mr. Campbell names the increased compensation some degree, instead of by seniority of commission and pay to some extent controlled by cost sufficient to give some degree of security to sea service. So far as he has authority these the Indian frontiers, for which purpose the reguviews will guide his action, even without legisla- lar force is the most efficient, cheap, proper and tion. The Secretary is far from recommending constitutional means. The increased pay to the restoration of dogging. The experience of enlisted men induced the enlistment of 1,005 the Navy justifies its abrogation. There is, men in October and September last, against 309 however, urgent necessity for some substitute, men during the corresponding months last year. accompanied with a plan of reward as well as the number of recruits required for the service punishment-a substitute which would be prompt of the ensuing year will, probably, not be less and sure-in order to restrain the offender and than 6,000. He recommends the use of camels and deter the inconsiderate; to reward, equally sure, dromedaries for military purposes again, and the generous; to encourage fidelity and pro- asks an appropriation to test their usefulness. mote respectability. It is not the severity, but an increased pay for officers is urged as an act the certainty and promptness of punishment, of justice and necessity. Additional legislation which promote discipline. He recommends that is asked to place the widows and orphans of the the commander of any vessel be authorized by officers and soldiers of the Army on an equality law to order a summary court-martial for the with the widows and orphans of the officers and trial of petty officers and those below them; that soldiers of the Navy. The necessity of a revision they have power to punish by dishonorable dis- of our military legislation in some important charge in any port, or by confinement on re particulars is pointed out, in order to prevent duced rations, and without pay, with extra labor conflicting claims in regard to rank and comand a denial of shore privileges. It is the Sec- mand which now give rise to much inconvenretary's purpose to immediately adopt, in modi- ience and trouble. One great source of difficulty fied form, the apprentice system, and to en-is the double rank recognized by our laws; to courage the enlistment of American boys from remedy this, it is proposed to give effect to bre14 until 21 years of age; to train them first on a vet rank only when the President may see fit, receiving-ship, then on cruisers, in practical and forbid the exercise of brevet commissions in seamanship. He is clearly of the opinion, also, the regiment, troop, or company, where officers that the number of men in the service should be are mustered. Elaborate suggestions for reincreased at least 2,500. The number of the organization of the staff corps are presented, marine corps is deemed entirely too small, and and compared with European systems. It is an indefinitely stated increase is earnestly re- proposed that there be nine Brigadier Generals, commended. The corps would be improved and one for each department; one for Quartermaster: elevated in character by adopting some system General, one for Adjutant-General, and two for of appointing officers of military education and Inspectors-General; being an addition of three training. Prof. Maury's achievements in de to those who now, by brevet or otherwise, have veloping his theory of winds and currents, and rank and command as Brigadier - Generals. his preparation of charts, are noticed most flat- Other marked changes in staff appointments, teringly. It is estimated that the saving to our rank and duty, are proposed. Reforms in the commerce by the use of his charts would amount organization of regiments are also suggested. to several millions per annum. Robert L. The expediency of general promotions by seStevens's iron war-steamer, shot and shell niority instead of merit is doubted by the Secre. proof, for harbor defense, is rapidly progressing. tary, and the establishment of a retired list again The boilers will be ready to put on board in urged. Professorships of Ethics and of English about three weeks.

studies at the Military Academy are recommended.

REPORT FROM THE WAR DEPARTMENT.

REPORT OF THE PENSION OFFICE, The actual strength of the Army is only 10,745. The whole authorized strength is 14,216. The TÁC whole number of pensioners, June 30, deficiency is fast decreasing by more rapid en- 1863, was 11,867. Annual amount payable to listments. A statement is given of the changes them, $1,070,079. Same, June 30, 1854, 14,065, and made in the distribution of the army during last annual amount payable to them, $1,172,651 63. year. The removal from Florida of the remnant Number of Revolutionary soldiers on the roll, of the Seminoles, has received the attention of June 30, 1853, 1,395; number of Revolutionary the Department; bnt its efforts have not been soldiers on the roll, June 30, 1854, 1,069. There very successful. The Indian difficulties else- have been taken from the rolls of the Army where are alluded to. The massacre of Lieut. Pensioners during the year ending June 30, Gratton and men by the Sioux is narrated, and 1854, by death, 643; by transfer to the Treasury the fact stated that the army force is quite inade- Department as unclaimed pensions, 883—total quate to he protection of our frontier and to pun- 1,526. Of the Navy Pensioners for the year endish Indian aggressions. Our entire loss in Indian ing Sept. 80, 1854, 24 are reported dead, and 38 actions during the year is four officers and sixty- transferred to the Treasury Department as unthree men killed, and four officers and forty-two claimed pensions. Of those transferred to the men wounded. The occurrences on the frontier Treasury Department, but few are again restored furnish deplorable proofs of the insufficiency of to the roll. our military force, and of the absolute necessity for its increase, which was urged by the Secre

REPORT OF THE PATENT OFFICE. tary last year. Our effective force does not ex. ceed 11,000 men, which is entirely inadequate A COORDING to the Report of the Commissioner for the purposes for which we maintain a stand- of Patents, the arrearages in business in that ing army. Its immediate increase is urged, at a' office have been well pushed forward by in

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