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creasing the number of examiners. Since the 1st of January 1,600 patents have been issued, and the whole number for the year will reach 1,900, or double that of 1853. The principal recommendations of Mr. Mason are that the examining force be permanently augmented, that better provision be made for taking testimony in cases of appeal, and a new rate of fees established.
REPORT ON COMMERCE AND NAVIGATION.
FROM this report it appears that there have been built within the present year 264 ships and barks, 69 brigs, 435 smaller vessels, and 121 steamboats, registering an aggregate of over
District, 40 ships and barks, 7 brigs, 185 smaller vessels, and 36 steamboats—63,496 tons. The total registered tonnage of the United States, on the § of June, was 5,661,416; of which 2,333,819 was employed in foreign trade; 2,622,114 in coasting; 146,965 in cod-fishing; 181,901 in whaling, and 677,613 in steam navigation,
FACTS FOR FARMERS.
IT is a fact that during the late drouth, which was the most serious ever experienced in America, upon all deeply plowed land crops suffered least. On all subsoil-plowed land they suffered but little. Upon land underdrained, subsoiled, deep plowed, and frequently stirred upon the surface, the growing plants kept as green and vigorous as in a wet season.
It is a fact, then, that all clay lands, or lands with a stiff subsoil, would be vastly improved by deep surface plowing, subsoil plowing, and underdraining, in drouth as well as wet seasons.
It is a fact that one of the most neglected agricultural improvements in this country is irrigation. If all the running streams that might easily be used for that purpose were turned upon the cultivated fields, to add moisture and fertility to the soil, it would increase the products of thi country at least five hundred millions of dollars annually. .
The actual bona-fide loss to farmers from the drouth of 1854, by lessening the products of the soil, is more than two hundred millions of dollars, besides the loss of property destroyed by fire.
The corn crop of 1849, according to the census report, was in
Ohio.............. . . 50,078,695 bushels. Indiana............ 52,964,363 “ Illinois............. 57,646,984 “ Kentucky........... 58,672,591 “ Tennessee........... 52,276,223 “
Now, 20 per cent. on this amount is fifty-sia, millions of bushels, for the loss in these five States. In our opinion, the real loss was more than double, as none of the estimates make the loss per acre less than one third, while the num
340,000 tons. There were built in the New-York
ber of acres planted is certainly one third more than it was in that year. If the failure of the corn crop be as large as we suppose, there will be a reduction of 1,000,000 in the number of fatted hogs in the United States, and of cattle in proportion. The number of hogs fatted in the West, according to the Cincinnati Price Current, is nearly or quite 2,500,000. In the United States, 3,000,000, at least. One effect of this reduction will be, that there will be little or no export. There can not be any considerable export without at once raising the price beyond what meat can be exported at profitably. The number of cattle and hogs brought to market depends so much on the corn crop, that the diminution of the crop by a partial failure is likely to produce very important results on the trade in domestic produce. Though the scarcity of corn may not raise the price of pork correspondingly with the increased price of the grain, it will lessen the quantity sent to market. As the manufacture of whisky never ceases, the consumption of corn will go on, increasing the price of food, without producing one single corresponding benefit to the laborer. Hundreds, yes, thousands of farmers, have suffered great loss for the want of water, for family use and for stock, because wells, springs, brooks, and ponds have dried up; all of which could have been avoided. Do you wish to know how 2 By building capacious cisterns. From two to three feet in depth of water falls in rain and snow all over the surface of the earth in the course of a year. From your roofs you can always fill cisterns if you have them, and there lay up a storehouse of water for a dry time. It is estimated that a barn thirty by forty feet supplies annually from its roof 864 barrels, or enough for more than two barrels a day for every day in the year. Many farmers have in all five times this amount of roof, or enough for twelve barrels a day yearly. If, however, this water was collected, and kept for the dry season only, twenty or thirty barrels daily might then be used. A cistern 10 feet diameter, 9 feet deep, will hold 168 barrels. That is a very good size to make barn cisterns. If you want more capacity,
#| make two. A cistern 5 feet diameter will hold
5 2-8 barrels to each foot in depth. One 6 feet diameter 68-4 nearly of barrels to each foot. And 7 feet diameter 91-8 barrels per foot; 8 feet nearly 12 barrels; 9 feet 15 1-8 barrels; 10 feet 182-3 barrels per foot. How to build a cistern. Dig your hole about four inches larger than the determined size. If the earth is compact, you need no brick-work. If it is loose, allow a foot increase of excavation for the wall. When you are ready, mix water lime with twice its bulk of coarse, clean sand, and plaster two or three coats over bottom and sides. Use the mortar as fast as mixed. Finish the top from eighteen inches below the surface with a double row of bricks as “headers,” to support a four-inch plank covering, and over that earth, to prevent freezing. Every such cistern is worth its cost every year.
improved in size and value. One hundred and fifty years ago, the average weight of cattle at
It is a fact that all domestic animals can be
the Smithfield Market was not over 370 pounds,
and that of sheep 28 pounds. Now, the average weight of the former is over 800 pounds, and of the latter 80 pounds. The average weight of cattle, properly termed beeves, in the New-York market, is about 700 pounds, and sheep 50 pounds. The average live weight of the heaviest drove of beeves of 100 in number ever brought to this market was 2,067 pounds, weighed from dry feeding, in Illinois, last spring. . The mode of selling cattle in New-York is at so much per pound for the estimated weight of meat contained in the four quarters. The estimation is made upon the live weight of cattle as follows: 'A drover in buying a lot of grass-fed, common stock in Illinois should never calculate to get an estimate of over one half here of the live weight there. That is, if the drove average 12 cwt. they will make 6 cwt. of meat each. Medium beeves may be estimated at 54 or 55 pounds per cwt. Good beeves at 56 or 57 pounds. Extra good, large, and fat, from 58 to 62 pounds per cwt. In the Boston market, the weight is generally estimated upon “five quarters,” that is, the product of meat, fat, and skin. There the cattle are generally weighed, and the product estimated upon an average, 64 pounds per cwt. In New-York not one bullock in ten thousand goes upon the scales to determine his price to the butcher. It is a fact that cattle of a large breed or variety are the most profitable to the grazier who feeds for beef. It is doubtful whether that rule will hold good with poultry. Dorking fowls are medium size, and a much esteemed variety. They have five toes. WHEAT in California has been grown at the rate of sixty-six and two thirds bushels, of 60 pounds, per acre. That is more than three times the average of the Atlantic States, and higher than we have ever known grown upon the best wheat fields of the old States, or fertile lands of the Western praries. TIMBER should be cut while the tree is in its most rapid season of growth, and near the close of the growing season, when the terminal bud of each limb is fully formed. Saw logs cut in winter always decay on the outside more or less if left over, while summer cut logs keep sound for years. Hickory cut in winter soon suffers with “powder-post.” If cut in August it will keep for ever. JPosts should always be set top end down.
| They will last twice as long. Put six inches of
broken stone in the bottom of the hole. Locust trees make most valuable timber, and grow quick and easy from the seed, if it is scalded with boiling water, or still better, lye, and then planted as you would beets or onions, and the plants are about as sure as those vegetables to live when transplanted. SALT applied at the rate of four quarts to a ton of hay will aid materially in its preservation, and make it more nutritious and wholesome for stock, and is just about the amount usually fed by a good farmer to an ox while eating that quantify of hay. Composition Roofs are cheaper than tin, bet. ter than shingles, are persectly tight, and almost fire-proof against sparks, when made as follows: Sheet the rasters with close boarding up and.
down. Cover this with felting paper, laying the sheets to break joints, with one third exposed, just as you would courses of shingles. Fasten the courses to the boards by nailing thin strips of lath, and also upon the eaves, sides, and all exposed edges. The whole is now covered by the “composition,” which we believe is just such as caulkers use, that is, boiling pitch. It saturates the paper and sticks the sheets all together and to the boards. As fast as one man puts on pitch enough, another must cover it with clean gravel, dried by heating in a very hot sun, or an iron pan over the fire. Make a complete gravel surface in the hot pitch, and your roof will be very tight and durable. KING BIRDS.–It is a fact that they do eat bees. That is settled. And it is almost indisputably settled that the birds never touch a working bee. They pick out the drones and destroy them, as all dromes should be. These are beautiful birds, and should never be destroyed, because they are both ornamental and useful to the farmstead. WHEAt sown in drills will yield ten per cent. more than broadcast sowing, and it requires one fourth less seed. That wheat seed will produce chess, is just about as clear as that the earth is globular, notwithstanding science told Galileo “it can not be so.” It says the same of chess. MUCK.—Many farms contain mines of gold in their deposits of swamp muck—the sweepings and scrapings of ages washed down and buried in some valley. To extract the gold, it must be dug in a dry time, and carted up to the high land fields, and converted into grains of wheat, rye, oats, corn, barley, and thence, by an easy transmutation, into grains of gold. Before using muck, it should be mixed with alkaline substances, such as ashes, lime, soda, etc.; to neutralize the acid, which is the antisep: tic that has preserved the vegetable fibres of its composition almost as unchanged as though they had been mineral instead of vegetable substances. Perhaps the best way to correct this acidity and decompose the muck is the following: Take a tub or barrel of water and set a basket of salt in it, so that the water just comes up to wet the bottom of the salt, and let it dissolve as long as it will. When it will take no more, the water is saturated. Use that to slake lime, and use that lime in the formation of your muck pile, at the rate of a bushel to a cart load, and the muck will soon become as fine as loamy earth, and may be used as a top dressing for grass or grain, or, better still, be mixed with manure to form a compost. It should always be used in stables to absorb all the urine, and keep the place as free from offensive smell as a clean house. MANURE should never be hauled to the field and dropped in little piles to await the time when it is wanted—often from fall till spring. It ioses half its value. Manure should never be exposed to the weather; and we think it should never be kept in a cellar under the barn, unless it is absolutely perfectly disinfected by the use of muck, joseoal. peat, plaster, copperas, or something else. In the farm yard, manure should be stasked every day, and made to shed rain, or piled under a roof. It is nonsense to talk of making manure by letting cattle tramp clean straw in the mud. The straw is worth more clean than dirty. The chemistry of the dung heap ought to be taught
in every country school. It is not “a dirty sub- APPLEs intended for winter keeping should no ject.” be shaken or beaten from the trees, nor suffere WHAT is DIRT * The grain, meat, fruit you eat to remain until ripe enough to fall of their own are all dirt. You sit in the dirt and sleep in the propensity. Just before the time when apple dirt. The white linen table cloth before you is would be liable to freeze upon the trees, the dirt. The beautiful clean porcelain plate, upon should be picked by hand, as carefully as thoug which you place your food, was dug out of a clay- they were eggs, and handled so as hardly to dul bank last week. That bright steel blade, with the bloom upon the surface. They should neve which you are now lifting the salt out of that be packed in barrels under the trees, but take crystal cup, if left in contact with that salt a little under shelter, and piled upon and covered wit space—a very short fraction of eternity—would clean straw, to undergo the sweating which the turn to dirt—very dirty dirt. Even the crystal will do wherever they are placed. The longe cup, reduced to powder and mixed with water, they can lie unharmed by frost in this pile, th | would change into the potato you are eating, better will they keep, after being packed for sale And if crystal is dirt—nothing but dirt, what are or in bins, in a dry, clean, cool cellar for winte you yourself? Dust thou art. You need not be use. If they are to be barreled for sale, mak ashamed to talk about yourself or your fellow—three sorts, and mark the barrels No. 1, No. 2 o what you are or he will be, in the course of No. 8, and be very careful that not a single on nature's eternal changes—for by her immutable of No. 3 gets into a No. 1 barrel. Never handl o o
laws we are but dirt purified from its most offen-your apples on a wet day. Pick them dry, an
VESSELS OF WAR OF THE UNITED STATES NAVY.
The officers marked thus (*) have the rank of Commanders; thus (+) Lieutenants ; the rest are Captains.
o | Nane and Rate. Guns. Where and when built. Commanded by Where stationed.
52 whic, ALMANAC, 1855.
H Name and Rate. Guns Where and when built. Commanded by Where stationed.
| Franklin ...............5ll. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rebuilding.............. Portsmouth.
Steamers, 1st Class, 4. York 1
Warren................. Boston................ 1826 HD. McDougal............ San Francisco.
§ Under the aet of the late session of Congress, authorizing the construction of six, steam frigates, they are building as follows:—the Merrimack at Boston; the Niagara at New-York; the Wabash at Philadelphia; the Minnesota at Washington; the Roanoke and the Colorado at Norfolk; each to carry 50 guns.
STATES AND TERRITORIES-38.
Alabama—Formed out of territory ceded to the
Massachusetts—One of the original thirteen.