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2 of the altar. Then he brought me out by the way of the

gate northward; and led me round by the way without

unto the outer gate which was by the way that looked 3 eastward ; and, lo, waters ran from the right side. And

when the man that had the line in his hand went forth eastward, he measured a thousand cubits; and he caused

me to pass through the waters, and the waters were to the 4 ankles. Again he measured a thousand cubits; and he

caused me to pass through the waters, and the waters were to the knees. Again he measured a thousand cubits,

and he caused me to pass through [the waters,] and the 5 waters were to the loins. Again he measured a thousand

cubits, and it was a river which I could not pass through: for the waters were * lifted up, and were waters † to

swim in, a river which could not be passed through. 6 And he said unto me, Son of man, hast thou seen this ?

Then he brought me and caused me to return by the

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c. xl. 6. Or nnno inferne, adverbially: from beneath, from the right side of the threshold of the house." The waters are said to flow from the right, or south part; because the face is supposed to look eastward, when the points of the heavens are to be fixed. See on Joel ii. 20.

2. - from the right side.—When the prophet came to the outer eastern gate, still he saw waters running from the south side of that gate.

3. -ankles.-So Syr. Chald. Aq. Symm. Theod. V. Houb. Dath. 4 -the waters were to the knees.-See yo for D'S, MSS. 1 ed.

-and he caused me to pass through [the waters].-In 7 MSS. O'Da is added; it stood originally in an eighth, perhaps in a ninth, and is found in the margin of a tenth.

5. were lifted up.--'Efúßpitev, 6. lifted up their proud waves. But MS. Pachom. reads eßpacer. These waters beautifully represent the gradual progress of the gospel. See Isai. ii. 2–4. Christ and his apostles often taught in the second temple. Compare the allegory with Joel ü. 18. Zech. xiv. 8. Isai. lv. 1. John vii. 38.

6. -caused me to return. From the temple along the brink of the

7 brink of the river. Now as I returned, lo, on the brink

of the river were very many trees on this side and on that 8 side. Then said he unto me, These waters ssue forth

toward the eastern border, and go down to the desert, and

go into the sea; they go forth into the salt sea, and the 9 waters shall be healed. And it shall come to pass that

every living thing which moveth, whithersoever the river shall come, shall live: and there shall be very many fish : because these waters shall come thither and shall heal, therefore every thing shall live whither the river shall


river. But 3 MSS. and Syr. 2017, and placed me. 3091 is the reading best supported. .

8. -they go forth into the salt sea.—I read O'NYT nihon binly. “ο Εβραίος, αντί της διεκβολής, της αλμυράς της θαλάσσης έχει. See Montf. Hex, and Syr. has“ in mare, in aquas fotentes.” The healing of the waters supposes that their bad quality is expressed : and v. 10, 11, restrain the sense of b' to the Dead Sea or Sea of Sodom, called non OGen. xiv. 3. Deut. iii. 17, “in contradistinction to the Sea of Galilee, the water of which was fresh.” Tayl. conc.

-shall be healed. This finely represents the tendency of the gospel to heal the corruptions of human nature. 9. -whither soever the river shall come

me.3 ó. Ar. Syr. V. 3973 sps ou 183* Ch. “ the river shall come, the sea shall live.” Michaelis :

.נחל ים into נחלים dividing

-shall live.--Even in the Asphaltite lake, which is so unfavourable to animal life. Josephus represents this lake as salt and incapable of feeding fishes. Tacitus says that it does not suffer fishes, or water fowl, to live in it. Yet Maundrell observed two or three shells of fishes on the shore. Bishop Pococke found its water very salt; and on tasting it his mouth was constringed, as if it had been a strong alum water. The Bishop observes, “ It has been said by all authors, and is the common opinion, that there is no fish in this lake: the fresh water fish of the river Jordan probably would not live in it. After I left the holy land, it was positively affirmed to me that a monk had seen fish caught in this water; and possibly there may be fish peculiar to the lake, for which this water may not be too salt :- but this is a fact that deserves well to be inquirud



And it shall come to pass that fishers shall stand upon it; from En-gedi even to En-eglaim there shall be a spreading forth of nets; and their fish shall be, according

to their kinds, as the fish of the great sea exceeding 11 many. As for the miry places thereof, and the pits

thereof, they shall not be healed ; they shall be appointed 12 for salt. And by the river upon the brink thereof, on

this side and on that side, shall grow all trees for food,

Josh. XV.

into. The air about this lake has always been thought to be very

bad." See the very curious accounts of this lake which Bishop Newton has collected, vol. ii. 4o. 204. “ The Dead Sea is more brackish than any known sea or salt-well in the world. It contains as much salt as water can dissolve, viz. the fourth part of the weight of the water: and this is the reason why neither men nor animals sink in the Dead Sea. If you throw fishes into so heavy a water, they cannot swim in it; but fall immediately on their side.” Michaelis.

10. shall stand.— There is authority in MSS. for 970 V and 77971, which latter Houbigant prefers.

-- from En-gedi.—This is the punctuation of Syr. Vulg. Arab. and may be that of 6. En-gedi was in the wilderness of Judah. 61, 62. De L'isle places it towards the south west point of the Dead Sea.

to En-eglaim.—This city is placed by De L'isle at the north of the Dead Sea, where the Jordan runs into it. Eglaim is mentioned Isai. xv. 8, as a place on the borders of Moab, which country ran on the east of the Dead Sea. —and their fish shall be. It is obvious to correct the text by reading

: .

-according to their kinds.-In their several kinds, each kind as numerous as the fish of the Great Mediterranean Sea.

9, 10, there is an amplification of what is said in v. 8, that the waters should be healed ; and the salutary effect of the gospel is strongly illustrated. 11. -the miry places.--7883MSS. that is, as I suppose,

, , . they shall not.4, 16 MSS. and, as Houbigant observes, all the ancients. Vau precedes. -for salt.They shall remain filled with salt water.

The allego

.יהי :ולמיה

In v.

.cenum , lutum ,בצה or בצא from ,בצותיו or ,בצאותיו

whose leaf shall not fade, neither shall their fruit come to an end: every month they shall bring forth * new fruit, because their waters + issue forth from the sanctuary: and their fruit shall be for food, and their leaf for

healing. 13 Thus saith the Lord Jehovah: This shall be the border

whereby ye shall inherit the land, according to the twelve 14 tribes of Israel. Joseph shall have two portions. And ye

shall inherit it one as well as another; concerning which I || lifted up mine hand to give it unto your fathers: and

this land shall fall unto you for an inheritance. 15 And this shall be the border of the land toward the north

side, from the great sea towards the way of Hethlon, as

* Or, early.

† H. they issue. # H. every man as his brother.

ll Or, sware.

rical sense is, that some shall reject the gospel, and some receive it without obeying it.

12. and their fruit shall be.-777074 MSS. edd.

--- for healing.–Perhaps, 191773. The leaves of some plants and trees have a healing quality.

This verse, in its allegorical sense, expresses the blessed state of the good in this life : see Jer. xvii, 7, 8: and their perfect happiness in the future paradisiacal state. See Rev. xxii. 1, 2; where Fúlov is used for trees, as yy. From v. 1 to v. 12 we have one of the most striking allegories in the Hebrew scriptures.

13. -This shall be the border.—71 is the reading of 5 MSS. and was that of 7 originally. Houbigant reads 71, and refers to v. 15. Here Grotius's note is, Hæc assignatio, & quæ sequitur capite postremo, locum habitura fuisset si Decem tribus, non minus quam Judæ & Benjaminis, se ad Deum convertissent: sic enim pariter impetrassent reditum. Nunc pauci tantum permixti Judæ & Benjamini rediere, iique sedes cum illis habuere cominunes.

14. -shall fall.--A metaphor taken from the falling of the lot.

15. -Hethlon.—Mentioned again, c. xlviii. 1. De L'isle writes it Hethalon with Vulg. and places it between Tyre and Damascus.

16 men go to Zedad: Hamath, Berothah, Sibraim, which is

between the border of Damascus and the border of

Hamath; and Hazarhatticon, which is by the border of 17 Hauran. Also the border from the sea shall be Hazar

Enan by the border of Damascus, and Ziphron, north

ward, and the border of Hamath : this is the north side. 18 And the east side ye shall measure from Hauran, and from

Damascus, and from Gilead, and from the land of Israel * by

* H. of Jordan.

-Zedad.-See Numb. xxxiv. 8.—It is written Sedada in De L'isle, with Vulg. and placed east of Hethlon, nearly in the same latitude. 16. -Hamath.-In the northern part of the tribe of Naphtali.

-Berothah.—Some say that this was a small town east of Zedad. Berytus, in Phænicia, seems too far north.

Sibraim.-Or, Sabarim, is situated, according to De L'isle, between Hethlon and Zedad: but it is expressly said to be between Hamath and Damascus. Syr. reads “and Sepharvaim.”

-Hazar-hatticon.-Hazar media. See Syr. Dath. the middle village : marg. Engl. vers.

-Hauran.—The city Aurana, and the district Auranitis, are in the north east limit of the Holy Land.

17. Also &c.—The north border eastward is ascertained v. 15, 16. Here it is shewn how far it extends itself northward.

-Hazar-Enan.—Or, the village of Enan. See Numb. xxxiv. 9. This is placed by De L'isle to the north of Cesarea Philippi.

-Ziphron.-Houbigant observes that Syr. renders by a proper name, et Zaphion : and both he and Dathius translate, et Zaphon ad aquilonem. Ziphron occurs in the parallel place, Numb. xxxiv. 9.

-this is.-Read 18i, as v. 20, here and v. 18, 19. See MSS. and Houbigant.

18. — and from the land of Israel.-- From the extremity of the land of Israel eastward beyond Jordan.

-- from the border.—The northern border, mentioned in the foregoing See v. 20. Mr. Lowth.

. , , which Michaelis translates the palm-forest here, and v. 19.


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