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to be inevitable. The legend since Wallenstein's dismissalof his treasonable designs, sedu- the Imperial armies dispersed, lously fostered by his enemies the enemy on the Danube ! and by an Imperial

an Imperial court Space forbids a relation of anxious to justify its base in- these events, already surveyed gratitude, has gained accept- in the study of Gustavus Adolance in history. Yet it is phus. Suffice to recall that difficult to reconcile either with with the opening of the camhis letters or the far-sighted paign of 1632. the Swedish and gratuitous advice he ten- army crossed the Danube to dered the Emperor, from his overrun Bavaria, while the retirement, on the conduct of Saxons invaded Bohemia, the the war. This advice embodied gateway to Vienna. a plan that marks Wallenstein While Gustavus had been a master of grand strategy. conquering province after provIt was to win over as an ally ince, the one man capable of the King of Denmark, and then opposing him had been building employ his fleet to gain com- towns and schools, and plantmand of the Baltic, striking at ing the domestic arts in the Gustavus' communications with wilds of Bohemia. Another Sweden, his Achilles' heel. Here dramatic change of scene, and was the alleged traitor making Wallenstein is once more the his sovereign a freewill offering creator of vast armies." of a plan that would have The Imperial Minister, Quesparalysed the Swedish advance! tenberg, writes as a suppliant

The Emperor, delighted, asks to beg his aid : “We now see Wallenstein to initiate negotia- our error plainly enough ; and tions, the way for which had as the miracles we anticipated been paved by the moderation have not come to pass, we of the earlier terms of peace. would gladly retrace our steps, We know that Christian of if we only knew how.” Denmark fell in with the pro- The requests multiply, but posal, and that the treaty was Wallenstein holds firm, alleging on the verge of being signed. severe gout as his excuse, until Why it was never completed at last the Emperor writes in is a mystery, though the obvi- his own hand, entreating the ous explanation lies in the man he had dismissed “not to Imperial reverses in the theatre forsake him in the hour of of war.

“Of all sciences dip- adversity." lomacy is surely the weakest Wallenstein gives way, though and most inefficient; it is, in a hitch occurs when he hears fact, nothing more than the that it is proposed he should slave of military success, de- share the command with an pending entirely on the force, Emperor's son. Scornfully he ready in the background, to declares, “Never will I accept give weight to protocols." a divided command-no, not

What a change had occurred even were God Himself to be

my colleague in office. I must So dire was the need that command alone, or not at all.” the Emperor swallowed bis The point at once yielded, he pride, and agreed, without deagrees to take command, or mur, to these humiliating terms, rather to raise an army, for which meant that Wallenstein there was none to command. became the power above the But he stipulates that his throne-80, as it proved, signtenure shall be only for three ing his own death - warrant. months, when he will retire and Nevertheless, to ascribe these leave the Emperor to dispose conditions solely to overweenof the command as he wishes. ing pride would seem unjust.

The magic of his name Rather would Wallenstein, the sufficed. Soldiers of fortune first grand strategist, appear flocked from every corner of to have grasped the principle Europe, and within the time of unity of command—by none an army of 40,000 men was more infringed than Austria assembled, raised largely at throughout its chequered hishis own expense and fully tory,-appreciating that to equipped.

counter Gustavus, the absolute But the Imperial court knew chief of a military monarchy, well that Wallenstein's name equal power and freedom of was the sole tie, and sent action was essential. envoys to beg him to continue Maximilian begged for aid in command. Though his ill- against the principal enemy, ness was genuine, it is difficult the Swedes in Bavaria, but to resist the conclusion that Wallenstein turned north inthis three months' condition stead against the Saxons, throwwas but a move in the game, a ing them out of Bohemia, lever whereby to gain his full while simultaneously negotiatterms. He asked twenty-four ing to detach the Elector from hours for consideration, then alliance with Sweden. If by delivered them in writing. He so doing he infringed the canons was to be commander-in-chief, of present-day military punwith absolute power, of all the dits, his was a more far-sighted forces; all rights of appoint- strategy, for apart from the ment, reward, pardon, and con- risk of putting his new levies fiscation were to be vested in against troops flushed with vichim. The Emperor and his tory, his double threat to Gusson were not even to appear tavus' communications and to with the army, still less to his chief ally seized the initiaexercise any authority. As a tive from the Swedish king, certain reward he was to be and compelled the prompt given one of the hereditary evacuation of Bavaria more provinces of the House of simply and economically than Austria, and as extraordinary a direct move. reward one of the conquered Before continuing his inprovinces.

tended advance into Saxony, VOL. CCXVIII. —NO. MCCCXVII.


Wallenstein directed Maxi- his rival, Wallenstein's lack of milian to quit Bavaria and vigour is hardly to his credit, join him, with his army, at but as a man and a grand Eger. How bitter must this strategist playing for higher enforced subordination have stakes than local military sucbeen to the Elector, prime in- cess, his firmness and will in stigator of Wallenstein's dis- following the course planned missal.

At their meeting a out is wholly admirable. The formal reconciliation took place, great Czech is the supreme though it is remarked that poker player of military his"the Elector was more perfect tory. He appreciated full well in the art of dissimulation than that the Swedes had acquired the Duke of Friedland.”

such a moral ascendancy that Leaving Bavaria hurriedly, to meet them in open battle Gustavus attempted to prevent was to court defeat, and further this junction, but, failing, and that Gustavus' hold over the faced with a combined army German States depended on his of '60,000 men, fell back on reputation for invincibility. Nuremberg.

This the check at Nuremberg Thither Wallenstein followed, perceptibly shook in the eyes and finding the Swedes en- of Europe ; as Wallenstein trenched, remarked that phrased it, “The King has “battles enough had been blunted his horns.” fought already, and it was It may be remarked that time to try another method.” Wallenstein's profound grasp With this aim he occupied of psychology, perhaps his suand fortified a position near preme faculty, was equally the the city by which he could secret of his influence with his command Gustavus' lines of troops. supply with his Croat light Instead of following Gustavus, horse, ideal troops for the pur- who had again moved south on pose. This object of starving the Danube, Wallenstein turned his rival out he maintained north and struck once more unswervingly, deaf to all chal- against Saxony-a master move lenges of battle from Gustavus, that again brought Gustavus to until at last the Swedish king, heel, and, automatically, prompt shadowed by the gaunt spectre relief to Bavaria. For this misof famine, organised a grand take, the Swedish king atoned assault on Wallenstein's posi- by a return march so rapid tion. The throw failed, after that he caught up Wallenstein desperate efforts on both sides, near Leipsig, before the Imand two weeks later Gustavus, perial general had been able yielding to famine and superior to bring the Saxon army to will-power, broke up his camp battle or intimidate the Elector and marched away unhindered. into a separate peace. Hearing

As a soldier, judged by of the Swedish approach, Walmodern standards, or even by lenstein moved back from


Leipsig to meet them, but find the record of its incidents. ing Gustavus strongly posted The initial Swedish attack sucat Naumburg, abstained from ceeded on the right, but farther any attempt to attack.

to the left was driven back As the Swedes were across the road, and Gustavus, trenched, Wallenstein concluded hurrying to rally and lead forno farther advance was immi- ward his troops in the centre, nent, and allowed Pappenheim met his death. When the news to march to attack the Moritz- filtered through, it fired the burg near Halle, himself stand- Swedes to avenge his fall by ing at Lützen, where he could a supreme fury of assault becover alike this expedition and fore which, despite all Wallenthe approach to Leipsig. But stein's efforts, the Imperialists Gustavus, hearing of this dis- recoiled. At this critical mopersion of the enemy, moved ment Pappenheim's squadrons unexpectedly to attack Wallen- restored the balance, and Walstein.

lenstein seized the chance to Caught unprepared and with rally and counter-attack with but 12,000 men at hand, the his infantry centre, hurling the latter rose to the emergency, Swedes back and regaining the sent Isolani's Croats to delay lost ground and guns. Wallenthe oncoming Swedes, ordered stein himself bore a charmed his various corps to concen- life, all his attendants struck trate with all speed, and to down, his spur torn off by a Pappenheim despatched this cannon shot, and several musket message: " The enemy

is balls lodging in his coat; but marching hither. Break up Pappenheim fell, dismay spread instantly with every man and throughout his troops, and withgun, so as to arrive early in out cavalry to confirm their the morning.” Isolani's resist- momentary success, the exance, even though routed after hausted infantry, disorganised a time, and the early fall of by their charge, were pushed darkness, saved the Imperial back in one last final throw by army from attack that day, the Swedish second line, still and by the morrow Wallenstein almost intact. The Swedes was drawn up in battle order, remained to mourn their king, with his right on Lützen, parallel while under cover of darkness to and behind the Leipsig road. Wallenstein, with his shattered Next morning a thick Novem- forces, withdrew towards Leipber fog delayed the opening of sig, with the loss of his baggage battle until nearly noon, while and artillery. So reduced and Pappenheim was drawing ever disorganised was his army that, hearer. It proved a typical abandoning Leipsig, he was parallel battle unmarked by forced to fall back into Bohemia striking manæuvres, fought in to recuperate in winter quarters. a shroud of mist that confused Though a military reverse its movements and obscured for the Imperialists, the death of Gustavus was a political opportunity to work for peace. triumph, dislocating all the Negotiations with the Saxons Protestant plans. In all Catho were his first step, but beyond lic countries the Te Deum was this his intentions remain one sung for the delivery.

of the enigmas of history. The During the winter of 1632- series of negotiations and in1633, both sides reformed their trigues that follow, interspersed forces for a fresh trial, and in with military operations, are Bohemia we find Wallenstein far too intricate to trace here. making what appears to be Suffice to say that the general almost the sole tactical reforms tenor of reports and rumours of his career

-depriving the was that Wallenstein had heavy cavalry of their carbines, offered to join with the Saxons in and at the same time insisting forcing peace on the Emperor, that they should all be pro- the Jesuits were to be driven vided with cuirasses “ because from the Empire, the Protestit was found in the late action ants to be given religious freethat the mail-clad horsemen dom and their property restored. did their duty, while the others Whether this common action ran away.” In this his views, was to include the Swedes or contrary to those of Gustavus, to expel them also remains in coincide with Saxe's later, em- doubt. Arnheim, the Saxon bodying the principle which general, we know went to underlies the modern tank- Oxenstierna, the Swedish chanthat of combining mobility, cellor, with alleged proposals protection, and hitting power from Wallenstein, but whether in each individual fighting en- Arnheim had any authority tity.

from Wallenstein is doubtful. With his army raised again In Richelieu's words, “the to 40,000, more splendidly court of Rome had lost in him equipped than ever, Wallen- the most perfect Jesuit that stein took the field in the ever lived." From Arnheim's spring of 1633, and with his own letters to the Duke of great rival removed, success Brandenburg, Wallenstein was would seem predestined; the urging as a preliminary to crushing of their opponent was peace that the Swedes must be indeed eagerly anticipated at driven out. We know, again, the Imperial court. Instead, that Richelieu was offering the we are to see yet another trans- highest bribes, the Bohemian formation of this extraordinary crown and a million livres a man. Forsaking the easy and year, if Wallenstein would join profitable pursuit of military with France against the Emconquest, Wallenstein enters on peror, yet without result. his last and grandest rôle- These rumours, however, that of fathering German unity. penetrated to Vienna, where his The disappearance of Gustavus enemies assiduously propagated was treated by him as an them, and Wallenstein's spirit

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