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Dumbarton, and made such uncle. He returned to Sootgood use of his opportunities land, and joined his family, that his uncle, James Heriot, who were then living at Cardetermined to send him to dross in Dumbartonshire. When the University of Paris, which he had been there about a year, was then the most famous he had a brief experience of seat of learning in Europe. military service, under the Duke Paris was chosen in preference of Albany, then Regent of to the Scottish Universities, Scotland. Albany marched then three in number - St south as far as Melrose on his Andrews, Glasgow, and Aber- way to invade England, but deen.

the expedition was abandoned. Buchanan left Scotland at Buchanan, on his return from the age of fourteen, in the this campaign, which was proyear 1520, thus beginning those bably helpful to him in later wanderings which lasted till years in the composition of he had reached old age. At his History,' entered the Paris he found a number of University of St Andrews, and “ brither Scots." The con- in October 1525 he obtained nection between Scotland and the degree of Bachelor. France had long been of the He had resolved to become closest kind; and the Scots a scholar, and went once College, in connection with the more to Paris, this time as University of Paris, had been Bursar in the Scots College. founded two hundred years His next step was to take the before. Students of all ages degree of Master, which he did were to be found at this Uni- in 1528. He joined the teaching versity. For the degree of staff of the Collège Ste Barbe, Bachelor, which could not be which had been founded sixty taken before the age of four years previously. He was apteen, two years of study were pointed Regent, one of the required. The student then body of teachers to whom proceeded to work for the certain powers of government degree of Master, which might were assigned. In this capacity be conferred upon him at he received free board and twenty-one. Buchanan, during lodging, but his fees were dehis first two years at Paris, pendent on the number of was chiefly occupied in Latin pupils who attended his leccomposition, especially the tures. We gather from Buchwriting of Latin verse, which anan's own writings that, at was then, as he tells us, the one this period, he had to undergo subject prescribed for boys. He many hardships. He has left probably lived in lodgings, like us a vivid description of the the majority of the students. hard - worked and underpaid

His studies, to which he University teacher, of the unapplied himself diligently, were willing pupil, and of the miserly interrupted by the death of his parent. This is contained in silis.

his poem 'On the unhappy We soon find that Buchstate of teachers of the Classics anan is on friendly terms with at Paris.' 1 It shows us the the leading men of the Univerclass assembling at five o'clock sity of Paris, one of whom, in the morning, the master in Guillaume Budé (1467-1540), cap and gown, with a copy of was famous both as Hellenist Virgil in his hand. He tries and as Latinist, and has ever to reap the harvest of his toil, since been regarded as the while his scholars are intent highest type of the learning on anything but Virgil. “One and culture of the French has lost his stockings, another Renaissance. It does not apcannot keep his thoughts off pear that Buchanan had any a hole in his shoe, a third shams personal relations with the great illness, a fourth is writing Erasmus (1467-1536), whose life home. The rod is never idle, was then closing at Basel, but sobs never cease, cheeks are there is much in common never dry. We then attend a between the two. They were service, and come back to alike in bringing scholarship lessons. Scarce an hour is to bear on the problems which spared for our meal. Parents were then occupying men's grumble that the days pass by, minds, and alike in their perthat their sons learn nothing, fect mastery of Latin. and meanwhile the fees must In the same year (1533), be paid.” This plaint is Buchanan left the College of modelled on that part of Ste Barbe, and became tutor Juvenal's Seventh Satire which to Lord Cassilis, to whom he describes the miserable exist- had dedicated his first book. ence of the Roman school. He declined, then and ever master.

after, to take Holy Orders. But Buchanan also found The post of tutor gave him time for literary work. In greater freedom, and more time 1533 he published a Latin for study. His attitude to the translation of Linacre's 'Latin old religion now begins to Grammar,' composed in Eng- declare itself. He wrote poems lish; thus deposing from its in which we can trace the formaposition of authority an earlier tion of his views : the 'Somtext-book which had been in nium’ or Dream ; the ‘Paliuse for three centuries. Buch- nodia' or Recantation; and anan's book, which quickly the ‘Franciscanus,' which is a passed through a number of description of the Franciscan editions, was printed by Robert friar, the ideal as contrasted Estienne (Stephanus), and was

with the reality. dedicated to the Earl of Cas- In the 'Somnium,' Buchanan

1 Quam misera sit condicio docentium litteras humaniores Lutetiae.' The other side of the picture-namely, the hardships of the students of the University-may be seen in the writings of Erasmus and Rabelais.




describes himself

being novice : somewhat as visited in: a dream by St Horace's Fifth Satire of the Francis, who invites him to Second Book (the worldly wisbecome a friar, and holds dom of Tiresias). out the hope of heaven as a The 'Franciscanus,' circureward. Buchanan refuses, ob- lated from hand to hand, projecting to the vow of poverty duced a powerful effect upon taken by the friars. But he public opinion: the Church would accept the office of was at last aroused to action. Bishop. Others may beg from Scotland, in fact, became “too door to door : give me hot to hold ” Buchanan. He mitre and a purple gown." thought it judicious to leave

In the ‘Palinodia,' the re- the country, and a price was cantation is more apparent than put upon his head by Cardinal real. The poet is carried to Beaton. He found a refuge heaven, and finds himself in a for a time in England; but, as hall filled with friars. He is Henry VIII. was "burning brought before the tribunal, Catholic and Protestant alike judgment is passed, and the on the same day and in the anger of the brotherhood is same fire,” Buchanan decided let loose. In order to appease to go to France. their fury, he invokes upon He reached Paris, only to them the blessings which their find that Cardinal Beaton was brethren on earth so greatly already there. So he turned desired : that the ignorant may his steps to Bordeaux, where join them in multitudes, that the Collége de Guyenne had their lies and impostures may been opened a few years before. never be discovered.

Buchanan remained here for The 'Franciscanus ' (not pub- three years, which were among lished until 1560) is Buchanan's the happiest and most prolongest and most sustained ductive of his life. Among his attack upon

the order. It pupils at the College was Monopens with a description of taigne, who was in later days the Church as the haven of to become famous as an essayist. the agitated soul, and the Montaigne in his Essays alludes life of the friar who is faithful to Buchanan as “that great to his professions. The poem Scottish poet”; and acted in then passes to describe the the plays which

plays which Buchanan real Franciscans: their cun- wrote for the students. Among ning, their effrontery, the other friends was the elder methods by which they play (Julius Cæsar) Scaliger, who upon the fears of the stupid was then living not far from and ignorant, the low types Bordeaux. who compose the fraternity. The Latin plays to which The general form of the poem reference has just been made is that of instruction given by were four in number; two (the a veteran Franciscan to a 'Alcestis' and the 'Medea ')

were translated from the Greek, such men as Turnebe and while the other two ("Baptistes' Muret, who were among the and 'Jephthes') were original. foremost scholars in Europe. The 'Alcestis' and 'Medea’ were His life in Paris at this time meant to be exercises in trans- is described in a letter in lation from Greek into Latin ; verse addressed to two friends but their success as faithful, (whose names are Latinised as indeed literal, versions, and the Tastaeus and Tevius) at Borelegance of their style, gave digala (Bordeaux).

He was them an independent import- ill, and in want; but he was ance. Monk, for example, cheered by the company of printed Buchanan's version of Turnèbe and others, who visited the Alcestis' at the end of him daily. He recovered, and his edition of the Greek play. left Paris in the following year The skill shown in rendering (1545). the metres of the choruses is Buchanan soon afterwards remarkable.

embarked on an adventure The theme of the ‘Baptistes' which is one of the most reis the death of John the Baptist, markable of his career. In comor liberty in its struggle against pany with other distinguished tyranny in Church and State. scholars, he set out for Portugal, This lesson was emphasised having been invited to assist in at a later date (1576), when the foundation of a University Buchanan issued the play with at Coimbra. This undertaking a dedication to his royal pupil was supported by the King of James, warning the young king Portugal. It prospered for a against the licence of sover- time, but eventually the Jesuits eignty. “Jephthes' is the obtained control of the Univertragedy of the Israelite general sity, and Buchanan and his Jephtha, who sacrifices his only friends were exposed to persedaughter in fulfilment of a cution as heretics. They were

Both these plays thrown into prison, and had to introduce characters which are appear before the Inquisition. not mentioned in the sacred The full report of Buchanan's text; and Buchanan has suc- trial, by the Inquisition was ceeded in investing these with discovered at Lisbon some life, and in fitting their thoughts thirty years ago. Among the and actions into his main story. grounds of accusation were the He enters into the feelings of use of flesh in Lent, and the atall his characters more inti- tacks which he had made upon mately than his master Seneca. the Franciscans.

After over There is more humanity, and a year's imprisonment he was less rhetoric.

considered to have been guilty, At the end of the year 1542 but in a minor degree. Upon Buchanan left Bordeaux, and formal abjuration of his errors, two years later we find him at he was removed to a monastery Paris, teaching at the side of with a view to further instruc

rash vow.

tion ;

and during his six to understand the feelings of months' confinement in the his young Queen, when on the monastery he composed his death of her husband she refamous translation of the linquished the throne of France, Psalms of David into Latin and returned to be Queen of verse. In 1552 he was set Scots. “It was like leaving a at liberty, and sailed to Eng- palace for a cottage.” He felt land, which was then under the absence of luxury in ScotKing Edward VI. Buchanan, land, a much poorer country after a few months' residence than France, and he found in England, crossed the Chan- Scotsmen occupied with renel, and once more reached ligion, to the exclusion of other Paris.

subjects. They were concerned Up to this time Buchanan not with the Renaissance but had not declared in favour of with the Reformation. A the reformed religion. He was change came over Buchanan's still outwardly a Romanist. life. He had been a humanist : His love of France, which he was now to be a reformer, appears in his poems of this but after the type of Erasmus, period, was therefore based in whom a natural moderation partly on religious affinity. He was reinforced by literary taste praises the country houses of and culture. France, its stately castles, its The first stage of Buchanan's courteous people. But above passage from humanist to reall he loved Paris. His poem, former was marked by his 'Desiderium Lutetiae' (love of association with the Queen. Lutetia—that is, Paris), con- From 1561 until the murder trasts Paris as a nymph, named of Darnley, six years later, Amaryllis, with Spain (Lycisca) Queen Mary read Latin with and Portugal (Melaenis). These Buchanan's aid. Her favourite maidens strive, but in vain, to author was Livy. Buchanan lead him away from Amaryllis. also wrote Latin masques for He will remain true to his first the Court : on Mary's marriage love even unto his latest breath. with Darnley, on the birth of

In 1555 Buchanan became her son. He received a tutor to the son of the famous pension (which was irregularly soldier and Marshal of France, paid) in recognition of his de Brissac. But the time services as tutor and as poetarrived when a return to his laureate. He also translated native land became possible. Spanish documents of State He left France for the last into French, Latin, or English. time in 1561, and came back In 1566 Buchanan was made home after an absence of five- Principal of St Leonard's Coland-twenty years. Landing in lege in the University of St Scotland, in the afternoon of Andrews, and pupils quickly his life, after so long a time began to throng round a man spent in France, he was able who was so famous as a scholar.

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