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young, but a Regent or Mayor There were but few English in of the Palace, whom we called Jacatra. That was the line the Pangran or Pangaran, and of least resistance. So before the Dutch the Pangéran, would 1618 came to an end he was give the Netherland Company transferring the

the Company's the monopoly of the trade of treasures first to ships, then to the country, and would expel little islands on the coast, as the English. He refused, not a preliminary to storing them from any love of us, whom he in the fort, which under his was perfectly disposed to fleece, incessant driving, and also but because he would not put under the nose of the poor his neck into a collar. Of old Raja, was growing daily course, Coen's offer was known at Jacatra. And there he in our factory (the Pangran must be left for a moment, would take care that it was), since at this point other perand it heated the already fiery sonages come into the saga. hostility of English and Dutch Ever since 1611 the East still further. And


at India Company had been apthat west end of Java, and in pealing to King James for the years 1617 and 1618, there protection against the Dutch. was a bubble of accusation The King, and it is only fair and retort, a strenuous playing to say the same of the States off of one against the other all General, was honestly desirous round. Coen threatened to to protect traders and to keep remove the staple of the Dutch the peace. The two govemtrade to Jacatra. The Raja ments were painfully negotiatwas willing enough to meet ing the arrangement of a modus him half way, for he saw a vivendi. The only effectual prospect of increased revenue. way would have been to send The “Pangran was enraged out governors appointed by by the manœuvres of his vassal, the State, with squadrons of and sent soldiers to bully him. men-of-war and soldiers. But The English factory was bring- neither the kingdom of Great ing itself to decide that the Britain nor the Seven United most promising course for it was Provinces had the means to to join in with the Bantamese take that course. The comto make an end of the "frogs panies had been brought into of the Batavian marsh." Coen existence because their governwas convinced that the best ments were poor and feeble. thing he could do was to lay And who was to control them hands on Jacatra, and put on the other side of the world! the desired rendezvous or A war between the two nations headquarters there. It had a in Europe would have been a harbour formed by a river, a disaster to both in 1618. The good roadstead, and a feeble English Company showed how prince. Things were not ripe little it expected from the for a conquest of Bantam. King by organising and sending

out a squadron of nine ships, in large numbers, were morally well armed, direct to the Indian no better in Virginia than at Archipelago - to trade, of home. They would hang about course, but also to fight. The the provision store for rations, Company had another “fleet” shoot game, catch fish, but in the Eastern seas under chiefly they wandered off to Martin Pring. It had been live by cad ging and coshering sent to work the regular trade among the Indian tribes. They round - up the Mozambique would do anything but work. Channel to the Gulf of Cam- Dale set himself to reform baya, then with Guzerat goods them. As was inevitable, he to the straits of Malaoca. The did his feat by hanging untwo were to join, and sweep manageable specimens and flogDutch obstructions out of the ging a great deal. Even in way. A good plot and good an age which was not tender friends-on the face of it. in the exercise of authority,

As the nine ships going direct and held strongly to the faith 'were rather more for fighting that whipping was the proper than for trade, the Company cure for lazy vagabonds, male decided to appoint a general and female, Dale was thought who was a martial man. The to have gone to extremes. officer they selected from among But there is no doubt that, several possible chiefs was Sir helped by the arrival of a Thomas Dale. He was an old better stamp of colonists, he Low Country officer, who had did bring Virginia to order, served with credit in one of and started it on a good road, the English regiments on the during his two terms as GoverDutch establishment. When nor. In 1616 he was back in the twelve years' truce with London, and was open to the Spain was made in 1609, he offers of the Company. had, without resigning his The Governor and CommitDutch commission, taken ser- tees


be blamed for vice with the Virginia Company, choosing a man with this record and had been appointed in to speak with Coen at the 1611 Marshal to the Governor gates of the sea.

And yet of the colony on the James the choice was not a wise one. River, Lord De La Warr. After It was easy enough to keep a the Goveror's death he had regiment in order with military ruled the colony. The Com- discipline, and such a company had adopted the imbecile, mander-in-chief as Maurice of and as Bacon very frankly Nassau to support you. told it, also wicked, course of was it difficult to cow rogues trying to make a colony out and vagabonds, cowardly aniof rogues, vagabonds, criminals, mals the most of them, and and the sweepings of the streets. helpless too. It was quite These wretched creatures, who another matter to contend with were often diseased and died the Dutch Governor-General, who was well armed, and was, pelago, and in the Spice Islands. moreover, both fierce and He was able and resolute; astute. And then it was not but though loyal and of good certain that an old Low disposition, he was quite as Country officer, trained

trained to capable as ever was Dale of trench warfare, to mining, and playing the arbitrary gentleman the taking or defending of when he saw occasion. Either ports (the Low Country wars of these might have done well were little else), would be the by himself. But when they best kind of leader to make were coupled together, each full use of ships. What was endowed with full authority even less promising for the over one of the two conflicting Success of the expedition was sides of the duty to be perthat the Company sent their formed, it was as certain as fleet out under a divided com- anything could be that they mand.

would be at sixes and sevens We have seen that the ships before they had been long in were to be used for trade as the Straits of Malacca. well as for fighting. Now While Dale and Jourdain Dale was not averse to buying were on their way, and Pring and selling. When the Com- was crossing the Bay of Bengal, pany hired him at a salary of Coen was pushing on with his £480—good pay at that time preparations. He had fully -it had taken a promise from expected an English irruption him to abstain from private into the Spice Islands, and trade. Yet it soon found that had sent every ship, man, and he was investing money—the barrel of gunpowder he could States had just paid him £1000 spare to the place where he as arrears, which had accumu- judged they would be most lated during his absence in needed. The Company had America-in a private venture. not provided him as amply as He was rebuked, and ordered he thought it should. He to desist. But he had no rebuked the Seventeen for their training in business, and the lack of foresight and of zeal Company was resolved to keep with the candour of a faithful him out of its commercial servant, and in exceptionally affairs. It took what it thought clear prose. But their failure was the effectual course of to do enough was for him only naming a President for trading, one reason the more for doing and giving him the command his utmost. The first thing of that side of the work of to be attended to was the the expedition.

The man putting of that half-finished chosen was very fit. John fort into as good a state of Jourdain had been much in defence as might be.

The the East, and had already Raja, driven by his overlord at done the Company good ser- Bantam, was drawing lines of vice in India, in the Archi- circumvallation about it, and the English then at Jacatra is a double-minded operation. were lending a hand. Coen Dale reached Bantam on 19th burst out on them, pierced November, but it was not until their line, made a flank, and 20th December that he sailed rolled them up.

They were eastward to Jacatra. He exswept back except at one point, cused this dawdling waste of where they were heavily stock- a whole month by saying that aded. It was a good beginning. they abode at their first an

Just at that time he learnt chorage to refresh their men. that Dale had reached Bantam, Crews were always in need of and had joined Pring at that refreshing after the long voyanchorage. Sir Thomas's voy- ages of those times. They had age had not been free from left Table Bay on 25th July, misfortunes. While his squad- and had employed twenty days ron was passing through the in extorting blackmail from a Straits of Sunda between Java Portuguese carrack on the way. and Sumatra, the Sun, the But since they could start out largest and most richly laden to pursue and take the Black vessel in it, was wrecked on Lion, it is clear that they the island of Enganho, and had all the health they needed became an all but total loss. to sail forty-five miles to the On the other hand, after reach- eastward for the purpose of ing Bantam, he had sighted overpowering Coen. They and had seized the Swarte would have found him with Leeuwi.e., the Black Lion,- several of his ships half-rigged. a large and richly laden Dutch It would be none the less Indiaman. The capture was rather unjust to attribute all à reprisal for the seizure of this delay to mere sloth. No English ships in the Spice doubt the trade interfered with Islands. Dale and Pring had the fighting. They lost time fifteen sail between them; Coen unloading cargo. It is well had with him but seven sail, known that, as might have and some of them were re- been expected, Dale and Jourfitting. To all seeming, and dain differed as to the best indeed in sober fact, the Eng. course to be taken, and we lish leaders had only to make can safely assume that their "the book moves," to do the disputes hampered the vigorous visibly correct thing, and they use of the ships for warlike could easily have taken the purposes. Governor-General and his ships, In the meantime, Coen was which were less than half as not losing a minute, and he numerous as their own. With had a perfectly definite aim, all their trumps and their and only one. The Dutch honours, they contrived to lose Governor-General, though he

had been trained in a bank, A double-minded man is un- and had been “koopman ” and stable in all his ways, and so opperkoopman and bookkeeper, was by temperament on the enemy, breaking through and by virtue of his way of him, and making use of a firedealing with ticklish problems ship. Dale's report to the a leader in war. The trade London Company has been and the fort must look after printed in the preface to the themselves for a time. To get 'Calendar of State Papers, his seven ships into trim as Colonial East Indies,' Vol. ij. fast as possible, to start out It is clear on all the main eastward, concentrate them, and points, and agrees substantially the others in the islands, and with the Dutch story as told then to come back with a in Mr de Jonghe's 'Opkomst superior force and make an end van het Nederlandsch Gezag of the English was his plan. He over Java.' But it is not saw, and persuaded his council very full in all details. One to see, what Sir Thomas Dale, gathers that this spirited plan worthy old Low Country officer was meant to be acted on if as he was, and John Jourdain, the Dutch could be attacked that honest and zealous ser- while at anchor. But all devant of the Company in all pended on whether the enemy matters of trade, were, as was fool enough to allow us their actions prove, incapable to act as we pleased. Coen of understanding-namely, that did not fall into the mistake victory at sea would give su- which the ill-fated John Jourperiority on land, and that it dain committed

the game.

afterwould be won by whoever wards. He did not leave the brought the greater force of initiative to the English. Early ships into action at the right next morning he stood to sea, time and place.

no doubt while the off-shore Before going he had to trans- wind which rose at night was fer such of the Dutch company's still blowing. The actual direcgoods as were still in the small tion of the ships would, of islands to the fort at Jacatra. course, be left to the Dutch He had also to see that this admiral. Both fleets man"strength," such as it was, had euvred to gain the weather been “pridied up," to use a gauge. Though Dale's force sailor's term of that age, as was superior in numbers by far as it could be. Dale allowed eleven to seven sail, no real him time to do both. On the advantage was gained by us. 20th December the English The action, according to the squadron, minus some ships General, was bloody. Our which were left discharging casualties

numerous, cargo at Bantam, sailed to though he felt sure that we attack Coen. They found him had inflicted far heavier loss at anchor near one of the on the enemy. Soldiers, so Sir islands. It was late, and action William Napier says, always was deferred till next day. A exaggerate the injury they do plan was laid for bearing down to their enemy, and so do


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