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concerning the manner of their conduct, the magnitude of the interests involved, the importance of the lawyer's positions, and all other like self-laudation, defy the traditions and lower the tone of our high calling, and are intolerable.

28. Stirring up Litigation, Directly or Through Agents. It is unprofessional for a lawyer to volunteer advice to bring a lawsuit, except in rare cases where ties of blood, relationship or trust make it his duty to do so. Stirring up strife and litigation is not only unprofessional, but it is indictable at common law. It is disreputable to hunt up defects in titles or other causes of action and inform thereof in order to be employed to bring suit, or to breed litigation by seeking out those with claims for personal injuries or those having any other grounds of action in order to secure them as clients, or to employ agents or runners for like purposes, or to pay or reward, directly or indirectly, those who bring or influence the bringing of such cases to his office, or to remunerate policemen, court or prison officials, physicians, hospital attachés or others who may succeed, under the guise of giving disinterested friendly advice, in influencing the criminal, the sick and the injured, the ignorant or others, to seek his professional services. A duty to the public and to the profession devolves upon every member of the Bar, having knowledge of such practices upon the part of any practitioner, immediately to inform thereof to the end that the offender may be disbarred.

29. Upholding the Honor of the Profession.-Lawyers should expose without fear or favor before the proper tribunals corrupt or dishonest conduct in the profession, and should accept without hesitation employment against a member of the Bar who has wronged his client. The counsel upon the trial of a cause in which 'perjury has been committed owe it to the profession and to the public to bring the matter to the knowledge of the prosecuting authorities. The lawyer should aid in guarding the Bar against the admission to the profession of candidates unfit or unqualified because defic in either moral character or education. He should strive at all times to uphold the honor and to maintain the dignity of the profession and to improve not only the law but the administration of justice.

30. Justifiable and Unjustifiable Litigations.—The lawyer must decline to conduct a civil cause or to make a defense when convinced that it is intended merely to harass or to injure the opposite party or to work oppression or wrong. But otherwise it is his right, and, having accepted retainer, it becomes his duty to insist upon the judgment of the Court as to the legal merits of his client's claim. His appearance in Court should be deemed equivalent to an assertion on his honor that in his opinion his client's case is one proper for judicial determination.

31. Responsibility for Litigation.—No lawyer is obliged to act. either as adviser or advocate for every person who may wish to

become his client. He has the right to decline employment. Every lawyer upon his own responsibility must decide what business he will accept as counsel, what causes he will bring into Court for plaintiffs, what cases he will contest in Court for defendants. The responsibility for advising questionable transactions, for bringing questionable suits, for urging questionable defenses, is the lawyer's responsibility. He cannot escape it by urging as an excuse that he Is only following his client's instructions.

32. The Lawyer's Duty in Its Last Analysis.—No client, corporate or individual, however powerful, nor any cause, civil or political, however important, is entitled to receive, nor should any lawyer render any service or advice involving disloyalty to the law whose ministers we are, or disrespect of the judicial office, which we are bound to uphold, or corruption of any person or persons exercising a public office or private trust, or deception or betrayal of the public. When rendering any such improper service or advice, the lawyer invites and merits stern and just condemnation. Correspondingly, he advances the honor of his profession and the best interests of his client when he renders service or gives advice tending to impress upon the client and his undertaking exact com. pliance with the strictest principles of moral law. He must also observe and advise his client to observe the statute law, though until a statute shall have been construed and interpreted by competent adjudication, he is free and is entitled to advise as to its validity and as to what he conscientiously believes to be its just meaning and extent. But above all a lawyer will find his highest honor in a deserved reputation for fidelity to private trust and to public duty, as an honest man and as a patriotic and loyal citizen.

III.

OATH OF ADMISSION. The general principles which should ever control the lawyer in the practice of his profession are clearly set forth in the following Oath of Admission to the Bar, formulated upon that in use in the State of Washington, and which conforms in its main outlines to the “duties” of lawyers as defined by statutory enactments in that and many other states of the union *-duties

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Alabama, California, Georgia, Idaho, Indiana, Iowa, Minnesota, Mississippi, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Da. kota, Utah, Washington and Wisconsin. The oaths administered on admission to the Bar in all the other States require the observ. ance of the highest moral principle in the practice of the profession, but the duties of the lawyer are not as specifically defined by law as in the States named.

which they are sworn on admission to obey and for the wilful violation of which disbarment is provided : I DO SOLEMNLY SWEAR:

I will support the Constitution of the United States and the Constitution of the State of........

; I will maintain the respect due to Courts of Justice and judicial officers;

I will not counsel or maintain any suit or proceeding which shall appear to me to be unjust, nor any defense except such as I believe to be honestly debatable under the law of the land;

I will employ for the purpose of maintaining the causes confided to me such means only as are consistent with truth and honor, and will never seek to mislead the Judge or jury by any artifice or false statement of fact or law;

I will maintain the confidence and preserve inviolate the secrets of my client, and will accept no compensation in connection with his business except from him or with his knowledge and approval;

I will abstain from all offensive personality, and advance no fact prejudicial to the honor or reputation of a party or witness, unless required by the justice of the cause with which I am charged;

I will never reject from any consideration personal to myself the cause of the defenseless or oppressed, or delay any man's cause for lucre or malice. SO HELP ME GOD.

We commend this form of oath for adoption by the proper authorities in all the states and territories.

[NOTE.--The foregoing Canons of Professional Ethics were adopted by the American Bar Association at its thirty-first annual meeting at Seattle, Washington, on August 27, 1908.

The Canons were prepared by a committee composed of

Henry St. George Tucker, Virginia, Chairman.
Lucien Hugh Alexander, Pennsylvania, Secretary.
David J. Brewer, District of Columbia.
Frederick V. Brown, Minnesota.
J. M. Dickinson, Illinois.
Franklin Ferriss, Missouri.
William Wirt Howe, Louisiana.
Thomas H. Hubbard, New York.
James G. Jenkins, Wisconsin.
Thomas Goode Jones, Alabama.
Alton B. Parker, New York.
George R. Peck, Illinois.
Francis Lynde Stetson, New York.
Ezra R. Thayer, Massachusetts.]

INDEX AND SYNOPSIS OF CANONS.

PREAMBLE, pp. 3-4.
THE CANONS OF ETHICS, pp. 4-13.

1. THE DUTY OF THE LAWYER TO THE COURTS. (1, 2, 4; iil, iv, vi.)
2. THE SELECTION OF JUDGES. (69.) *
3. ATTEMPTS TO EXERT PERSONAL INFLUENCE ON THE COURT. (3,

16.)* 4. WHEN COUNSEL FOR AN INDIGENT PRISONER. (64; xvill, xxi,

xxiii.) * 6. THE DEFENCE OR PROSECUTION OF THOSE ACCUSED OF CRIME.

(14; xv.)* 6. ADVERSE INFLUENCES AND CONFLICTING INTERESTS. (37, 28, 24,

25; viii.) * 7. PROFESSIONAL COLLEAGUES AND CONFLICTS OF OPINION. (42,

49, 50, 48; vii, xiv, xvii.) * 8. ADVISING UPON THE MERITS OF A CLIENT'S CAUSE (38, 35; xi,

xix, xx, xxxi, xxxii. See also xxx.) * 9. NEGOTIATIONS WITH OPPOSITE PARTY. (46, 47, 51; xliii, xliv.)* 10. ACQUIRING INTEREST IN LITIGATION. (xxiv.)* 11. DEALING WITH TRUST PROPERTY. (40; xxv, xxvi.) * 12. FIXING THE AMOUNT OF THE FEE. (54, 55, 56, 58; xviii, xxviii,

xxxviii, xlix.) * 13. . CONTINGENT FEES. (57; xxiv.) * 14. SUING A CLIENT FOR A FEE. (53; xxvii. See also xxix.)* 15. How FAR A LAWYER MAY GO IN SUPPORTING A CLIENT'S CAUSE.

(11; 1, x, xi, xii, xiii, xiv, xl.) * 16. RESTRAINING CLIENTS FROM IMPROPRIETIES. (44.) * 17. ILL FEELING AND PERSONALITIES BETWEEN ADVOCATES. (31, 32;

v.)* 18. TREATMENT OF WITNESSES AND LITIGANTS. (59, 30; il, xiv,

xlii.) * 19. APPEARANCE OF LAWYER AS WITNESS FOB HIS CLIENT. (21, 22;

XXXV, xvi.) * 20. NEWSPAPER DISCUSSION OF PENDING LITIGATION. (19, 20.)* 21. PUNCTUALITY AND EXPEDITION. (6, 36; See xxxvi.) * 22. CANDOR AND FAIRNESS. (5; xli.) * 23. ATTITUDE TOWARD JURY. (60, 61, 17, 63; xlvii.) * 24. RIGHT OF LAWYER TO CONTROL THE INCIDENTS OF THE TRIAL

(33; x.)* 25. TAKING TECHNICAL ADVANTAGE OF OPPOSITE COUNSEL; AGREE

MENTS WITH HIM. (45, 43; v, 1x.) * 26. PROFESSIONAL ADVOCACY OTHER THAN BEFORE COURTS. (27.)* 27. ADVERTISINO, DIRECT OR INDIRECT. (18.)* 28. STIRRING UP LITIGATION, DIRECTLY OR THROUGH AGENTS. (23.) * 29. UPHOLDING THE HONOR OF THE PROFESSION. (9, 65, 12; xxxiii,

xxxiv, xxxvii, xxxviii.) * 30. JUSTIFIABLE AND UNJUSTIFIABLE LITIGATIONS. (15; x, xi, xiv.)* 31. RESPONSIBILITY FOR LITIGATION. (15; x, xi, xiv.) *

32. THE LAWYER'S DUTY IN ITS LAST ANALYSIS. (66; xxi, etc.) OATH OF ADMISSION, pp. 13-14.

* The Arabic numerals in the brackets immediately following the synoptic titles of the canons are cross-references to the compilation of canons as set forth in Appendix B of the 1907 report of the Association's Committee on Canons of Ethics (A, B, A. Reports XXXI, 681. 684); the Roman numerals are cross-references to Hoffman's Resolutions, reprinted as Appendix H of the committee's 1907 report (id, 717

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