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A summary of the number of males and females engaged in the different branches of gainful employment covered by the investigation is shown in the table which follows:
NUMBER AND PER CENT OF MALES AND FEMALES IN GAINFUL EMPLOYMENTS, BY
KIND OF EMPLOYMENT, 1900.
From the above it is seen that of the total females in gainful employment the greatest number was found in manufactures, namely, 142,951, or 48.85 per cent, while 79,265, or 27.09 per cent were in domestic service. Female apprentices numbered 567, or 0.19 per cent, and children at work 2,312, or 0.79 per cent.
A consideration of the descent of the total (1,079,090) males and females in gainful employment, shows that 403,231, or 37.37 per cent, were native born, native descent; 233,643, or 21.65 per cent, were native born, foreign descent; 159,616, or 14.79 per cent, were foreign born; 129,102, or 11.96 per cent, were foreign born, naturalized; and 153,498, or 14.23 per cent, were foreign born, alien. Of the 292,636 females, only 85,733, or 29.30 per cent, were native born, native descent; 80,304, or 27.44 per cent, were native born, foreign descent; and 126,599, or 43.26 per cent, were foreign born. As to the conjugal condition of females in gainful employment, it was found that less than one-eighth of the total were married.
RECENT FOREIGN STATISTICAL PUBLICATIONS.
Die Arbeitseinstellungen und Aussperrungen in Österreich während
des Jahres 1902. Herausgegeben vom k. k. Arbeitsstatistischen Amte im Handelsministerium. 446 pp
This volume contains the ninth annual report of the Austrian Government on strikes and lockouts. The information, which is compiled by the Austrian labor bureau, is given in the form of an analysis and seven tables showing (1) strikes according to geographical distribution, (2) strikes according to industries, (3) general summary of strikes, (4) comparative summary of strikes for each of the years 1894 to 1902, (5) summary of strikes for all the years 1894 to 1902, (6) details for each strike in 1902, (7) details for each lockout in 1902. An appendix gives a brief review of industrial and labor conditions in the leading countries of the world, statistics of trade associations in Austria, and notes concerning the strikes reported in the preceding pages.
STRIKES IN 1902.—While the number of strikes in 1902 was slightly above the average for the period beginning with 1894, the number of strikers and the number of establishments affected was somewhat below the average for the same period. There were 284,046 days lost in 1902 on account of strikes, or 126,302 days more than in the preceding year. During the year there were 264 strikes, which affected 1,184 establishments and involved 37,471 strikers and 6,354 other employees who were thrown out of employment on account of strikes. The strikers represented 43.98 per cent of the total number of employees in the establishments affected. The average number of strikers in each strike was 141. Of the total strikers, 90.5 per cent were males and 9.5 per cent were females. After the strikes 35,395 strikers were reemployed and 1,431 new employees took places formerly occupied by strikers.
The following table shows, by industries, the number of strikes, establishments affected, strikers and others thrown out of employment, etc., during the year 1902:
The mining industry had the largest number of strikes (63) and strikers (13,573) in 1902. Next in importance with regard to the number of strikers involved was the group of building trades, with 10,476. Of all the strikers during the year, 64.18 per cent were engaged in these two groups of industries.
In the presentation of strikes by causes the cause and not the strike is taken as the unit, and since several causes frequently operate to bring about one strike, the number of causes usually exceeds the number of strikes. Thus the 264 strikes in 1902 were produced by 323 causes.
The following table shows the causes of the strikes for 1902, by industries:
CAUSES OF STRIKES, BY INDUSTRIES, 1902. [Strikes due to two or more causes have been tabulated under each cause; hence the totals for this
table do not agree with those for the preceding tables.]
As in previous years, the most frequent causes of strikes were the demands for increased wages and for reduction of hours, the former having been one of the causes of 39.32 per cent, and the latter of 16.10 per cent of all the strikes. The following table shows the results of strikes, by industries:
RESULTS OF STRIKES, BY INDUSTRIES, 1902.
Of the total number of strikes in 1902, 19.70 per cent succeeded, Sol per cent succeeded partly, and 41.29 per cent failed. Of the total number of strikers 13.77 per cent were engaged in strikes which xxxled. 52.65 per cent in strikes which succeeded partly, and 33.55 Vinrikes which failed.
ning table shows the results of the strikes in 1902, accord.. Hurstion:
MARINAN DURING NINE YEARS. –The following table shows the numPa vende tent of the strikes in Austria for the period during wbich The ministry of commerce has published reports on strikes: