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The number of strikes and the number of strikers for each year of the nine-year period are shown, by industries, in the following two tables:
STRIKES, BY INDUSTRIES, 1894 TO 1902.
The causes of strikes for the nine-year period are shown in the following table, the cause and not the strike being made the unit:
CAUSES OF STRIKES, 1894 TO 1902.
[Strikes due to two o. more causes have been tabulated under each cause; hence the totals for this
table do not agree with those for the preceding tables.)
charge Against Against Against
For re- of fore- obnox- dis-
of hours.' work- treat- of em-
The following table shows, for both strikes and strikers, during each year of the period, the results expressed in percentages:
LOCKOUTS.- There were 8 lockouts reported in 1902, 1 each being du to the observance of Labor day (May 1), to the arbitrary reduction of hours by employees, to the demand for a nine-hour day, to the refusal of employees to consent to a change in the method of payment, 2 to the demand for reinstatement of discharged employees, and 2 to the employees leaving the factory without permission of the employers.
The following table contains statistics of lockouts for the period 1894 to 1902:
LOCKOUTS, BY YEARS, 1894 TO 1902.
Statistique des Grèves et des Recours à la Conciliation et à l'Arbitrage
Survenus Pendant l'Année 1903. Direction du Travail, Ministère du Commerce, de l'Industrie, des Postes et des Télégraphes. xvi, 575 pp.
This is the thirteenth of a series of annual reports on strikes and conciliation and arbitration issued by the French labor bureau. The information is presented in the same form as that contained in previous reports:
STRIKES.-During the year 1903 there were 567 strikes, involving 3,246 establishments, 123,151 strikers, and 11,268 persons thrown out of work on account of strikes. Of the strikers, 87,283 were men, 26,501 were women, and 9,367 were children. The strikes caused a
total loss of 2,243,323 working days by strikers and 198,621 by other employees thrown out of work, or a total of 2,441,944 working days. In 1902 there were 512 strikes, in which 212,704 strikers were involved and 9,461 other employees were affected, causing an aggregate loss of 4,675,081 working days. The large number of strikers and days lost in 1903 is due to a general strike of textile workers in that year, which alone involved 75,676 strikers and caused a loss of 1,783,015 working days. The average number of days lost per striker in 1903 was 18.
Of the 567 strikes in 1903, 449 involved but 1 establishment each, 39 involved from 2 to 5 establishments, 20 from 6 to 10 establishments, 29 from 11 to 25 establishments, 17 from 26 to 50 establishments, and 5 from 51 to 100 establishments. Of the remaining strikes 7 involved over 100 establishments each, and for 1 the number of establishments was not reported.
In 416 strikes, all or a part of the striking employees were organized. The employers were organized in 218 strikes. Ten workingmen's unions and 2 employers' associations were organized during the progress of or immediately following strikes. In 60 strikes regular aid was given by labor organizations to their striking members.
Of the 567 strikes, 122, involving 12,526 strikers, succeeded; 222 strikes, involving 89,736 strikers, succeeded partly, and 223 strikes, involving 20,899 strikers, failed. In 225 strikes, the striking employees worked by the hour, day, week, or month; in 211, by the piece, and in the remaining 131, by both time and piece.
The two tables following show, by groups of industries, the number of strikes, strikers, and establishments involved, according to the results of strikes; also the days of work lost by all employees and the number of strikers per 1,000 working people in each group of industries:
STRIKES AND ESTABLISHMENTS INVOLVED, BY GROUPS OF INDUSTRIES, 1903.
Strikers in strikes
Strikers Days of which,
per 1,000 work lost
Total working by all em-
strikers. people ployees ceeded Failed.
in each thrown ceeded. partly.
indus- out of try. (a) work.
1.05 19, 827 15.76 49,088 24.90
8,126 8. 87 12, 533 10.64 13,028 32. 40 71,934 118.71 1,783, 015
2.10 20,818 8.63 92, 120 (6) 15, 398 5.28
94, 726 13.04
62, 449 61.33 29, 908 6.51 41,006
38,256 72, 108
d 28.71 2,441,944
a Based on the census of 1896. b Included in building (stone, tile, excavating, roofing, etc., work). c Including building (woodwork). d Based on the total number of industrial working people in France.
Of the 17 groups of industries above shown, 3, namely, textiles, metal working, and transportation and handling together furnished over one-half of the total number of strikes during the year. With regard to the number of strikers, however, over three-fifths the total number were in the textile industry. The strike data are shown by causes in the two tables following:
STRIKES, BY CAUSES, 1903. [Strikes due to two or more causes have been tabulated under each cause; hence the totals for this
table do not agree with those for the preceding tables.]
STRIKERS AND DAYS OF WORK LOST BY ALL EMPLOYEES THROWN OUT OF WORK BY
STRIKES IN 1903, BY CAUSES. [Strikes due to two or more causes have been tabulated under each cause; hence the totals for this
table do not agree with those for the preceding tables.)
For increase of wages.
insurance and aid funds Other causes
The most frequent causes of strikes during the year were wage disputes, the demands for increased wages, alone or in conjunction with other demands, having figured in 284 strikes (50 per cent of the total number of strikes for the year) involving 86,595 strikers (70 per cent of the total number of strikers), and causing a loss of 1,838,970 work ing days, which includes days lost by persons who were thrown out of employment on account of strike. Sixty-six of these demands were successful, for 6,448 strikers; 110 partly successful, for 70,618 strikers; and 108, involving 9,529 strikers, failed.
The next two tables show, respectively, the results of strikes, by duration, and the duration and results of strikes, by number of strikers involved:
STRIKES AND STRIKERS, BY DURATION OF STRIKES, 1903.
7, 796 3, 142 4, 027 4,141
1,783 20, 889
29, 283 14, 824 18, 512 57, 110 3, 422