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In 1903, as in previous years, a large proportion of disputes affected comparatively few working people. This is brought out in the table which follows:
STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS, BY GROUPS OF EMPLOYEES THROWN OUT OF WORK, 1903. (“Aggregate working days lost by all employees thrown out of work" includes the aggregate dura
tion of disputes which began in 1903 and embraces working days lost in 1904 in disputes which extended beyond 1903.)
From the above table it is seen that out of 387 disputes, 203, or 52.5 per cent, involved less than 100 employees each, or only 6.5 per cent of all employees thrown out of work, and 11 per cent of the time lost in all the disputes of the year. The 5 largest disputes involved 29,505, or 25.3 per cent, of the employees thrown out of work, and 13.7 per cent of the time lost in all the disputes of the year.
The tables following show the extent to which each of the various groups of industries was involved in the strikes and lockouts of 1903, and the results of the dispute in each case:
STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS, BY INDUSTRIES AND RESULTS, AND WORKING DAYS LOST, 1903. (“Aggregate working days lost by all employees thrown out of work" includes the aggregate duration in 1903 of disputes which began in previous years and excludes the duration in 1904 of disputes which began in 1903.)
STRIKERS AND EMPLOYEES LOCKED OUT, BY INDUSTRIES AND RESULTS, 1903.
The mining and quarrying industry shows the largest number of disputes, working people involved, and working days lost. The largest measure of success on the part of employees seems to have been attained by those involved in disputes in the mining and quarrying and in the metal, engineering, and shipbuilding industries.
STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS DURING FIVE YEARS.-During the fiveyear period 1899 to 1903 there was a yearly average of 567.6 disputes, in which there was affected an average of 184,374 working people. The table following presents some of the principal statistics of strikes and lockouts for each year from 1899 to 1903:
STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS, EMPLOYEES THROWN OUT OF WORK, AND WORKING DAYS
LOST 1899 TO 1903. (" Aggregate working days lost by all employees thrown out of work” includes the aggregate dura
tion in each year of disputes which began in previous years.]
Aggregate Strikers Otherem- Total em- working Strikes
and em- ployees' ployees days lost and lock- ployees thrown thrown by all emouts. locked out of out of ployees out. work. work. thrown out
1899. 1900. 1901 1902. 1903.
719 648 642 442 387
138, 058 135, 145 111, 437 116, 824 93, 515
2,516, 416 3, 152, 694 4,142, 287 3, 479, 255 2, 338, 668
The table following shows the number of strikes and lockouts and the employees thrown out of work during each year from 1899 to 1903, by industries:
STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS, AND EMPLOYEES THROWN OUT OF WORK, BY INDUSTRIES,
The above table shows that in each year, except 1899, the mining and quarrying industry had the largest number of employees involved in disputes. In 1899 the great dispute of the year was in the jute industry. Probably the most noteworthy point shown in the table is the decrease since 1900 in the number of persons affected by disputes in the building trades.
The following table shows the principal causes of strikes and lockouts and the number of disputes and employees directly involved in each cause from 1899 to 1903:
STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS, AND STRIKERS AND EMPLOYEES LOCKED OUT, BY PRINCIPAL
CAUSES, 1899 TO 1903.
During this five-year period-1899 to 1903—63.4 per cent of all the strikes and lockouts related to wages. Next in order of importance were disputes relating to the employment of particular classes of persons, to working arrangements, rules, and discipline, to trade unionism, and to hours of labor.
The following table shows the number of strikes and lockouts and the strikers and employees locked out each year during the five-year period-1899 to 1903—classified according to results:
STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS, AND STRIKERS AND EMPLOYEES LOCKED OUT, BY RESULTS,
1899 TO 1903.
Of the 2,838 disputes reported during the five-year period, 790, or 27.8 per cent, resulted in favor of employees; 1,117, or 39.4 per cent, resulted in favor of employers; 882, or 31.1 per cent, were compromised, and 49, or 1.7 per cent, remained indefinite or unsettled. Of 594,979 strikers and employees locked out during the period, 173,836, or 29.2 per cent, were engaged in disputes resulting in favor of employees; 211,238, or 35.5 per cent, in disputes resulting in favor of employers; 198,537, or 33.4 per cent, in disputes which were compromised, and 11,368, or 1.9 per cent, in disputes which remained indefinite or unsettled.
In the table following, the disputes beginning in each of the years 1899 to 1903 and the employees thrown out of work are classified according to the various methods of settlement: STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS, AND EMPLOYEES THROWN OUT OF WORK, BY METHOD OF
SETTLEMENT, 1899 TO 1903.
The great majority of the strikes and lockouts were settled by direct negotiation between the parties concerned or their representatives. Of the total of 387 disputes in 1903, not fewer than 266, or 68.7 per cent, were so settled, and these embraced 80,057, or 68.5 per cent, of all the persons involved. In 1903 there were 26 disputes settled by arbitration and by conciliation, involving under the two methods a total of 21,768 persons.
Statistica degli Scioperi avvenuti nell' Industria e nell' Agricoltura
durante l'anno 1901. Ministero di Agricoltura, Industria e Commercio, Direzione Generale della Statistica. 1904. lvii, 424 pp.
This is the tenth of a series of annual reports on strikes and lockouts published by the bureau of statistics of the Italian department of agriculture, industry, and commerce. The report presents in detailed tables and text statements the most important facts in reference to each strike or lockout that occurred during the year 1901, the strikes being separated into two categories—(1) those occurring in the group of agricultural industries, and (2) those occurring in industries other than agriculture. The report also contains summary tables of strikes for 1901 and for periods of years.
STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN 1901.-During the year 1901 there were 1,671 strikes, of which 629 were agricultural and 1,042 occurred in other industries. There were 30 shut downs, of which 6 were lockouts.
The 629 strikes among agricultural workers involved a total of 222,985 strikers and caused a loss of 2,931,766 working days. In addition 715 agricultural workers were thrown out of employment on account of the strikes, causing an additional loss of 5,149 working days. Of the strikers, about .65 per cent were men, 23 per cent women, and 12 per cent children.
The 1,042 strikes in the other industries involved 196,540 strikers, of whom 137,389 were men, 40,683 were women, and 18,468 were children. There were, in addition, 14,674 employees thrown out of work on account of strikes. The aggregate time lost by these strikers was 2,146,184 days, and by the nonstrikers thrown out of work, 208,302 days, making a total loss of 2,354,486 days in the industries other than agriculture.
The largest strikes of the year occurred among agricultural workers, 4 strikes involving, respectively, 18,500, 12,000, 11,000, and 10,000 laborers. These strikes were all for increased wages. The first succeeded, and the other three succeeded partly. A strike of masons and bricklayers in Milan involved 12,000 workmen and lasted 28 days. While various demands were made in this strike, the principal cause was a demand for increased wages. It was partly successful.