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of electric traction, the great body of street railway employees is being converted from a loosely aggregated, fluctuating, constantly changing body of unskilled, untrained men, working excessive hours for inadequate pay, under extremely vicious conditions, into a more compact, coherent, and regularly employed body of men, earning better wages and working shorter hours under improved conditions. The development has manifested merely a tendency in the direction of amelioration and it can not be regarded as a completed process.
NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES.
According to the special report of the United States Census Office, entitled “Street and Electric Railways, 1902," published in 1903, the number of employees on street railways of the United States, including the Territories, was 140,769. In other words, in that year about one-eighth as many persons were employed on street and elect:io railways as upon steam railroads. (") While no definite statistics exist for former years, the data furnished by the census enumerations and occupations for 1890 and 1900 show a rapid increase in the number of street railway employees. Of the 110,769 persons employed in 1902 upon street and electric railways, 7,128, or 5 per cent of the total number, came under the list of salaried officials and clerks. In that year there were 1,480 general officers with an annual average income of $2,021, 1,327 other officers, managers, and superintendents with an average annual salary of $1,371, and 4,321 clerks with an average salary of $609 per year. The average annual carnings of these 7,128 men was $1,044.
The remaining 133,611 employees of the street and electric railways of the United States in 1902 may be properly classed as wage-earners. These men are divided into a number of groups, consisting of foremen, inspectors, conductors, motormen, starters, watchmen, switchmen, road and track men, hostlers, stable men, etc., linemen, engineers, dynamo and switchboard men, electricians, firemen, mechanies, lamp trimmers, and other employees. The largest group of these employees consists of conductors and motormen, the number of whom combined amounts to 80,144, or 60 per cent of the total wage-earners. The next largest single group consists of the road and track men, containing 11,474 men, or 8.6 per cent; the next of mechanics, consisting of 9,197, or 6.9 per cent, these four groups of motormen, conductors, road and track men, and mechanics, aggregating 75.5 per cent of all wageearners.
a In 1902 there were 1,189,315 employees, including general and other officers and clerks, employed on the steam railroads, or 8.45 times as many as those employed on street railways. (See reports of the Interstate Commerce Commission on Statistics of Railways Inited States.)
The following table shows the distribution of street railway employees by States, the State referring to the location of the railway and not to the residence of the employee: TOTAL NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES (NOT INCLUDING SALARIED OFFICIALS AND CLERKS)
ON STREET RAILWAYS IN 1902, BY STATES. (From special report of the United States Census Office on Street and Electric Railways, 1902, page 233.]
The foregoing table shows to what an extent street railway employees are confined to the populous States. Thus, of the entire number employed (not including salaried officials and clerks) upon all the street railways of the United States, almost one-quarter work upon the street railways of the State of New York. The States in the order of the number of street railway employees are New York, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, Illinois, and Ohio. The street railways of these 5 States employ 83,419 wage-earners, leaving 50,222 for all the other States and Territories of the Union. In other words, over 62 per cent or about five-eighths of all street railway wageearners in the United States are employed by roads in these 5 States. The States next in order following are California, Missouri, New Jersey, Michigan, and Maryland, all of which are States with comparatively dense populations and with large cities. Upon the street railways of these 5 States there are 20,328 street railway employees, making 103,747, or 78 per cent of the total, for the first 10 States. A majority of the States have upon their street and electric railways less than 1,000 employees each. It is typical of the extent to which railway employment is confined to States with large cities that the State of Rhode Island, with a population of only 428,556, has 1,609 street railway employees, while the State of Texas, with a population of 3,048,710, has but 929 employees. In other words, while Rhode Island has 38 street railway employees for 10,000 inhabitants, Texas has but 3 per 10,000. The proportion of street railway employees in such States as North and South Dakota is still smaller, being too slight even for special enumeration.
Practically the same distribution holds true of the several classes into which street railway employment is divided. In the number of motormen the States lead in the order of New York, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, Ohio, and Illinois; these 5 States furnishing 61.1 per cent of all the motormen in the country. The States of California, Missouri, and New Jersey, furnish 11.8 per cent, making a total of 72.9 per cent for these 8 States. No other State has over 1,000 motormen, but the States of Michigan, Maryland, Connecticut, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, and Georgia each have between 500 and 1,000, or a total of 12.3 per cent of all motormen. Twelve other States range from 200 to 500 employees, forming a total of 10.4 per cent of all motormen, or an average of 0.9 per cent each. Seven other enumerated States, besides the unenumerated States, average less than 100 motormen, the State of Mississippi having but 32, or less than onetenth of 1 per cent.
The following table shows the number of motormen by States. Similar tables could be made for all classes of employment, since the distribution is approximately the same for all the various grades of service in street railway employment.
NUMBER AND PER CENT OF MOTORMEN ON STREET RAILWAYS IN 1902, BY STATES.
[From special report of the I'nited States Census Office on Street and Electric Railways, 1902, page 233.]
The statistics of occupations of the Twelfth Census of the United States show a much smaller number of men engaged in street railroading than is shown by the special report of the Census Office on Street and Electric Railways, 1902. According to the Twelfth Census, there ***p'e but 68,936 street railway employees in the United States. This
figure, however, is necessarily incomplete, owing to the fact that the statistics were taken not by industries, but by the particular trade or occupation of the individual workman making the return.
Persons filling such positions in the street railway service as foremen, starters, watchmen, switchmen, road and track men, linemen, engineers, electricians, firemen, mechanics, lamp trimmers, etc., do not usually report themselves as street railway employees, and it is only those occupations which specifically pertain to the street railway service which show their full quota of men. Thus, according to the United States census of population, it would appear that 89.2 per cent of all street railway employees were motormen and conductors, whereas according to the fuller statistics furnished in the special report, only 60 per cent are shown to be motormen and conductors.
The census report returned 24,038 conductors as against 37,436 motormen, showing clearly that many conductors were not classed as street railway employees, while probably all motormen were. In other words, according to the statistics of population, there were 56 per cent more motormen than conductors, while the special report shows that the numbers were practically identical for the two occupations. The proportion between motormen and conductors was as 997 to 1,000.) Although necessarily incomplete, the figures of the census of occupations are valuable because they furnish information supplementing that of the special census report.
The following table shows the division of wage-earners of street and electric railways according to occupations: NUMBER AND PER CENT OF WAGE-EARNING EMPLOYEES IN EACH OCCUPATION IN
STREET RAILWAY SERVICE, 1902. [From special report of the United States Census Office on Street and Electric Railways, 1902, pages
233 to 233.]
Of the 133,641 wage-earners employed by the street and electric railways of the country during the year 1902, the greater proportion were to be found in the Northern States. Of the entire number, 72,427,