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quarryman, as to which information was obtained, it would appear that the circumstances of the accident causing his death were such that there would have been no ground for recovery of damages under any other law than the act in question.
It is obviously in such cases as this, where the employee is held to have so assumed the risk that the liability of the employer does not under present laws extend thereto, that the need of some system of industrial insurance, cooperative or otherwise, is most felt.
RECENT REPORTS OF STATE BUREAUS OF LABOR STATISTICS.
Twentieth Annual Report of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, for the year ended September 30, 1902. Transmitted to the legislature February 23, 1903. John McMackin, Commissioner. viii, 1,172 pp.
The six chapters of this report are devoted to the following subjects: Wages in the clothing trades, 35 pages; earnings in home industries, 253 pages; trade unions, 89 pages; employment and earnings of organized wageworkers, 591 pages; changes in rates of wages, 163 pages; changes in hours of labor, 32 pages.
WAGES IN THE CLOTHING TRADES. -For the purpose of supplementing the statistics of earnings in home industries in New York City, which constitutes the second subject presented in this report, the labor bureau investigated the wages paid to all classes of employees by manufacturers in the clothing trades, which trades are the predominating ones carried on by home workers. The branches of the clothing industry covered by the inquiry are men's and boys' clothing, women's suits and cloaks, shirts, collars, etc., women's white goods, and neckties. The data were secured from establishments in New York City and Syracuse, and a summary of the same is presented in the table following:
WEEKLY WAGES OF EMPLOYEES IN THE CLOTHING TRADES, 1902.
INSIDE WORKERS. Men's and boys' clothing Women's suits and cloaks. Shirts, collars, etc.. Women's white goods. Neckties..
. OUTSIDE WORKERS. Men's and boys' clothing. Women's white goods.. Neckties....
EARNINGS IN HOME INDUSTRIES.- This is an investigation relating to the economic condition of the home workers in the tenements of New York City. The results of the investigation as presented in the report are supplemented by a historical review of tenement-house work or the sweating system. The period covered by the inquiry comprised the first six months of 1902, except in the case of artificial flower makers. This six months period included the busy season of the spring and also its proportion of the slack season, so that the income received during the period may fairly be considered as equivalent to one-half the average annual income of the home workers or licensees.
Schedules were received from 1,010 licensees (158 males and 852 females), representing the following occupations: Custom tailors, 52 (48 males and 4 females); tailors, 59 (49 males and 10 females); home finishers, 798 (50 males and 748 females); artificial-flower makers, 63 (2 les and 61 females); miscellaneous, 38 (9 males and 29 females). The table following shows the class of employers for which the home workers or licensees work:
NUMBER OF HOME WORKERS WORKING FOR EACH CLASS OF EMPLOYERS.
From the table it appears that the tailors usually work for their private customers or for manufacturers or merchant tailors, while most of the finishers work for contractors, the so-called "sweaters" or middlemen. The artificial-flower makers take work exclusively from the manufacturers.
Of the 1,010 licensees reporting, 154 were American born, but this proportion, it is believed, vastly exceeds the proportion in the entire home industry. Of these 154 Americans, all but 13 were children of foreign mothers. Of the 158 male licensees, 69 were Germans and 25 Italians, and of the 852 female licensees, 166 were Germans and 515
Italians. Each of the other 15 nationalities in the canvass was not largely represented.
The income of the home workers or licensees reporting that item during the first six months of 1902 is shown in the table following:
In addition to the income of the home workers, the outside earnings of other members of the families (adults and children), and the income per family from all sources are shown in the table following:
INCOME OF HOME AND OUTSIDE WORKERS, JANUARY TO JUNE, 1902.
The income per family, according to nationality represented in the canvass, for the six months, January to June, 1902, is shown in the table below. No nationality has been included in the table unless it had more than one representative.
INCOME OF FAMILIES OF EACH NATIONALITY, JANUARY TO JUNE, 1902.
TRADE UNIONS.-On September 30, 1902, there existed in the State 2,229 local trade unions and similar labor organizations, the aggregate membership of which was 329,101 working men and women. In the table following is shown the number of organizations and the membership, by sex, in each year from 1894 to 1902:
NUMBER OF TRADE UNIONS AND MEMBERSHIP, BY SEX, 1894 TO 1902.
Of the 2,229 trade unions in existence on September 30, 1902, 579 were located in New York City and 1,650 in other cities of the State, while of the 329,101 members, 198,055 belonged to New York City unions and 131,046 to unions in other places. The female members in all trade unions numbered 15,509, of whom 9,615 were in unions in the clothing and textile industries, 2,501 in unions in the tobacco industry, and 1,243 in unions pertaining to theaters and music.
The membership of trade unions, by industries, on July 1 for the