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well. In order to show the actual result of the productive forces of the industry, the element of cost of material must be deducted from the total value of product; the remainder will show only the industry product, or the new values created. This has been done in the case of the nine leading industries, and the amount of industry product per $1,000 of capital and per employee has been computed; also the division of industry product between the wage fund and the fund devoted to other expenses, as freight, insurance, interest, rent, commissions, salaries, etc., and to profit, these last items being grouped as “ Profit and minor expenses.” The results appear in the table following:
INDUSTRY PRODUCT, WAGES, AND PROFIT AND EXPENSES IN NINE SPECIFIED
Of the nine industries here shown it appears that the boot and shoe industry requires the least capitalization to secure a given value of product, and cotton goods.the greatest. The product per employee is also least in the cotton goods industry, while the greatest product appears in the paper and machines and machinery industries. In four of the industries more than one-half of the industry product was paid out in wages, the largest showing being in paper and worsted goods, where 61.57 per cent and 61.81 per cent went to that item.
RECENT FOREIGN STATISTICAL PUBLICATIONS.
Die Wohlfahrts-Einrichtungen der Arbeitgeber zu Gunsten ihrer
Angestellten und Arbeiter in Oesterreich. Herausgegeben vom k. k. arbeitsstatistischen Amte im Handelsministerium. I. Theil. Wohlfahrts-Einrichtungen der Eisenbahnen. II. Heft: Die bei den k. k. österr. Staatsbahnen bestehenden Wohlfahrts-Einrichtungen. 1903. vi, 118 pp.
II. Theil. Wohlfahrts-Einrichtungen der gewerblichen und Handelsbetriebe. 1904. ix, 414 pp.
These are the second and third of a series of three volumes issued by the Austrian bureau of labor statistics, giving the results of the investigation of various institutions founded or assisted by employers for the welfare of their employees. A digest of the first volume, which relates to employees of private steam railways and steam tramways, appeared in Bulletin of the Bureau of Labor, No. 55.
The two present volumes deal, respectively, with employees of rail. ways operated under government control and employees in the manufacturing industries and the steamboat service.
RAILWAYS OPERATED UNDER GOVERNMENT MANAGEMENT.—This volume contains twelve chapters treating, respectively, of the following subjects: Mileage and number of persons employed in the government railway service; systems of salary and wage payments; regulations governing railway employees while performing military service; hours of labor, night work, leave of absence, and disposition of employees during periods of reduced traffic; contractual relations between the Government and its railway employees; loan and savings institutions; sick benefit, accident insurance, and other relief institutions; arrangements for the cheap supply of commodities to employees; housing of employees, prevention of accidents, and hygiene; education and apprenticeship; spiritual, ethical, and social improvement of employees. An appendix gives copies of regulations governing the employees on railways and in railway workshops; regulations regarding apprentices in railway workshops; regulations prescribing the hours of labor of railway employees, and pension regulations for the various classes of railway employees.
The following table shows the aggregate mileage of railways operated under government control and the number of employees in 1898, 1899, 1900, and 1901 arranged according to the classification adopted by the Austrian department of railways:
AGGREGATE MILEAGE AND NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ON RAILWAYS OPERATED UNDER
GOVERNMENT CONTROL IN AUSTRIA, 1898 TO 1901.
The terms “Beamte,” “Unterbeamte," and "Diener" are not clearly defined. The first class probably includes higher officials, including station masters in cities and others holding responsible administrative positions. The second class probably includes inferior officials, such as station agents, baggage masters, locomotive engineers, conductors, etc. The terms “Diener” and “Wächter" are applied to all other permanent railway employees in the regular classified railway service.
SALARY AND WAGE PAYMENTS. — The employees on the regular rolls receive fixed salaries or wages. The day laborers are paid by the day, their rates varying according to the character of their work. In addition to the regular salaries, allowances for quarters are made to certain classes of employees, such allowances being rated according to the grade of the employees and the locality where stationed. Provision is also made for extra allowances for night work, overtime work, extra mileage, etc.; for increased pay for long-continued service; for premiums for meritorious service in handling trains, facilitating transportation, etc.; for rewards for discovering dangerous defects in rolling stock or in the roadbed, and for prizes for economy in the use of fuel, oil, and other materials.
The sums paid during the year 1901 for rewards amounted to 423,661 kronen ($86,003), and for service premiums, prizes for economy, and premiums for proper care of locomotives to 2,047,558 kronen ($415,654).
The following table shows the highest and lowest salaries, wages, and allowances for quarters paid to certain classes of employees on the government railways in Austria in 1901:
HIGHEST AND LOWEST YEARLY SALARIES AND DAILY WAGES PAID CERTAIN
EMPLOYEES OF THE GOVERNMENT RAILWAYS IN AUSTRIA, 1901.
a For other localities the allowances for quarters range from 40 to 80 per cent of the amounts quoted for Vienna.
Per month. • Per day.
The aggregate amounts paid to all classes of employees for salaries, wages, and other allowances from 1898 to 1901 were as follows: 1898, 99,534,634 kronen ($20,205,531); 1899, 111,798,251 kronen ($22,695,045); 1900, 122,240,711 kronen ($24,814,864); 1901, 126,483,724 kronen ($25,676,196).
MILITARY SERVICE.— The same regulations governing the treatment of railway employees on private railways called to perform military service also apply to employees on railways operated under goverment control. A digest of these regulations was published in Bulletin of the Bureau of Labor, No. 55, pages 1656 and 1657.
HOURS OF LABOR, LEAVES OF ABSENCE, ETC. -The hours of continuous duty of employees in the transportation service under normal conditions range from 12 to 18, and the periods of rest following labor, from 6 to 24 hours, according to the character of the service and the nature of the employment.
For train dispatchers, telegraph operators, signal men, switchinen, and other employees engaged in the moving of trains, the hours usually range from 12 to 16, and are followed, as a rule, by a number of hours for rest, with a minimum period of uninterrupted rest of at least 8 hours. In cases of especially arduous service the hours are limited to 12, and are followed by a period of rest extended to 24 hours. On lines with light traffic and limited night service, the hours may be extended to 18, provided they are interrupted by frequent periods of rest and provided the uninterrupted night rest amounts to at least 6 hours.
The maximum hours of track walkers is limited to 16, followed by a period of rest of not less than 8 hours.
For locomotive engineers, firemen, and other train men the average number of hours in any one month does not exceed 11 hours per day, the maximum number of hours of continuous uninterrupted service on regular transportation lines being limited to 14 hours. On local passenger and freight trains the service may be extended to 18 hours, provided such service permits of sufficient intervals for rest. On passenger trains the trips are limited to 9 hours; on freight trains to 12 hours of schedule time. The minimum period of rest at the home of the employees is 10 hours; at other points 6 hours.
For machinists, stationary firemen, yardmen, and other stationary employees in the transportation department on lines running day and night, the hours range from 12 to 16, followed by a corresponding number of hours of rest. In cases of less arduous day service the hours may be extended to 24, to be followed by the same number of hours of rest, if intermissions for rest of several hours duration during the night have been provided for.
For day laborers in all branches of the service the normal hours on working days are 10 per day.
For the workshops at Vienna the hours of labor have been fixed at 94 per day.
Office employees at central stations are employed 7 hours per day on week days and 3 hours on holidays, and they are exempt from all work on Sundays and high days. Female office employees are also exempt from work on all holidays.
Annual leave of absence, with full pay, is granted to all permanent employees, the length of such leave varying with the character of employment and length of service, according to the following schedule:
SCHEDULE OF ANNUAL LEAVE OF ABSENCE FOR VARIOUS CLASSES OF EMPLOYEES.
Day laborers are given leave of absence, but without pay, except in cases when performing the duties of the class of employees designated as “Diener.”
Employees who have been chosen delegates to the Railway Employees' Accident Relief Association are granted leave of absence, with full pay, for the purpose of attending to the duties devolving upon them as such delegates.
Reductions in the force of employees, if necessary, are made in the reverse order of their employment. Extensive reductions, however, occur regularly only in the force employed on the maintenance of roadway at the beginning of the winter season.
RELATIONS BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT AND ITS RAILWAY EMPLOYEES.—The relations between the Government and its railway