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The following two tables show the receipts and the expenditures of the sick henefit fund from 1898 to 1901:

RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES OF THE SICK BENEFIT FUND FOR THE AUSTRIAN STATE

RAILWAY EMPLOYEES, 1898 to 1901.

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1893 1899 1900 1901

85,052 $250,947. 79 $157, 800.42 $408, 748.21 $261, 675.93 $93,743.78 $355, 419.71
96, 155 280, 225. 26 | 176, 154. 47 456, 379. 73 326, 605.48 101,884.48 428, 489.96
101, 242 311, 367.29 195, 444.54 506, 811.83 373, 564.66 112, 567.56 486, 132. 22
100, 380 311,928. 58 201, 163. 46 513,092.01 378, 397.89 120, 458.37 498, 856. 26

$284,974.65 312, 864.41 333, 543, 82 347, 779.80

SPECIAL ALLOWANCES FROM THE SICK BENEFIT FUND FOR THE AUSTRIAN STATE

RAILWAY EMPLOYEES, 1898 TO 1901.

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The following table shows the contributions to the accident insurance institution and the relief payments made by the latter from 1998 to 1901:

CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE ACCIDENT INSURANCE INSTITUTION AND THE RELIEF PAY

MENTS MADE BY THIS INSTITUTION, 1898 TO 1901.

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1898... $184, 932.49 $97, 699. 84 $45,791.93 $13, 297.51 $13, 889.26 $614.93 $73, 623.63 $2,166.21 $1,026.98 1899.. 680, 851.24 146,816.71 70, 229. 88 17, 238.56 20, 654. 84 1,300.82 109, 421. 10 492.88 981.30 1900.. 868, 520.07 182, 132.41 109, 352, 24 23, 221.37 25, 673.00 1,460.59 159, 707. 20 1,613. 89 1,019, 71 1901... 1,014, 209.72 198, 473.30 157, 410.46 29,002. 41 30, 465. 63 2,056.39 218,934. 89 1,918.80 964. 25

The table which follows shows the membership and the financial operations of the pension and provident funds of the Austrian State railways from 1898 to 1901:

MEMBERSHIP AND BENEFICIARIES OF THE PENSION AND PROVIDENT FUNDS OF THE

AUSTRIAN STATE RAILWAYS, 1898 TO 1901.

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FINANCIAL OPERATIONS OF THE PENSION AND PROVIDENT FUNDS OF THE AUSTRIAN

STATE RAILWAYS, 1898 TO 1901.

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COOPERATIVE STORES, ETC.-Cooperative stores, established at seven of the principal stations, afford employees, especially those who are located at points more remote from the business centers, opportunities to purchase commodities at less than the customary rates.

Purchases may be made either for cash or on credit, the maximum amount of purchases being limited to a certain per cent of the purchaser's earnings. The stores are under the management of trustees selected by the employees. Assistance is rendered by the Government in the way of reduced freight charges and by making collections on credit sales by deductions from the salaries or wages of the purchasers. The total sales of the cooperative stores during 1901 amounted to 4,446,267 kronen ($902,592).

The purchase of commodities at reasonable prices is also facilitated in other ways, for instance, by giving free transportation to near-by markets twice a month to a member of the employee's household in

cases where employees are stationed at localities where commodities can be procured only with difficulty or at excessively high figures.

Employees are furnished fuel and coal oil for lighting purposes either at cost or at greatly reduced prices. Station dining-room keepers are under contract to furnish all railway employees with meals at a reduction of 25 per cent from regular rates.

At most of the workshops, dining rooms provided with heating apparatus have been furnished for the accommodation of employees whose homes are too remote from the shops to enable them to go home for their dinners during the noon hour.

HOUSING OF EMPLOYEES.—The Government has expended considerable sums of money for the erection of suitable dwelling houses for its railway employees. In 1901 there were 714 of these houses and in the same year the Government appropriated the sum of 3,389,000 kronen ($687,967), covering the period to 1905, for the purpose of building additional dwelling houses for the use of its employees. In the same year there were also 151 workingmen's houses, for the accommodation of 617 families, mostly established in colonies in localities where large numbers of persons are employed, especially in the vicinity of workshops. Quarters are also provided for persons connected with the railway stations and whose presence is constantly required, also for locomotive engineers, conductors, and other trainmen, for their accommodation while away from their regular domicile. At the larger stations, furnished rooms are reserved for the use of higher officials when traveling on business connected with the railway service. Building and loan associations, organized by employees, are in successful operation at Vienna and other localities. The Government encourages the organization of these institutions by granting them loans and by giving them greatly reduced rates on transportation of building material.

PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS AND HYGIENE.--All employees are required to make themselves thoroughly familiar with the rules and regulations governing their employment, and are subjected to frequent examinations on the subjects pertaining to their duties. The danger from accidents on the Austrian State railways has been lessened by the introduction of the block-signal system on part of the lines.

Modern appliances have generally been introduced on rolling stock, bridges, and tunnels for the protection of passengers and trainmen, and for their relief in cases of accident. Among these may be mentioned cabs for locomotive engineers, vestibule cars, inclosed shelters for brakemen, guards on machinery, and sanitary arrangements, such as bath houses and commodious wash rooms, proper light, heat, and ventilation in workshops. A regular medical corps of 78 physicians is in charge of the medicine department. These physicians are placed in the class of higher officials, and are entitled to membership in the pension fund under the same conditions that are applicable to other railway officials. Emergency corps, composed of the most intelligent office, station, and shop employees, are organized at 46 of the principal stations. All trainmen and station employees receive theoretical and practical instruction on measures for the first relief of the injured. All stations and large workshops are supplied with rescue appliances, bandages, stretchers, and fire extinguishers.

EDUCATION. — The Government generally contributes to the support of public and private schools which are largely attended by children of railway employees. A school exclusively for children of railway employees, however, has been established by the Government at Lemberg. The cost of its maintenance in 1901 was about $5,000, of which the State contributed 21,324 kronen ($1,328.77), the balance having been made up by tuition at the rate of 2 kronen ($0.41) per month for children of officials and 1 krone ($0.20) for children of other employees. In the same year the continuation school at Vienna for the technical education of certain classes of railway employees received a contribution from the State amounting to 7,800.kronen ($1,583.10), and the Commercial School at Linz, a preparatory school for entrance into the railway service, the sum of 6,000 kronen ($1,218). Provision is also made by the State and two associations, “ Der Schulfondsverein für Bedienstete der staatlichen Eisenbahnverwaltung” and Der Kaiserjubiläums-Wolhthätigkeitsverein für Töchter von Bediensteten der Staatseisenbahnverwaltung," for free tuition and free scholarships in certain educational institutions in aid of children of employees of limited means. The sum expended by the State and the two associations for this purpose in 1901 amounted to 111,234 kronen ($22,580.50).

Boys are apprenticed in all workshops of the Austrian State railways, preference being given to the sons of employees. They must be physically sound, at least 14 years of age, and must have completed the course of studies prescribed for the common schools.

RELIGIOUS, ETHICAL, AND SOCIAL IMPROVEMENT.-All employees in the executive branches of the service are allowed at least one Sunday or holiday each month to attend divine service. A chapel has been erected by the State at the colony at Neu-Sandez at an expenditure of 94,000 kronen ($19,082) for the use of the employees residing at the colony. At the larger stations employees have organized societies for social purposes, for amusement, and for instruction. The organization of these societies is encouraged by the State by rendering them substantial aid in procuring books, instruments, etc.

Cost OF BETTERMENT INSTITUTIONS.—The following summary shows the aggregate expenditures by the State for the various institutions enumerated above, in 1901, in addition to the regular salaries, wages, and allowances for rent:

Extra pay and allowances.
Rewards..
Premiums
Relief of needy employees
Age and invalidity funds
Sick-benefit fund
Accident insurance
Fuel for employees
Dwellings and workingmen's houses.
Sanitation
Education
Administration of the age and invalidity funds, sick-benefit fund, etc.

$350, 581.00

86, 003. 18 415, 654. 28

25, 984.00 821, 953. 29

215, 180.00 1,014, 209.72

153, 500. 68 132, 929. 07 55, 013.00 21, 606.71 134, 755. 46

Total ......

3, 427, 370. 39

MANUFACTURING, ETC., INDUSTRIES.---This volume, which is the third of the series, covers the following industries: Stone, glass, china, and earthen ware, metals and metallic goods, machinery and instruments, leather and hides, brushes and feathers, textiles, paper, food products, chemical products, and the steamboat service.

The investigation was conducted by means of schedules of inquiry sent to establishments designated by chambers of commerce and industry and manufacturers' associations in Austria, some information being also obtained from reports of factory inspectors and other publications. The report deals with returns from 721 undertakings covering 943 establishments employing 350,000 employees. The data mostly relate to the year 1900, although some information for the years 1901 to 1903 was used.

The information is presented in ten chapters, dealing respectively with the following subjects: Supplementary wage allowances; rewards and premiums; vacations and time allowances; workingmen's committees; loan and savings institutions; sickness, accident, and other relief institutions; arrangements for the cheap supply of commodities to employees; housing of employees; the care and education of children and young persons; prevention of accidents and hygiene; and spiritual, ethical, and social improvement of employees. An index to the undertakings considered in the report is also given, together with the address, date of founding, and approximate number of employees of each.

SUPPLEMENTARY WAGE ALLOWANCES, ETC. -Fourteen undertakings, most of which were engaged in the food products group of industries, had introduced the system of profit sharing. Seventy-three granted regular supplementary allowances to wageworkers and 5 to officials, in the form of regular gratuities for long-continued service, allowances for house rent, school tuitions, and the payment by employers of the employees' income taxes. Gratuities in the form of presents to employees on special occasions,

16818—No. 57—05

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