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RECENT REPORTS OF STATE BUREAUS OF LABOR STATISTICS.
Nineteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of Labor Statistics for the year ending November 30, 1903. Wm. H. Scoville, Commissioner. 489 pp; Appendix, 67 pp.
The subjects considered in this report are as follows: New factory construction, 27 pages; statistics of manufactures, 149 pages; description of manufactories, 162 pages; labor organizations, 23 pages; strikes and lockouts, 90 pages; free public employment bureaus, 14 pages; labor laws, 61 pages.
New Factory CONSTRUCTION.—Under this head is given a list of buildings and additions erected during the year ending July 1, 1903, to be used for manufacturing purposes. Location, material, dimensions, and cost of construction are given for each new structure; also increase in the number of employees caused by building. In 40 towns of the State 101 manufacturing establishments reported having constructed 185 new buildings and additions to existing structures, at a total cost of $2,367,214. The additional number of employees pro vided for by 45 of the 101 establishments was 3,628.
STATISTICS OF MANUFACTURES.--This part of the report consists chiefly of three tables showing, by industries for 860 establishments, the number of employees, number of days in operation, total wages paid, average annual and daily earnings, value of products, percentage of labor cost of value of products, and percentage of other expenses and profits. These items are reported for the years 1902 and 1903, and, except for the last two items, there is given the percentage of increase or decrease for the latter year. Summaries and analytical text are also given. A summary of the more important data for the fiscal year 1903 is presented in the table following.
STATISTICS OF MANUFACTURES FOR THE FISCAL YEAR 1903.
(The figures in the columns for average number employed, average days in operation, amount paid in wages, and gross value of product do not in each case represent the full number of establishments shown for the various industries, but only those reporting as to the individual items. The average annual earnings are based upon the average number employed and the wages paid in those establishments only which reported ihese items in 1902 as well as in 1903.)
The manufacture of carriages and carriage parts shows the highest average annual earnings per employee, viz, $709.90, while the manufacture of corsets, on the other hand, shows the lowest, or $308.23.
Statistics of identical establishments for 1902 and 1903 show the following comparisons: For average persons employed, 1903 shows an increase over 1902 of 8 per cent; for average days in operation, 1903 shows an increase over 1902 of 0.4 per cent; for average annual earnings per employee, 1903 shows an increase over 1902 of 2.3 per cent; for amount paid in wages, 1903 shows an increase over 1902 of 10.5 per cent, and for gross value of product, 1903 shows an increase over 1902 of 8.4 per cent.
DESCRIPTION OF MANUFACTORIES.—Under this head are presented illustrations and descriptions of 73 representative manufacturing establishments of the State. Accompanying the descriptions of the different plants is a brief summary, taken from the Twelfth United States Census, of the volume of business done in manufacturing in the various towns wherein the establishments described are located.
LABOR ORGANIZATIONS.—In 1903 there were 591 organizations known to have been in existence in the State. During each of the prior four years the number that reported to the State bureau was as follows: 214 in 1899, 270 in 1900, 340 in 1901, and 510 in 1902. Organizations were found in 43 towns in 1901, in 48 in 1902, and in 49 in 1903. Following the statistical presentation is a list of the unions, grouped by towns, with the name and address of the secretary of each.
STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS. -Under this head are given brief accounts of the labor troubles of the State for the year ending October 31, 1903, and a tabulated statement showing the date, class of labor, name of employer, location, number of employees involved, duration, causes, and results of 99 disputes. The number of employees involved in these disputes was 9,217, with a reported loss of time of 270,149 days, and of wages to the amount of $105,674. They took place in 33 towns of the State, and 39 occupations were represented. Of the 99 controversies, the workmen were unsuccessful in 12 instances, 26 resulted successfully for the workmen, 8 were partly successful, 20 were amicably settled or arbitrated, and 3 were unsettled at the time of the report.
FREE PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT BUREAUS. --The operations for the year ending November 30, 1903, of the five free public employment bureaus established on July 1, 1901, are set forth in this chapter. Detailed statements are given showing by sex the number and kind of situations secured, together with the nationality of the applicants. A summary of the results for the year covered is given in the following table for the five cities in which the bureaus are located:
OPERATIONS OF FREE PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT BUREAUS FOR THE YEAR ENDING
NOVEMBER 30, 1903.
During the 29 months from the date of the establishment of the bureaus there were 33,148 applications for situations, 15,746 by males and 17,402 by females. Employers made application for 7,811 male and 17,853 female workers, a total of 25,664 persons. As a result of the operations of the bureaus 19,000 positions were secured, 6,969 by males and 12,031 by females.
LABOR Laws.-In an appendix to the report are presented the labor laws of the State, comprising those contained in the general statutes, revision of 1902, and amendments, January session, 1903.
Seventeenth Annual Report of the Bureau of Industrial and Labor
Statistics for the State of Maine. 1903. Samuel W. Matthews, Commissioner. 227 pp.
The subjects presented in this report are: The cotton industry, 4 pages; the woolen industry, 4 pages; factories, mills, and shops built during 1903, 4 pages; trade unions, 58 pages; mineral springs, 26 pages; mineral resources, 21 pages; the apple industry, 25 pages; the development of Millinocket, 25 pages; railroads, 4 pages; manufacturing industries, 26 pages; report of the inspector of factories, workshops, mines, and quarries, 18 pages.
THE COTTON AND WOOLEN INDUSTRIES.–For the year ending June 30, 1903, returns were received from 13 cotton mills and 26 woolen mills, showing for each the capital invested, cost of material, value of product, number of employees by sex and age, weeks in operation, and total annual and average weekly wages paid. In the 13 cotton mills there was a total investment of $13,282,081, a product of $13,553,240, and a wage payment of $4,365,930 to 12,255 employees, of whom 5,034 were men, 6,658 were women, and 563 were children under 16 years of age. The cost of material used amounted to $7,984,338, and the mills were in operation an average of 51.7 weeks during the year. In the 26 woolen mills there was a total investment of $4,349,013, a product of $7,297,722, and a wage payment of $1,609,270 to 3,851 employees, of whom 2,643 were men, 1,171 were women, and 37 were children under 16 years of age. The cost of material used amounted to $4,351,061, and the mills were in operation an average of 51.7 weeks during the year.
Eleven of the cotton and 20 of the woolen mills also reported in 1902, so that comparative statistics can be presented for identical establishments as follows:
STATISTICS OF 11 COTTON MILLS AND 20 WOOLEN MILLS, 1902 AND 1903.
The table following shows the proportion of the value of product applied to cost of material, to wages, and remaining for minor expenses and profits; also the average annual earnings per employee in these two industries for various years from 1880 to 1903:
PER CENT OF VALUE OF PRODUCT APPLIED TO COST OF MATERIAL, TO WAGES, AND TO MINOR EXPENSES AND PROFITS, AND AVERAGE ANNUAL EARNINGS PER EMPLOYEE IN THE COTTON AND WOOLEN INDUSTRIES, 1880 TO 1903.
Per cent of value of product
Per cent of value of product applied to
Average Minor annual
Minor annual Cost of
expenses earnings. Cost of
expenses earnings. and
Since 1897 in the cotton industry the proportion of value of product applied to wages shows a range, approximately, of from 33 to 35 per cent, and in the woolen industry of from 22 to 25 per cent. During the period embraced in the table the general tendency of average annual earnings has been upward.
FACTORIES, MILLS, AND SHOPs Built.-—The returns show that in 96 towns 124 buildings were erected, or enlarged, remodeled, etc., during the year, at a total cost of $1,436,900. These improvements provided for 3,343 additional employees. The returns for the 13 years 1891 to 1903 are summarized below:
FACTORIES, MILLS, AND SHOPS BUILT OR ENLARGED, ETC., DURING THE YEARS 1891
TRADE UNIONS.--A list of the labor unions, by cities and towns, is given, with membership, initiation fees, dues, benefit features, daily hours of labor, daily wages, and other essential facts. According to returns received by the bureau, there were, in 35 cities and towns of