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the State, 174 unions, 164 of which reported an aggregate membership of 12,829.

There were 52 unions, with 4,041 members, which reported as to time and earnings. The results of these reports are summarized in the table which follows:

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RAILROADS.—For the year ending June 30, 1903, there were 8,111 employees in the service of the 20 steam railroads of the State. The amount paid in wages by these roads aggregated $4,325,379.58. The average daily wages, including general officers, increased from $1.81 in 1902 to $1.86 in 1903; and, not including general officers, from $1.76 in 1902 to $1.82 in 1903. The average number of days worked was 287. The average annual income of employees, including general officers, was $533; not including general officers, $522.

For the year ending June 30, 1903, there was employed upon the street railways of the State 1,125 persons, to whom were paid $553,500 in wages. The average number of days worked was 300, the average annual earnings $492, and the average daily wages $1.64.

MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES.—This consists of statistics of the manufacturing industries of the State, including lumber, pulp, and paper, compiled from the returns of the Twelfth Federal Census.

VIRGINIA.

Sixth Annual Report of the Bureau of Labor and Industrial Statistics for the State of Virginia. 1903. James B. Doherty, Commissioner. v, 207 pp.

The subjects presented in this report may be grouped under the following heads: Industrial statistics, 57 pages; arbitration and conciliation, 24 pages; labor laws, 49 pages; decisions of courts relating to labor, 67 pages; Prison Association of Virginia, 4 pages; Negro Reformatory Association of Virginia, 3 pages.

INDUSTRIAL STATISTICS.-In 1902 returns were received from 118 general contractors in the building trades, reporting a volume of business done aggregating $3,200,571. Hours of labor had been reduced without encroaching on the daily wage, and in almost every city of the State 9 hours had been adopted as a day's work. A general increase in wages also prevailed, in the majority of instances the increase being 10 per cent, though a number of increases of 124, 15, 20, and 25 per cent were reported. Fifteen subcontracting firms of bricklayers, 52 of painters and paperhangers, and 65 of plumbers, gas fitters, and tinners reported, respectively, value of work done during 1902 at $235,111, $258,589, and $793,830. Where hours of labor were reported, they were, generally, 8 or 9 per day. Wages of skilled workmen were reported as being substantially advanced.

The value of product in 1902 of 13 firms manufacturing brick and tile, 9 manufacturing sash, doors, and blinds, and of 95 saw and planing mills amounted to $315,261, $708,884, and $4,319,610, respectively. Hours of labor per day ranged from 8 to 12, 10 hours, however, being the number in the majority of establishments. In the sash, door, and blind factories the wages paid aggregated $202,365, and in the saw and planing mills $1,072,828. During 1902, 5 firms manufacturing agricultural implements reported as value of product $407,031, aggregate wages paid $128,879, average days worked 294, and daily hours of labor 10; 21 canneries reported as value of product $217,509, aggregate wages paid $37,730, average days worked 67, and daily hours of labor 10; 20 tanneries reported as value of product $5,091,329, aggregate wages paid $308,244, average days worked 266, and daily hours of labor 10, as a rule.

Twenty-eight reports received from the railroads of the State show for 1902 a total of $10,949,384.56 paid in wages to 24,094 employees. The average daily wages were $1.49. The table following shows, by occupations, the number employed and the average daily wages for 1901 and 1902, and the total paid in wages during 1902:

NUMBER AND WAGES OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES.

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$724, 172.57 419, 742.93

729, 314.77 1,120,589.70

541, 319.19 623, 990.89 773, 797.40 466, 134.43

726, 430.87 1,520, 263.90

306, 743.10 1, 201, 529.96

Total

356
4,006

595
724

803
2,628

.96 1.31 1.60 1. 46 1.33

247,864. 33 403, 950.57 146, 935.41

99€, 603.54 10,949,384.56

1.22
1.62
1.33
1.26

31, 206 24,094

1.52

1.49

Accidents to railroad employees during 1902 resulted in 45 being killed and 646 being injured.

ARBITRATION AND CONCILIATION.-A historical review of this subject is given, together with a reproduction of the arbitration and conciliation laws of several of the States.

LABOR LAWS AND COURT DECISIONS. ---In this part of the report are reproduced from the Bulletins of the United States Bureau of Labor decisions of courts affecting labor, and laws of various States relating to labor enacted during 1902. The complete labor laws of the State of Virginia are also published in this part of the report.

PRISON ASSOCIATION OF VIRGINIA AND NEGRO REFORMATORY ASSOCIATION OF VIRGINIA.—A brief account of the progress of the work of these two reformatory institutions, the former of which is for whites, concludes the report.

RECENT FOREIGN STATISTICAL PUBLICATIONS.

AUSTRIA.

Arbeiterverhältnisse im Ostrau-Karwiner Steinkohlenreviere. Darge

stellt vom K. K. Arbeitsstatistischen Amte im Handelsministerium. 1. Theil. Arbeitszeit, Arbeitsleistungen, Lohn- und Einkommensverhältnisse. 1904. lii, 128, 583 * pp.

This report is the result of an investigation of labor conditions in Austria undertaken in 1901 by the Austrian bureau of labor statistics, covering what is known as the Ostrau-Karwin coal-mine district, for the period from July 1, 1900, to June 30, 1901. This district includes the Crown lands of Moravia and Silesia, in which about onehalf of all the Austrian coal-mine workers are employed. The inquiry embraced in its scope the labor conditions in coal mining, coking plants, manufacturing establishments, various handicrafts, and agriculture.

This volume, which constitutes the first part of the entire report, relates to the hours of labor, efficiency, and earnings of wageworkers.

The main part of the volume consists of a series of tables covering 583 pages, and contains the detailed results of the investigation. These tables are preceded by a comprehensive analysis and by a reproduction of the schedules of inquiry used and instructions issued for guidance in the prosecution of the work of the investigation.

Coal. - By far the greater part of the report is devoted to coal-mine labor. The statistical presentation shows, in various combinations, for each mine separately and, by summarized statements, for the entire district, the number of mine workers, the number of shifts worked, the wages and the income of coal-mine employees. The investigation covers 38 mines, employing an average of 34,925 mine workers. The following table shows hy occupations the actual number of mine workers employed in the entire district during each month and the average number for the entire year from July 1, 1900, to June 30, 1901:

968

ACTUAL NUMBER OF COAL-MINE EMPLOYEES IN THE OSTRAU-KARWIN COAL-MINE

DISTRICT EACH MONTH DURING THE YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1901.

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An examination of the foregoing table shows that from July, 1900, to March, 1901, inclusive, there was a steady increase each month in the total number of employees, the total increase in the nine months being equal to 13.8 per cent. During the succeeding 3 months the number fluctuated somewhat. In April there was a decline of 1 per cent, in May a slight increase of 0.3 per cent, and in June a decrease of 1.6 per cent.

The following two tables show the average gross earnings and wage deductions of coal-mine workers in this district and the number of shifts worked during the year ending June 30, 1901:

AVERAGE GROSS EARNINGS, WAGE DEDUCTIONS, AND NET EARNINGS, PER EMPLOYEE, OF COAL-MINE WORKERS IN THE OSTRAU-KARWIN COAL-MINE DISTRICT DURING THE YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1901.

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a After deductions for explosives.

0 $0.002.

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