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Die Wohlfahrts-Einrichtungen der Arbeitgeber zu Gunsten ihrer
Angestellten und Arbeiter in Oesterreich. Herausgegeben vom
II. Theil. Wohlfahrts-Einrichtungen der gewerblichen und Handelsbetriebe. 1904. ix, 414 pp.
These are the second and third of a series of three volumes issued by the Austrian bureau of labor statistics, giving the results of the investigation of various institutions founded or assisted by employers for the welfare of their employees. A digest of the first volume, which relates to employees of private steam railways and steam tramways, appeared in Bulletin of the Bureau of Labor, No. 55.
The two present volumes deal, respectively, with employees of rail. ways operated under government control and employees in the manufacturing industries and the steamboat service.
RAILWAYS OPERATED UNDER GOVERNMENT MANAGEMENT. —This volume contains twelve chapters treating, respectively, of the following subjects: Mileage and number of persons employed in the government railway service; systems of salary and wage payments; regulations governing railway employees while performing military service; hours of labor, night work, leave of absence, and disposition of employees during periods of reduced traffic; contractual relations between the Government and its railway employees; loan and savings institutions; sick benefit, accident insurance, and other relief institutions; arrangements for the cheap supply of commodities to employees; housing of employees, prevention of accidents, and hygiene; education and apprenticeship; spiritual, ethical, and social improvement of employees. An appendix gives copies of regulations governing the employees on railways and in railway workshops; regulations regarding apprentices in railway workshops; regulations prescribing the hours of labor of railway employees, and pension regulations for the various classes of railway employees.
The following table shows the aggregate mileage of railways operated under government control and the number of employees in 1898,
1899, 1900, and 1901 arranged according to the classification adopted by the Austrian department of railways:
AGGREGATE MILEAGE AND NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ON RAILWAYS OPERATED UNDER
GOVERNMENT CONTROL IN AUSTRIA, 1898 TO 1901.
The terms “Beamte,” “Unterbeamte,” and “Diener" are not clearly defined. The first class probably includes higher officials, including station masters in cities and others holding responsible administrative positions. The second class probably includes inferior officials, such as station agents, baggage masters, locomotive engineers, conductors, etc. The terms “Diener” and “Wächter" are applied to all other permanent railway employees in the regular classified railway service.
SALARY AND WAGE PAYMENTS.-The employees on the regular rolls receive fixed salaries or wages. The day laborers are paid by the day, their rates varying according to the character of their work. In addition to the regular salaries, allowances for quarters are made to certain classes of employees, such allowances being rated according to the grade of the employees and the locality where stationed. Provision is also made for extra allowances for night work, overtime work, extra mileage, etc.; for increased pay for long-continued service; for premiums for meritorious service in handling trains, facilitating transportation, etc.; for rewards for discovering dangerous defects in rolling stock or in the roadbed, and for prizes for economy in the use of fuel, oil, and other materials.
The sums paid during the year 1901 for rewards amounted to 423,661 kronen (886,003), and for service premiums, prizes for economy, and premiums for proper care of locomotives to 2,047,558 kronen ($115,654).
The following table shows the highest and lowest salaries, wages, and allowances for quarters paid to certain classes of employees on the government railways in Austria in 1901:
HIGHEST AND LOWEST YEARLY SALARIES AND DAILY WAGES PAID CERTAIN
EMPLOYEES OF THE GOVERNMENT RAILWAYS IN AUSTRIA, 1901.
Salaries and wages: Allowances for
per year. quarters in Vienna..
Class of employees.
Highest. Lowest. | Highest. Lowest.
$1,512. 80 $284.20 $324.80 $121.80 Inferior officials (Unterbeamte)
527.80 223.30 162.40 81. 20 Watchmen (Wächter).
182. 70 116.93 121.80 60.90 Other permanent employees (Diener)
321. 80 142. 10 121.80 60.90 Female office employees.
b 22. 33 b 14.21 Wageworkers
C.16 a For other localities the allowances for quarters range from 40 to 80 per cent of the amounts quoted for Vienna.
b Per month. c Per day.
The aggregate amounts paid to all classes of employees for salaries, wages, and other allowances from 1898 to 1901 were as follows: 1898, 99,534,634 kronen ($20,205,531); 1899, 111,798,251 kronen ($22,695,045); 1900, 122,240,711 kronen ($24,814,861); 1901, 126,483,724 kronen ($25,676,196).
MILITARY SERVICE.-The same regulations governing the treatment of railway employees on private railways called to perform military service also apply to employees on railways operated under goverment control. A digest of these regulations was published in Bulletin of the Bureau of Labor, No. 55, pages 1656 and 1657.
HOURS OF LABOR, LEAVES OF ABSENCE, ETC. --The hours of continuous duty of employees in the transportation service under normal conditions range from 12 to 18, and the periods of rest following labor, from 6 to 24 hours, according to the character of the service and the nature of the employment.
For train dispatchers, telegraph operators, signal men, switchinen, and other employees engaged in the moving of trains, the hours usually range from 12 to 16, and are followed, as a rule, by a number of hours for rest, with a minimum period of uninterrupted rest of at least 8 hours. In cases of especially arduous service the hours are limited to 12, and are followed by a period of rest extended to 24 hours. On lines with light traffic and limited night service, the hours may be extended to 18, provided they are interrupted by frequent periods of rest and provided the uninterrupted night rest amounts to at least 6 hours.
The maximum hours of track walkers is limited to 16, followed by a period of rest of not less than 8 hours.
For locomotive engineers, firemen, and other train men the average number of hours in any one month does not exceed 11 hours per day, the maximum number of hours of continuous uninterrupted service on regular transportation lines being limited to 14 hours. On local passenger and freight trains the service may be extended to 18 hours, provided such service permits of sufficient intervals for rest. On passenger trains the trips are limited to 9 hours; on freight trains to 12 hours of schedule time. The minimum period of rest at the home of the employees is 10 hours; at other points 6 hours.
For machinists, stationary firemen, yardmen, and other stationary employees in the transportation department on lines running day and night, the hours range from 12 to 16, followed by a corresponding number of hours of rest. In cases of less arduous day service the hours may be extended to 24, to be followed by the same number of hours of rest, if intermissions for rest of several hours duration during the night have been provided for.
For day laborers in all branches of the service the normal hours on working days are 10 per day.
For the workshops at Vienna the hours of labor have been fixed at 94 per day.
Office employees at central stations are employed 7 hours per day on week days and 3 hours on holidays, and they are exempt from all work on Sundays and high days. Female office employees are also exempt from work on all holidays.
Annual leave of absence, with full pay, is granted to all permanent employees, the length of such leave varying with the character of employment and length of service, according to the following schedule:
SCHEDULE OF ANNUAL LEAVE OF ABSENCE FOR VARIOUS CLASSES OF EMPLOYEES.
Day laborers are given leave of absence, but without pay, except in cases when performing the duties of the class of employees designated as “Diener."
Employees who have been chosen delegates to the Railway Employees' Accident Relief Association are granted leave of absence, with full pay, for the purpose of attending to the duties devolving upon them as such delegates.
Reductions in the force of employees, if necessary, are made in the reverse order of their employment. Extensive reductions, however, occur regularly only in the force employed on the maintenance of roadway at the beginning of the winter season.
RELATIONS BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT AND ITS RAILWAY EMPLOYEES.— The relations between the Government and its railway employees are governed by a set of rules and regulations which describe in detail the conditions and methods of entering the government railway service; the duties and privileges of the employees; the penalties for offenses committed by employees; the conditions for their retirement from active service; their status while performing military service, and their separation from the railway service.
In the employment of women, preference is given to dependents of deceased employees. They are employed either at light office work, at flag or signal stations, or as charwomen. Female office employees hold their places subject to one month's notice. Their entrance salary is 70 kronen ($14.21) per month, which is gradually increased in the course of ten years until it amounts to 110 kronen ($22.33) per month. They also receive extra pay for work in excess of the regular 7 hours
Al regulations placing certain restrictions upon the marriage of employees formerly in force have been revoked, and all employees of whatever grade may now marry without first obtaining the consent of the Government.
LOAN AND SAVINGS INSTITUTIONS.— There are four loan and savings institutions for the accommodation of the employees, one organized by the State, the other three by the employees. Deposits may be made subject to call or subject to previous notice, interest being allowed accordingly. Loans made to employees are usually limited to the maximum of 80 per cent of their salaries and are repaid in monthly installments with interest at rates ranging from 5 to 7 per cent.
RELIEF AND INSURANCE. -Under the system of compulsory insurance in Austria, all railway employees are insured against sickness in the Sick Benefit Fund for the Austrian State Railway Employees (krankencasse für das Personal der k. k. österreichischen Staatsbahnen) upon the payment of a fee equal to 2 per cent of their annual salary and against accident in the Accident Insurance Institution for Austrian Railway Employees (Berufsgenossenschaftliche Unfallversicherungsanstalt der österreichischen Eisenbahnen), the State assuming the entire burden of accident insurance.
In addition to the relief required by law allowances are made for medical attendance, hospital treatment, funeral expenses, etc., to the wives and children of the beneficiaries of the sick relief fund.
Two institutions, the pension fund, founded in 1882, and the provident fund, founded in 1873, provide old age and disability pension to employees, their widows, and their orphans. Both institutions are supported by contributions in part from the State and in part by the employees. Membership in either of these institutions is obligatory upon all permanent employees and is also open to persons employed by the day upon certain conditions.