« 이전계속 »
such as Chrisimas, Vew Year, anniversaries, etc., were given to officials by 2 and to wageworkers by 59 undertakings. Forty-six gave occasional gratuities to officials and 169 to wageworkers in the form of rewards for thrift, diligence, meritorious work, prevention of accidents, rescue of the injured, etc.
VACATIONS AND TIME ALLOWANCES.-One hundred and fifteen undertakings permitted women regularly to leave the establishments a little earlier at noon cach day, in order to enable them to prepare the midday meal, and 30 additional undertakings gave this privilege only in exceptional instances. Sixty-three undertakings regularly permitted women to leave earlier on Saturday evenings, and 38 undertakings permitted this in exceptional cases. Fifty-three undertakings regularly granted employees leave of absence for recreation, 35 of which allowed them full pay and 5 part pay during such absence. In exceptional cases, as when employees were in poor health or when convalescent, 285 undertakings granted their employees leave of absence, 91 with full pay and 97 with part pay.
WORKINGMEN'S COMMITTEES. -- Forty-six undertakings reported the existence of separate workingmen's committees. These are committees elected by the wageworkers in an establishment for the purpose of representing them in their relations with their employers, by presenting grievances, suggesting reforms or improvements, watching over the enforcement of the laws for the protection of the working people (labor contract, factory regulation, insurance, etc.), giving advice with regard to changes in the working rules, etc. They also settle trade disputes among the employees, and in some cases supervise the education of the children and look after the school attendance, the training of apprentices, and the management of betterment institutions. The committees here considered are only such as are elected for individual undertakings with the consent and advice of the employers. Comunittees of trade unions or other independent labor organizations are not included in this class.
LOAN AND SAVINGS INSTITUTIONS.-Loan funds, either as company funds or employees' institutions, were reported for officials by 9 undertakings, and for wageworkers by 25 undertakings; savings banks for officials by 12 undertakings, and for wageworkers by 21 undertakings. Special savings deposit stations for wageworkers were maintained by 16 undertakings. Prizes for savings were granted to officials by 2 and to wageworkers by 13 undertakings.
RELIEF. Permanent systems of relief, including aid societies, relief funds, bequests, etc., were reported by 224 undertakings, in 87 cases for oflicials and in 214 for wageworkers. There were 335 separate relief institutions reported by these undertakings, of which 39 were only for officials, 226 for wageworkers, and 70 for both wageworkers and officials. Where no such permanent relief institutions existed, the granting of relief in cases of distress was entirely at the option of the employers. There was a great variety of these relief institutions, their functions depending in a measure upon the character of the relief given and the industry in which they were organized. This chapter takes no account of the compulsory sickness and accident insurance systems in Austria.
CHEAP SUPPLY OF COMMODITIES.-In a number of establishments the employees have organized cooperative distributive societies, which in some cases received encouragement from employers in the form of noninterest-bearing loans of capital or the furnishing of the necessary quarters free of rent. Sometimes these societies had cooperative stores, while in other cases they simply made purchases in large lots at wholesale and distributed them at cost. In a few cases factory bakeries and abattoirs have been established the products of which furnished at cost price to the employees.
Most of the undertakings furnished wood and coal to their employees at cost price, some furnished it at the actual purchase price, while a few undertakings supplied their employees with free fuel, especially where the latter lived in company houses. Ground for cultivation was often furnished employees, sometimes free and sometimes for a rental. Where employees lived in company houses they were usually given the free use of ground for vegetable gardens.
Two hundred and thirty undertakings had dining rooms, where employees could obtain wholesome, nutritious food at reasonable prices. In some cases these institutions were leased to caterers who contracted to furnish food at a fixed list price and under the supervision of the establishment. In 220 cases kitchens were provided, where the employees could cook or heat the food which they brought with them. Usually the rooms needed for this purpose were furnished free of charge by the employers, who also bore the expense of heating, lighting, and service. Sometimes the employees had a voice in the management of these institutions. In a few cases the employers furnished free lunches either to all or certain classes of employees, such as young persons and apprentices. Sometimes employees were furnished refreshments free of cost, such as coffee, cognac, etc., in summer, and tea or soup in winter.
HOUSING OF EMPLOYEES.—This is the most common form of betterment institution inaugurated by the employers in Austria. The enuployers have either built houses expressly for their employees, have adapted existing buildings for dwelling purposes, or have leased buildings for their employees. Such dwellings are either rented to employees at a low rental or are furnished them free of rent. In some cases the subletting of portions of such dwellings was permitted, in others it was expressly forbidden. Most of these dwellings had small gardens for the free use of the tenants. In some cases where employers could not furnish dwelling houses for their employees they gave them allowances for quarters in addition to their wages.
Some employers had dormitories for employees whose places of residence were too far from the establishment to enable them to return to their homes every night. This was particularly the case in the foodproduct industry, in which during the busy season many nonresidents are temporarily employed. The sleeping accommodations in such cases were either given free of charge or were furnished at very small cost to the lodgers.
In a few instances employers have instituted schemes for encouraging employees to acquire their own homes, either by building the houses and selling them at cost, payable in installments, by furnishing the land on which to build, or by making loans to employees desiring to purchase or build their own houses.
EDUCATION.—Many employers reported institutions for the care and education of children and young persons. Thirty-nine undertakings reported day nurseries and kindergartens; 25, primary and grammar schools for children of employees, and 25 reported continuation schools, trade schools, and schools for housekeeping, cooking, sewing, knitting, etc., for young persons in their employ and for children of employees. These institutions were either founded by employers and were being maintained by them, or they were encouraged and assisted by subsidies from the employers.
Twelve undertakings paid tuitions for children of their employees, four furnished books and school supplies, and a number of employers endowed free scholarships for children of their employees. Three undertakings furnished lunches to the school children of their employees and three others provided vehicles for taking the children to and from school. Thirty-three undertakings gave Christmas presents to the children of their employees.
PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS, AND HYGIENE.-Many employers of labor have established hospitals and dispensaries for the care of the sick or injured. In five undertakings there were special convalescent homes for employees. In a number of establishments certain employees have been organized into emergency corps and trained in giving first aid to the sick and the injured.
Most of the employers reporting have provided bath houses, the use of which was usually free to employees. Several employers furnished free working clothes to certain classes of their employees. In most of the establishments there were wash rooms and dressing rooms, and in some cases laundries and drying and ironing rooms for use of the employees.
RELIGIOUS, ETHICAL, AND SOCIAL IMPROVEMENT.-A number of establishments have special churches and chapels for the use of the employees. Among other institutions reported were libraries and reading rooms for the free use of employees, lecture courses, etc. One establishment had erected a theater. Forty-five undertakings reported the existence of singing societies, and 33, company bands and other amateur theatrical societies, social clubs, and excursion parties, which in many cases received financial assistance from the employers.
DECISIONS OF COURTS AFFECTING LABOR.
[This subject, begun in Bulletin No. 2, has been continued in successive issues. All material parts of the decisions are reproduced in the words of the courts, indicated when short by quotation marks, and when long by being printed solid. In order to save space, matter needed simply by way of explanation is given in the words of the editorial reviser.]
DECISIONS UNDER STATUTORY LAW.
COMBINATIONS-MALICIOUS INJURY TO BUSINESS-CONSTITUTIONALITY OF STATUTE- Aikens v. Il'isconsin, United States Supreme Court, 25 Supreme Court Reporter, page 3.—This case was twice before the supreme court of Wisconsin, and was twice argued before the United States Supreme Court, the decision of which upheld the conclusions of the State court in its interpretation of the statute of Wisconsin (sec. 4466a) which imposes imprisonment or fine on “any two or more persons who shall combine
for the purpose of willfully or maliciously injuring another in his reputation, trade, business, or profession, by any means whatever," etc. The case, therefore, while not involv
” ing labor, is here presented as affording an authoritative discussion of the principles of the Wisconsin statute on combinations.
It appears that the Journal Company was a corporation publishing a newspaper in the city of Milwaukee, and that it had given notice of an increase of about 25 per cent in its charges for advertising. Thereupon the managers of other newspapers in the city met and agreed that if anyone should pay the increased rate to the Journal Company he should not be permitted to advertise in their papers except at a corresponding increase; but if he should refuse to pay the rate charged by the Journal he might advertise in the other papers at the rate previously charged, which agreement was carried out greatly to the damage of the business of the Journal Company, and informations were brought against the combining managers résulting in convictions.
The contention of the defendants was that the statute in question was in conflict with the fourteenth amendment, and was therefore unconstitutional. The Supreme Court, Justice White dissenting, upheld the statute and affirmed the judgment of the court below. From the remarks of Justice Holmes, who announced the opinion of the court, the following is reproduced:
The statute, it will be observed, punishes combining for the purpose of willfully or maliciously injuring another in his business. If it should