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Laurens, Minister Plenipotentiary for negotiating a peace; and Thomas Jefferson, with the same rank, each received a salary of $11,111 per annum. William Carmichael, “Secretary to the Embassy at the Court of Madrid,” and Francis Dana, Minister of the United States at the Court of St. Petersburg, each received $4,444.40 per annum. Charles W. F. Dumas, “Agent of the United States at the Hague," received $920; William Temple Franklin, “Secretary to the honorable Benjamin Franklin,” $1,300; Lewis R. Morris, "first under Secretary in the Office for Foreign Affairs,” $800; Peter L. Du Ponceau, “Second Under Secretary in the Office for foreign affairs,” $700; John P. Tetend, “Clerk and Interpreter of the French Language,” $500; Walter Stone,“ Clerk,” $500; making a total of $73,244.*

Livingston left the business of the Department in the hands of the Under Secretary, Lewis R. Morris ;* but Morris was without authority

* Department of State MS, archives.

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to act, and August 19, 1783, a resolution was introduced in Congress to the effect that it was highly important that a Secretary be appointed, and that, pending such action, the papers of the office be disposed of temporarily, so that the members of Congress might have access to them. Morris, who is represented to have been a personal friend of Livingston's,* severed his connection with the office soon after Livingston left; and early in March, 1784, Henry Remsen, jr., was elected Under Secretary and put in charge of the papers. From the time of Livingston's departure until the arrival of his successor, John Jay, the functions of the Department were practically suspended.

Notice having been received from Franklin that Jay intended leaving France for America in April, 1784, Gerry nominated him in Congress for Secretary of Foreign Affairs, and he was elected. He took the oath of office and entered on his duties September 21, 1784. Rem

* Department of State MS, archives,

sen was continued as Under Secretary; but Jay deemed the arrangement of one Secretary and clerks advisable, and he was given authority to return to that plan.*

Jay had hardly taken control before he wrote to the President of Congress (January 23, 1785):

I have some reason, Sir, to apprehend that I have come into the office of Secretary for foreign affairs with Ideas of its Duties & Rights somewhat different from those which seem to be entertained by Congress.*

He accordingly asked for instructions, and the duties of the Department were defined by Congress. It was resolved, February 11, 1785, that

All communications as well to as from the United States in Congress assembled, on the subject of foreign affairs, be made through the Secretary for the department of foreign affairs; and that all letters, memorials or other papers on the subject of foreign affairs, for the United States in Congress assembled, be addressed to him.

Resolved, That all papers written in a foreign language, which may in future be communicated to Congress from the office of the department of foreign affairs, shall be accompanied with a translation into English.

* Department of State MS. archives.

Resolved, That the Secretary for the department of foreign affairs be and he is hereby authorized, to appoint an interpreter, whose duty it shall be to translate all such papers as may be referred to him, as well by the United States in Congress assembled as by Committees of Congress, the secretary for the department of foreign affairs, the secretary of Congress, the board of treasury, or the secretary for the department of war; and who shall be entitled to receive such allowance as the secretary for foreign affairs may think sufficient, not to exceed the annual pay of a clerk in the office; and who, previous to his entering on his duty as interpreter, shall take the oath of fidelity, and the oath of office, prescribed in an ordinance passed on the 27th day of January last, a registry of which oaths shall be kept in the office of the secretary of Congress.*

The Secretary still had no power to take important action without the authority of Congress. To carry on boundary negotiations with the Spanish Minister, for instance, it was necessary that he should have full powers from

*Secret Journals of Congress, III, 527.

Congress, and August 29, 1786, they were conferred upon him—

To treat, adjust, conclude and sign with don Diego de Gardogui, encargado de negocios of his catholic Majesty whatever articles, compacts and conventions may be necessary for establishing and fixing the boundaries between the territories of the said United States and those of his catholic majesty, whatever articles compacts and conventions may be necessary for establishing and fixing the boundaries between the territories of the said United States and those of his catholick majesty, and for promoting the general harmony and mutual interest of the two nations.

He was, however, charged to inform Congress what propositions were made to him before he agreed to any of them.

All the treaties had thus far been negotiated under instructions from Congress by our Ministers abroad. Their ratification by Congress was announced by proclamation. The approval of the representatives of at least nine States was necessary under the Confederation for ratification.

The Constitution of the United States had

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