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STATEMENT O. List of Steamships Wrecked on passage from Montreal to Europe, from 1873 to 1879.
DATE OF WRECK.
1873 Wheat, 51,489 bus. Wrecked on Point Qurolle, Straits of Belle &o.
Isle. Total loss.
1598 S.S. Vicksburg
June 2, 1875 Wheat, 52,467 bus. Foundered after colliding with Ice on the
Peas, 10,945 bus. Banks of Nfd. Total loss. June 21, 1875 Wheat, 31,969 bus. Wrecked on the N.W. reef of Bic Island. &o.
799 S.S. Strathtay
798) S.S. Rowland
Queenstown, f.o. Sept. 11, 1877 Wheat, 58,559 bas. Wrecked on Holyrood Beach, Nid.
1013 S.S. Strathtay
Nov. 12, 1877 Wheat, 20,097 bus. Wrecked on the Island of St. Pierre, NAD. Corn, 16,159 bus.
Total loss. &c.
1446 8.8. Lake Megantic ... Battersby Liverpool...
July 22, 1878 Wheat, 25,845 bus. Wrecked on the Island of Anticosti.
Corn, 18,169 bus. Total loss. &o.
1152 S.S. Burgos
July 18, 1879 Wheat, 43,086 bus. Wrecked in St. Mary's Bay, Nid.
5,188 bus. Total loss. Oct. 3, 1879 Wheat, 18,605 bus. Wrecked in Red Bay, Straits of Belle Isle.
6,000 bus. Total loss.
1317 S.S. Eirene
DAT IS OF
Sept. 18, 1876 Wheat, 50000 bs.&c Stranded on Larne Point, vessel and cargo
64,148 bus. Barque, Eliza Keith, in R. St. Lawrenco.
the S.S. Elphinstone, in R. St. Lawrence.
Lawrence. Vessel afterwards lifted and
repaired, cargo total loss. Nov. 26, 1879 Wheat, 29,626 bus. Vessel and cargo badly damaged by col.
Corn, 12,000 bus. lision with S.S. Mercutio in R. Thames,
10,287 bus. England.
19,888 bus. Barley, 5,444 bs. &c
STATEMENT E. List of Sailing Vessels from Montreal to Europe, Wrecked from 1873 to 1879.
DATE OF Tors NAME. MASTER. DESTINATION.
WREOK 307 Bk. British Standard Staines London ... Nov. 5 1874 Peas, 14,750 bus. Wrecked on Newfoundland. Total loss.
Flour, 936 brls.
[Total loss. 157 Sch. James Seed Thomas
Aug. 12 1874 Copper Ore.. Sank by S.S. Norma in Gulf St. Lawrence. 285 Brig Henrys
Gibb Queenstown June 25 1875 Wheat, 17,563 bus. Wrecked on Green Island. Total loss.
towed into Halifax and repaired. [loss.
harbour. Total loss. [rence. Total loss. 434 Bk. Nereo O ... Ossoinack] Queenstown ... Oct. 31 1879 Wheat, 23,500 bus. Wrecked at Grand Vallee, Gulf St. Law.
British Steamship Yoxford,
Abandoned Sept. 12, 1878 New York.
Jan. 19, 1879
Dec. 30, 1878
Dec. 31, 1878
Feb. 24, 1879 Philadelphis
Jan. 25, Baltimore. Norwegian... Bark King Harold
Dec. 10, 1878 New Orleans American Bark Fanny J. McLennan
APPARENT AND TRUE DIRECTION OF THE WIND
UESTIONS relating to the apparent and true direction of the wind under different velocities of ship and wind, and under different relations of the one to the other,
are often referred to us; we trust that the following explanation and Table will be useful for the purpose intended, and sufficiently illustrate the subject.
The question appertains to the composition and resolution of forces.
In a dead calm, the forward progression of a steamer will appear to make a wind coming from right ahead equal to her rate through the water ; hence, if she is steaming 10 knots an hour, there will appear, to a person on board, a head wind blowing 10 miles per hour in a direction opposite to the course.
With the wind right aft, the problem presents itself under three forms-(1) The velocity of the wind may considerably and palpably exceed the rate of the vessel's progression; hence, if a vessel is making eight knots per hour, and the apparent velocity of the wind is 20 miles, then (the velocity plus the rate) 20+8=28 miles, which is the true velocity of the wind per hour; this case appertains to a sailing ship no less than to a steamer. (2) A steamer's speed may outstrip the wind's velocity, and there may appear to be a head wind; in this case, the steaming rate (say 12 knots) less the apparent velocity of wind (say 3 miles) as a head wind gives (9 miles) the true velocity of the wind in the direction of the course. (3) The steamer's rate and the wind's velocity may be equal, say each ten miles, then there will be neither lagging nor outstriping, but an apparent calm on board. Probably none of these conditions is ever exactly fulfilled.
With the wind right ahead, as it may be in the case of a steamer, the apparent exceeds the trae velocity of the wind by the steaming rate; hence, if the apparent velocity of wind be 25 miles per hour, and the steaming rate 9 miles, the true velocity of wind is only 25-9=16 miles per hour.
But the wind will generally be inclined to the ship's course, and then, to an observer on board, the apparent direction of the wind will always be different from its true direction ; it will appear to be more forward than it actually is, and this will be the case whether the wind be abeam (Fig. 1), before the beam (Fig. 2), or abaft the beam (Fig. 3).
For the solution of the problem as to the true direction and velocity of the wind, we have r the ship's rate or speed through the water, and v the apparent velocity of the wind. We have also the angle that the apparent direction of the wind makes to the course of the ship reckoned from aft, forward; thus, with the wind apparently abeam, the apparent direction of the wind to the course will be 90°; with the wind apparently 20° before the beam its apparent direction to the course will be 110°; and with the wind four points on the quarter it will make an angle of 45° to the course.
Knowing the angle that the apparent direction of the wind makes to the ship's course, we also know the sum of the angles V and R, which are respectively opposite to the sides v and r; the angle V will be the true direction of the wind to the course, and the angle R will be the divergence of the apparent from the true direction.