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Therefore it is not quite correct to speak of the cosmogony of Moses; his first object is rather a geogony, and it is only when they in any way affect the earth that he alludes to the things in the kosmos outside the

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earth. The Mosaic account of creation must therefore be called one-sided and incomplete; this, however, is no fault, but a necessary quality. It would be very remarkable were the Bible to say more than it does, for it would then be departing from the rule of only giving us religious teaching, and mentioning natural things only as much as is necessary for the religious teaching. This incompleteness and one-sidedness characterizes the further account of the earth's development. Moses only mentions the separation of water and land, the creation of plants and animals, for that was all that was necessary to describe the position of man in the visible world. Moses does not mention the interior of the earth, the formation of the mountain ranges, the extent of the water and the land, the rational classification of plants and animals and such things ; not because his scientific knowledge was too limited, although this may be unhesitatingly admitted, but because these things were of no real importance to what he wished to represent.

The first characteristic of the Mosaic account of the origin of the visible world is then a one-sidedness and incompleteness which is intentional and natural. The second characteristic is the popular, and if you will, unscientific mode of statement. As it is never the object of the Bible to give us scientific teaching, it never speaks the language of science,—as I have already explained at length,—but the language of the ordinary man. It is to be read for the sake of religious teaching, not for the sake of geological, astronomical, geographical, or any other scientific studies, and therefore it chooses those expressions which are intelligible to the ordinary men, not those which will be considered correct by science; and when it speaks of the things of nature, it makes use of the conceptions and ideas which men derive from the natural, superficial, and childlike observations of nature. The man of science knows that the atmosphere of the earth is impregnated with watery vapours, which under certain conditions form themselves into clouds, and fall down to the earth as rain; the ordinary man believes that there is a provision of waters above the R'kia haschamajim, the "firmament of heaven," as the Vulgate translates the word, or more accurately, the canopy of heaven, and accordingly this is the way in which the Bible describes it. Man believes that the heaven has two great lights, the sun and moon, and beside them the host of stars; and this is what the Bible describes. Astronomy may say what it likes to this division. The botanist and zoologist may laugh, or be horrified, at the classes into which the animals and plants are divided in the Hexaerneron ; the divisions are not meant to be scientific, for the Bible would not give us a system of botany or zoology, but only an enumeration of animals, and its division is quite fitted for this object. In ver. 12 the vegetable world is divided into trees and herbs; the word "green" probably does not mean a third class, grass, etc., but it is applied to all the plants in the first stage of their creation.1 Nothing can be more unscientific

1 Dillmann, Genesis, p. 28. [This refers to the word translated "grass" in our version.—Tr.] ,

than this division, but it is quite sufficient if all we are to be told is that God created all the plants, both great and small. The zoological system of the Hexaemeron is of the same description: 1st, water animals; 2nd, air animals; 3rd, land animals. The water animals are divided into (a) tanninim gedolim, cete grandia, the large water animals, to which of course whales belong; and (b) the small water animals. The air animals are not further particularized, but of course they include, besides the birds, bats, flies, midges, and in general col oph canaph, omne volatile, everything which has wings. The land animals are divided into (a) b'hemah, jumenta, domestic animals; (b) chajjath haarez, bestiae terrae, wild animals; (c) haremes, reptilia, little creeping things, that is, in the Hebrew language, whatever moves immediately on the earth: rats and mice, serpents, worms, wingless insects, etc. And this enumeration, quite inadequate from a scientific point of view, is quite sufficient to convey to us the truth that all animals, whether moving in the waters, in the air, or on the land, both large and small, were created by God.

Thirdly, this popular, objective mode of representation is apparent in the manner in which the activity of God Himself is described. It is not possible to have a worthy conception of the Divine Being and of His working; if we would obtain an idea of it, or give an adequate description of it, the materials, as it were the colours of the picture, must come from what is accessible to our observation and knowledge, that is, from created things; and among created things, especially from the creature which has been made after the likeness and image of God, from man. This is the cause of the so-called anthropomorphisms in Holy Scripture, the transference of expressions which apply first to human actions, to analogous divine actions.1 This anthropomorphic mode of expression obtains throughout the whole account of creation, and it is just for this reason that it is such a vivid picture. The writer of the account speaks as if he had been present at the divine work of creation as an eye-witness; he was not that, but the circumstances of the creation have, as I have shown above, been revealed to man, and thus he who received that revelation was supernaturally made, as it were, an eye-witness of the divine working, and therefore he can speak as such. For scientific exposition the separate statements must, of course, be translated from the language of intuition into that of understanding.

In this language we say: Light came into being by the will of God; but as we make our will known by speaking, by commanding, so the author of Genesis says: "God said, Let there be light, and there was light," etc. God then brings about that that light and darkness should regularly alternate; the present regular sequence of light and darkness rests on a divine ordinance; man calls this alternation day and night. The author of the Hexaemeron expresses it in this way: "God divided the light from the darkness; and God called the light day, and the darkness He called night." Similarly in the following verses God makes the firmament, and divides the waters under the firmament from those above the firmament, and calls the firma

1 Habent enim consuetudinem divinae Scripturae de rebus humanis ad divinas res verba transferre.—Aug. de Gen. c. Man. i 14 20

ment heaven; and He gathers the waters under the firmament into one place, and causes the dry land to appear; and He calls the gathering together of the waters, sea, and the dry land, earth; that is to say, the division between the watery elements on the earth and those in the atmosphere, the creation of what we call the heavens, the division of the earth's surface into what we call land and sea; all this rests—as we see now that we have brought out the real facts which are contained in the language of the Bible—on a divine ordinance.1

The expression which we have just discussed at length, "And God saw that it was good," is also an anthropomorphism. The human artist looks back on the work which he has created after he has completed it, and he calls it good; he is satisfied if the work corresponds to the idea which he had of it beforehand. God does not need so to try to compare His work, therefore if it is said, "He saw that it was good," it is simply in order to acknowledge the fact that the divine idea has been adequately realized in the divine work.

1 "Vocavit" autem dictum est vocari fecit; quia sic distinxit omnia et ordinavit, ut et discerni possent et nomina accipere.—Aug. de Gen. c Man. i. 9. 13. Intelligitur ubique per hoc quod dicetur "vocavit;" dedit naturam vel proprietatem, ut possit sic vocari. — Thom, i. 9. 69, a. 1 extr. "In dividing the things, God divided also the notions and the names of the things. That is the meaning of the divine naming. Human division is only the echo of the divinely ordained distinction between things."—Delitzsch, Genesis, p. 91.

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