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When shall the empires and the kingdoms proclaim it? Shall they wait till the frenzy of the desperate antagonist has declared it ? Must they delay until the tyrant has been vanquished and implores their aid ? · 1794. The sword has reaped the lands, and the bale-fires have consumed them. The plains are heaped with carnage, and the rivers are flowing with blood. Desolation sits in the dwellings. Invasion has executed its havoc. The cry for mercy through the wide regions has rent the air in vain. The desolators are repelled, their scattered hosts are rolled back over their own frontier, flying before the ministers of vengeance. The invader is invaded. The desolation and ravage of retaliation have begun. Stay the repetition, arrest the retaliation of conflagrations and murders. Humanity calls aloud to stop the barbarities. Honour re-echoes the call. The universal interest of nature and nations demands the termination of the terrific and hopeless contention.
1795. The physical fact is established, the nation is rent in twain. The declaration of their deliberate, dispassionate, impartial judgment is not a breach of neutrality towards either; it is the duty of all towards both to repress their reciprocal ravage, to proclaim that the warfare is hopeless, and by the force of recognition to arouse the slumbering reason of the despot who still struggles for dominion, and still hopes in the throes of despair.
1796. WHETHER the neutrals shall proceed further, shall cast off their neutrality, and add the force of arms to the efforts of persuasion, involves other considerations. They are not uninterested spectators. Their commerce is disturbed, their interests are compromised, and they have a right to see that the laws of nature and of humanity are observed, that civilized men do not degenerate into savages. They have a right to say, your conflicts have proceeded thus far, the peace and the happiness of the world are endangered, society is disorganized, we will endure the ransacking of our ships and the spoliation of our cargoes no longer, there shall be an end of this unrighteous conflict; you may both be ruined, but neither reduced to compliance with the other's demands. The neutral nations have a right to say, this is not a petty disturbance of a little colony, struggling for what may or may not be its freedom, for what may or may not be a justifiable plan of independence, with which others are little concerned. It is a mighty quarrel in which the interests of the world are involved; unless you cease, we will throw our swords into the scale, determine our neutrality, and compel the refractory party to yield to reason, or to the aggregate force of our arms. But no duty is so imperative on a nation as to require it to enter upon war, unless in accordance with its honour, nor, except when bound by treaty, unless in accordance with its interest. It is not bound to involve itself in danger, or to lavish the blood and the treasure of its subjects in a doubtful strife.
1797. The belligerents begin to faint and grow weary of mutual destruction, they begin to listen to the dictates of reason, and to negotiate for the restoration of peace. A truce or an armistice suspends their hostilities; no ship must be captured, nor army nor fortress assailed, within the region of the temporary cessation of war. They must adjust the terms with care, for except as provided by the treaty, all questions with which the war began, all that have arisen in its progress, all appeals from the condemnation of ships and cargoes, all reclamations and compensations are determined, and all new rights and acquisitions are fixed in the state in which they stand. The treaties of commerce should be renovated or improved.
1798. Every capture from adversary or neutral, every recapture after the time specially fixed for the commencement of peace in the place in which it is made, or after the signature of the treaty is known there, although the time fixed as to remote places has not arrived, must be restored, whether the knowledge is derived from authentic sources or from general information.
1799. The treaty is at length concluded, the tomahawk is buried. The nations breathe again. The funerals and desolation are for a moment forgotten, the lands resound with joy. The Temple of Janus is shut. The functions of the prize court have ceased, except for the winding up of the wickedness of the war.
The numerals refer to sections ; the mark – implies that the subject is continued
in subsequent sections.
Accidents, evitable and inevitable, 840-, 1 tification, 1528-; notice, 1533-1552 ;
general information, 1549; proclama-
tion, 1546-; violation, 1520-, 1774;
928-; security, 938, 941; costs in, 942 inquiry, 1550-; attempt to break,
1553-; ingress, 1555–; egress, 1562-.
Baotia, 152, 160.
Bosphorus, Kingdom of, 196.
Brazil, Discovery of, 524.
Buccaneers, 549, 553, 1221-, 1243.
Caffa and Crim, 199, 274, 357.
Caliphat, 357, 501.
Canals, 84, 116–
Capture in the offence, 1617; by whom,
1641; where or not, 1620; joint, 1623;
1624; effect of, 1626.
Caravans, 82-, 102, 124, 126, 198, 513.
Cargo, non-liability in collision, 859.
Carteia, 125, 161, 290.
Carthage, 163, 212, 229-, 2
Cassiterides, 113, 226, 256.
Ceylon, 99, 114.
Chancery limits liability, 950-
China, 77, 79, 84.
Cinque Ports, 387, 425-, 434.
Circumnavigation of Africa, 115, 239–; of
to each other, 1180–; as to neutrals, Circumstances affecting regulations, 792.
Coast line, 51.
sentials, 1504-; sufficient force, 1504-; 407, Wisby, 405.
Assyria, 152 125.
willons v Blackbirds
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