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Pensamento, 1 Ed 116, (1625.)
Pensher, Swa. 215, (878.)
Pepperell, Swa. 12, (790.)
Peri, 11 W. Rep. 44, (94)
Perla, Swa. 230, (1031, 1056, 1068.)
Persia, 1 Sp. 168, (1040, 1062.)
Phoenix, 1 Sp. 306-5 Rob. 21, (1294,

1346.)
Polka, 1 Sp. 447—Sp. 57, (1644, 1722.)
Primus, Sp. 48, (1339.)

Wales, 5 L.'T. N. s. 524—2 No. of Ca. 699. (790.) Princess Helena, Lush. 197, (1036.) Princessa, 2 Rob. 52, (1486.) Prinz Frederick, 2 Dod. 482-485, (1002.) Progress, 1 Ed. 210, 222, (1680, 1706.) Prompt, 4 L. T. . s. 775, (858.) Pursuit v. Carron, 1 E. & A. 91, (750.)

Massachusetts, 10 Jur. 373-1 W. Rob.

373, (861.) Medora. 5 L T, N. 8. 462-) Sp. 17, (803,

804, 806, 1021, 1060.) Medway Navigation Co. v. Romsey-7

Jar. N. 8. 486_-9 C. B. N. 8. 375–4 L.

T. A. 8, 87, (632) Melampus, 5 L. T. x. s. 558, (864.) Melane, 2 Dod. 125, (1623.) Mentor, 1 C. Rob. 180, (1721.) Messenger, Swa. 191, (1079. Milan, 5 L T. n.$ 590, (750, 859). Miles v. Rose, 5 Taun. 705, (625.) Milford, Swa, 362. Minnehaha, 9 W. Rep. 925-Lush. 347,

352, 353, (1021, 10:28, 1029, 1032, 1044,

1058, 1077.)
Mobile, Swa. 128, (839, 861.)
Monarch, 4 L. T. X. 8. 774, (991.)
Moray v. Gordon-Morrison,

(27) Myers v. Willis, 4 W. Rob. 42--17 C. P.

77, (1755.) Nancy, 3 Rob 122, (1618.) Negro case, 20 Howell's State Trials, 82,

(674.) Neptune, 1 Sp. 284-1 Hag. 236-1 Rob.

579, (1014, 1033, 1515, 1748.) Neptunus, 1 Rob. 579-2 Rob. 112-3 Rob.

174—1 W. Rob. 297, (1524, 1544, 1548,

1551.) Nereide, 9 Cr.388, (1615.) Neutralität, 6 Rob 34, (1561, 1566.) Newman v. Walters, 3 B. & P. 612,

(1015.) Newport, Swa. 317, 335, (1105, 1783.) Nicolai 17 Jur. 330, (1080.) Nina, Sp. 279, (1769, 1766.) Nixon v. Roberts, 9 W. Rep. 890-4 L. | T. , 5, 699, (918, 919.) No, I Sp. 184. Norden, 1 Sp. 185, (1069.) Norma, Lush. 127, (998, 999.) Northampton, 1 Sp. 152, Swa. 117, ( North American, Swa. 359, (798.)

Raisin v. Mitchell, 9 C. P. 613, (849,

860.) Rajah of Cochin, Swa. 473. (898.) Rapid, 8 Cr. 155-Sp. 80, (1321, 1762.) Rebekah, 1 Rob. 227, (1623.) Regina v. Zulueta, 1 Car. and Kir. 215,

(1109.)
Reliance, 2 Hag. 90. (1054.)
Resolute, 33 L. T. 80, (889, 943.)
Rex v. Stanton, 8 El. and BI. 445, (831.)
Ringende Jacob, 1 Rob. 91, (1771.)
Rob Roy, 5 L. T. N. 8. 462, (801.)
Roe, Swa. 84, (1000, 1071.)
Rosalie, 1 Sp. 188, 191-2 Rob. 343, (1008,

1018, 1031, 1618.)
Rosario, 3 Rob. 10, (1687.)
Rosehaugh, I Sp. 268, (1021, 1023.)
Rose v. Himely, 4 Cr. 241, (1429.)
Rubicon, 7 L. T. N. 8. 648, (837.)
Ruby Queen, Lush. 266, (888.)

Ocean Bride, Sp. 66, Sp. 73, (1319, 1340.)
Odessa, Sp. 210, (1609.)
Olivia, 6 L. T. N. 8. 398, (749.)
Orbona, 1 Sp. 161, 165, (1020, 1026.)
Orion 5 L T. N. s. 61, 524, Swa. 125,

(753, 780, 790, 803, 1022.) Oronzebo. 6 Rob. 430, (1712.) Ostsee, P. C.-7 Jur. N s. 102—2 Sp.

170---8p. 189, (1164, 1784, 1785.) Otto, Sp. 257, (1605, 1737.) Pactolus, Swa. 173, (874.) Panaja, 2 Sp. 336, (1741.): Panda,'7 L. T. n.'s. 646--1 W. Rob. 423,

435, (1235, 1238.) Panther, 1 Sp. 34, (800, 801, 869.) Peace, Swa. 115, (998.) Peerless, 3 L. T. N. g. 125-Lush. 31, 114,

(822, 823, 824, 838, 867, 929, 944.)

St. Juan, 5 Rob. 33, (1781.)
St. Lawrence, 8 Cr. 434-90r. 120, (1317.)
St. Nicholas, Lush. 29, (1068.)
Sampson, (1615.)
San Francisco, l' Ed. 279, (1693.)
San José (Indiana), 2 Gal. 268, 274, 289,

1767. | Santa Cruz, 1 Rob. 50, 58, 64-1 Rob.

50, (1281, 1693.) Sally, 5 L. T. N. s. 366, (797.) Santifiore, 1 Sp. 234, (1031, 1057.) Santissima, 1 Sp. 234, (988.) Santissima Trinidad, 7 Whea. Rep. 335.

(1410), 1415, 1416, 1418, 1419, 1428, 1445,

1723.) Sapho, 4 L. T. x. s. 774. Saratoga, Lush, 318, (1021.) Saxonia, Lush. 410, (773.) Schwalbe, 4 L. T. N. s. 160--Lush. 239,

(861.) Sea Nymph-Lush. 23—5 L. T. N. s. 61, Shersby v. Hibbert, 5 No. of Ca. 470,

524, (752.) Sechs Geschwistern, 4 Rob. 100, (1762.) Seine, Swa. 411, 513, (846, 884, 1080.) Seringapatam, 5 No. of Ca. 61, (798.) Shannon, 1 Rob. 463, (813.)

(1028.) Silloth, 6 L. T. x. s. 185. Silver Bullion, 2 Sp. 70, 74, 75, (989, 996,

1008, 1047.) Sirius, 4 L. T. s. s. 774, (857.) Smith v. Vass, 5 W. Rep. 5326 L. J.

Ex. 233-29 L. J. 97, (800. Sociedade. 1 W. Rob, 310, (1 Soglasie, Sp. 104, (1759.) South Sea. Swa. 141, (873, 876.) Spes and Irene, 5 Rob. 79, (1502.) Spirit, Swa. 286, (1071.) Statira, 6 Therm. 2, (1696.) Stert. 4 Rob. 65, (1566.) Stettin, 6 L. T. x. s. 613, (831.) Stirlingshire, 5 L. T. x. s. 186. Storer v. Freeman, 6 Massach. R. 135—

Ang. 71, (22.) Success, 1 Dod. 131, (720.). Sultana, C. B. N. s. 415–3 Jur. x. s. 18

--26 L. J. C. P. 415, (85) Superior, 5 L. T. X. S. 241, 260, (6 Supplies, 4 L. T. X. 8. 774, (857.) Susannah, 6 C. Rob. 53, (1721.) Sutton v. Sutton, 1 Russ. and M. Suza, 2 Rob. 251, 255, (1767.) Swallow, Swa. 31, (943) Swanland, 2 Sp. 107, (747, 857.) Sylph, Swa. 236-2 Sp. 75, (501, 504, 857.) Talbot v. Seeman, 1 Cr. 1-3 Rob. 308

(1706.) Taylor v. Harrison, 7 L, T. x s. 648. (835.) Tecla Carmen, 5 L. T. x. s. 62, (798) Telegraph. 1 Sp. 43, 427, 435— Mod. P.

C. 167, (748, 808, 810, 852. 871.) Temora, Lush. 22, (822, 831.) Theodore, Swa, 351, (1010, 106) Thomas Blythe, Lush. 16, (1059.) Thornley, 1 Jur 659, (843) Ticonderoga, Swa. 215, 211–4 L. T. . 8.

774, (782, 823, 864, 888.) Tindall v. Bell. II M. and W.228, (875.) Traveller, 2 W. Rob. 199–7 Jur. 109+

2 No. of Ca. 479. Trident, 1 Sp. 220, (869.) Troija, í Sp. 342, (1287, 1725.) Tuff y. Worman, 5 W. Rep. 655–29 L J.

199, (819.)

Undaanted, Lash. 92, (, 958)
Union, 1 Sp. 165, (1549, 1554)
Union v. Panther, I Sp. 364
Cauty, Swa 101, (741, 804, 852, 564.)
United States v. Quincy, 6 Peters, 163,
Crania, Swa. 256. (8)
Venerable v. London Merchant, 4 L T.

X. s. 774, (337.)
Vernon, 4 Rob. 31,45 LT. X. 121,

(89, 843.)
Vestal, 5 LT. X & 366. (80)
Vianna, Swa *05. IL)
Victor, Lash. 75. 1922)
Victoria, I Ed97. (1633)
Vigilantia, I Rob. 1, 14, 19, 20, 1767.)
Viking 5 LT. X. S 367, (Sol.)
Virgil, 2 W. Rob. 2014; Jur. 1172

No. of Ca 499, 790. $52.)
Vivid, Swa. as, (750, 852)
Vrede, Lash. 325. $28. 1014. 1015)
Vriendschaf, 4 Rob. 166, (1767.)
Vrow Anna, 5 Rob. 161, (720.)'
Wanderer, 6 L T. x. s. 615, (874.)
Wansfell, 1 Sp. 269, (958)
Warrior, 6 L T. x. s. 133, (1014.)
Wear Packet, 2 sp. 256, (1032)
Welvert, 2 Rob 125, (1617.)
Wesley, Lash. 260, (S.)
White v Crisp, 2 C. & R 1215--23 L

Jer. 317, (313)
Whittel v. Crawford, 4 W. R. 656-97 L.

T. 223, (558)
Wight, 6 Rob. 315, (1694.)
Wild Ranger, 7 L T. x. & 725—11 W. R.

255, (771, 773.) Willan v. Blackbird, Creek Co., 2 Peters Block(U. S.) R. 245 - Ang 90, (624.)

bird William, Lush. 27. (9:8.) Williamson v. Price, u Martin (Louis), Creek

399, (823.)
Williams v. Wilcox, 5 A, and EL 315,

(681.)
Wolff v. Oxholme, 5 M. S. 100.
Yates v. Brown, 8 Pickering (Mass.), 92.
Young Jacob, 1 Rob. .0, (1315.)
Zangers v. Whiskard, 3 T. K. 259, (689.)
Zephyrus, 1 W. Rob 329, (996.)
Zollverein, Swa. 96, (573, 771)

Ulster, 6 L. Tx, s. 736, (786.) Ulysses, 4 L. T. x. s. 775, (858.)

THE OCEAN, THE RIVER,

AND
THE SHORE.

INTRODUCTION.

1. So far as the interests of man are concerned, the whole surface of this globe and its crust, to the extent to which it can be penetrated, are to be enjoyed according to the manner in which they can be best enjoyed. When this is ascertained, we shall have ascertained the law which governs their enjoyment. That may be properly called the natural law, or the law of nature.

2. Confining our consideration to the interests of mankind, the whole of the surface is divisible into two portions, which, however, are interspread among each other.

3. The first is land, the second is water.

4. The land may be most advantageously enjoyed by individuals, separately or in small associations, under the protection of the larger societies, called nations. With this portion we are concerned only so far as it is connected with the enjoyment of the other.

5. The land is the gift of nature, to be improved and enriched by the art of man. Its greatest value arises from building and cultivation. Little by little enclosures gain

B

upon forests and wastes. More slowly the hoe, the plough, and the crops follow. The rest of the wide domain is hardly trespassed upon, except by stealth, or when the chief goes forth to hunt, to direct the pastime and divide the spoil. Cultivation gradually presses forward, and civilization begins to dawn.; from time to time some arch-savage reclaims the fields for his forest, consecrates a desolation to his game, and licenses bis sub-savages to make for themselves wildernesses as waste, though not as wide as his. Yet, again, the axe marches forward and the stag retires, cities swarm, villages teem with an active population, and the mountains feel the plough.

6. Gradually art and civilization possess, improve, and subdue the land, measuring and meting it out as the reward of industry, and the only sure mode of improvement; and thus establish the rights of property and the dominion of man, with ordinations for its regulation, which may be called the Terrene law.

7. Not so the water : Nature gave it to be free; to sport with the tempest and to thunder upon the shore; to gush from its fountains, enamelled with verdure and flowers; to flow through the valley, suffusing it with beauty and spreading fertility as it flows. Nature gave it for the habitation of inmates as free and as wild as its wave. Nature gave it for the use of man; but limited his dominion and his right to actual enjoyment and use. Nature has given him some, but little, power of possession or dominion over it. Man may vary the lines of its smaller features. He can well up the little springs, he can embank and sometimes alter the direction of the tiny streams, he can raise a mole at the side of the river, and even thrust it, but not far, amid the refractory breakers. Water will impose its own law, man can no more resist its mandates than he can repel its waves; he can check, and does check, each a little; and he strives, but strives in vain, to subjugate the margin and the ordinances of the sea. Water flows and will flow, and its inmates will be free. Man detains a little in a pond and triumphantly says, “This at least is mine." But even that vanishes in vapour or steals away to the stream. To restore his petty property he must supplicate the fountain or the rain. He plants on the coast a bed of oysters, and gathers together and tries to domesticate their spat. The villain mollusks attach themselves to the soil. He says, “I can measure them by the yard, I can mete them out by the bushel, surely these are mine!” But behold Leviathan, “ will be make supplications unto thee? will he flatter thee? will he make a covenant with thee ? wilt thou take him for a servant for ever?” Wilt thou imprison the royal salmon cased in glowing steel, the gold-suffused vermilion-spotted trout, the graceful grayling in his silvery sheath ? they will suspect thy stratagem and struggle to evade thy skill; though captured they are unsubdued, they will keep no parol with thee; check their freedom, restrict their wanderings, their gorgeous vestments fade, they pine, they die, they cannot live as slaves.

8. Man may use the ocean and the stream : he may spread wide the canvas, and capture the habitants of the waters : but he may imprison neither the wave nor the wanderer within it.

9. The water is susceptible of enjoyment, and may, having regard to the interests of mankind, be enjoyed most advantageously in four methods :-(1) by all men, which gives the general right; (2) by all the people of a particular country, which is the foundation of the national or public right; (3) by such of the people of a nation as have the right to approach it, which confers the riparian right; and (4) by the persons on or under whose land it lies, which springs from the right of property, and may be designated the territorial right. But the less extensive of those rights do not exclude the more extensive, so far as the more extensive can be consistently enjoyed. The limits between the land and the water are not unalterably fixed. Portions of land are

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