« 이전계속 »
The acts of his government have hitherto the Endymion, which, no one ever dondt. corresponded with these fair professions;ed, would be published in the Gazettc. and, as a pledge of their sincerity, he has 'The Gazette appeared ; but it contained received into his councils men of sound no particulars from Captain flope as to principles, and whose integrity he had the actual engagement, or any detail by hinseļf exposed to the severest proof. which it could be ascertained whether he
2. his consommation of the late glorious fought the President single handed or not, contes, though far more glorious than any or whether that ship surrendered to the which is mast sanguine supporters have Endymion or to another vessel belonging even imagined, is not entirely to the satis- to our squadron. But from other acfaction of the old go aromenis. They counts in the same Gazette, and particuhad rather see Bonaparte at the head of larly from the Americao oficial account, his army than surrounded by wise and justii turned out, as I had supposed, that counsellors; and they are right. He is, more i54a one of our frigates was engaged; in his present attitude, more formidable that the Polone also had fought with the to the social system,” as exemplified in enemy; that it was to this ship the Presithe late Congress at Vienna, than when he dent actua!!y struck; and that at the was thundering at the gates of that capital. very moment this happened, a ship of the
But why the people should be disturbed line, another frigate, and a sicop of war, at the view of Napoleon in his present at belonging to us, were fasi bearing down titude, I dont understand, unless, indeed, to attack her. It was plain, therefore, their comforts depend on the security of that the President had not surrenderen to. two or three thrones, and the insecurity of the Endymion, but that she surrendered the rest, according to the principles esta- to a British squadron, consisting of one blished at the said Congress. Yours, &c. sail of the line, three frigates and a sloop, MORRIS BIRKBECK. of war! It was also clear, that hed the
President and the Endymion fought single THE ENDYMION AND PRESIDENT
handed, the latter must have fallen into
the hands of the former. Where then FRIGATES.
was the ground for exultation? Where When the news of the capture of the the proof, that the capture of the Prelatter of these vessels reached this coun-sident “ redeemed all the naval glory try, it was given out by our corrupt press," which this country had lost during the that she had surrendered to the former, previous contest at sea with the Ameri. with whom she had fought single-handed, “ cans?" I see, by files of papers which and that no other of our ships of war bad I have received from Philadelphia, that fired a shot at the President. This was the conductors of newspapers at Bermuda, trumpeted abroad by the Times and the had imitated the example of our vile press, Courier, and never to this hour has any and had, like them, endeavoured to deof these venal prints retracted the asser. tract from the character of Commodore tion. On the contrary, they repeated it, Decatựr, by representing that he had suragain and again, and gravely, assured their rendered the President to a single Britiske readers, that the resalt of the conflict frigate. To expose the fallacy of this betwixt the President and the Endymion, statement, the American Commodore adhad redeemed all the naval glory, which dressed a letter to the Secretary of the this country, had lost during the previous Navy, an extract of which I have given contest at sea, with the Americans! I was below. This letter puts it beyond all satisfied, on the first blush of the trans. question, that the President was consideraction, that the President had been ena ed, even by the commander of our own gged with more of our frigates than one, fleet, as a capture by the squadron, and and, instead of the enemy losing any of not by a single ship. It proves that the the repown he had acquired, that this, Endymion had on board, in addition to her, battle, when the particulars came fully to usual complement, 50 men, one lieutenant, be koown, would increase the splendour, and one masters' mate, which shews that. of his achievements. I said to those with the crew of the Endymion, the chief rewhom i conversed on the sabject, that I liance of every vessel of war, was more was willing to abide by the account of numerous than that of her rival. It also the battle, as given by Captain Hope of prøres that the Eudywion was completely
disabled in the action, and would, it is, and fatigaes. Natives of different states more than probable, have become a prize acting together for the first time in this to the President, had not the rest of our camp; differing in habits and in lansquadron come to her relief.
guage, instead of viewing in these circumWASHINGTON, March 1.4.
stances the germ of distrost and division, Extract of a letter from Com. Stephen honourable emulation, and from the rueds
have made them the source of in
you Decatur to the Secretary of the Navy, of discord itself have reaped tho fruits dated New York, March 6th, 1815.
of an honourable union.---This Gay com" In my official letter of the 18th pletes the fourth weck since fifteen bun. January, I omitted to state, that a consio dred of you attacks cd treble your number derable number of my killed and wounder of men who boasted of their discipline, was from the fire of the Pomone ; anr. chat add their services under a celebrated the Endymion had on board, ir, addition leader in a long and eventful war-at. to her own crew, one Licatenant, one tacked them in their camp the moment Master's mate, and 50 men belonging to they had profaned the soil of freedom the Saturn, and aen the action ceased, with their hostile trade, and inflicted a was left motionless and urmanagable until blow which was a prelude to the final she bent new sails, Tove new rigging and result of their attempt to conquer, or kished her spar, nor did she rejoin the their poor contrivances to divide us.squadrop for six hours after the action, A few hours was sufficient to unite the med aree hours after the surrender of the gallant band; at the moment they received President. My sword was delivered to the welcome order to march they were seCapt. Hays, of the Majestic, the senior parated many leagues in different direcefficer of the squadron, on his quarter- tions from the city. The gay rapidity of deck, which he with great politeness imme- the march, the cheerful countenances of diately returned. I have the honor to the officers and men, would have induced enclose you my parole, hy which you will a belief that some festive entertainment, perceive that the British admit that the not the strife of battle, was the object to President was captured by the squadron. which they hastened with so much eagerI should have deemed it necessary to have ness and hilarity. In the confict that endrawn your attention to this document, sued, the same spirit was supported, and had not the fact been stated differently by my communications to the executive of the the Bermuda Gazette on our arrival there, United States, have testified the sepse I which statement, howerer, the editor was entertained of the corps and officers that compelled to retract throngh the inter- were engaged. Resting on the field of ference of the governor and some of the battle, they retired in perfect order on the British officers of the squadron.”
next morning to these lines, destined to
become the scene of future victories, which After the disastrous retreat of the Bri- they were to share with the rest of you, tish army at New Orleans, General Jack- my brave companions in arms.-Rea. con, the American commander, published soning always from false principles the an animated and spirited Address to his enemy expected little opposition from army The following passages will shew men whose officers even were not in oniwith what ardour and unanimity the sol. form; who were ignorant of the rules of diers of Liberty will always combat, when dress, and who had never been caned into their rights and independence are in discipline-Fatal mistake! a fire inces. danger :
santly kept up, directed with calmness and “ Citizens and Fellow Soldiers,—The with unerring aim, strewed the field with enemy has retreated and your General the brave officers and men of the column has now time to proclaim to the world which slowly advanced, according to the what he has noticed with admiration and most approved rules of European tactics, pride—your undaunted courage, your and was cut down by the uututored age patriotism, and patience under hardships' of American militia.
Printed and Published by G. Houston, No. 192, Strand; whete all Communications addressed
to the Editor, are requested to be forwarded.
Vol. XXVII. No. 20.]
LONDON, SATURDAY, MAY 20, 1815. [Price Is.
[610 TO THE FUND-HOLDERS, You will start and swell here, and ask On the supposed approaching war against trades and professions, pay nothing? Yes,
whether commerce and manufactures, and France.
they do; but, they pay precisely in proOf all the classes of people in this portion to the prosperity of agriculture. country you appear to me to have been, That is to say, in proportion to the height and still to be, the most misguided, as to of prices. If the land, out of which all all questions of politics, and especially as the great receive their increase, and all to the important question of peace or war.
the farmers and all the labourers receive I will pow do my best to enable you to their profits and their wages, yield little, judge correctly upon this subject, as far, little can all these pay to tradesmen and at least, as your interests are more imme- manufacturers, little will be the profits of diately connected with it.
commerce and of professions. When wheat Your great characteristic is anxiety was 20s. a bushel, the landlord and the for the safety of your property; but, farmer had three times as much money to though self-preservation is the first of na- lay out as they have now.
Hence the preture's laws, and though, in general, men sent universal out-cry about the dulness who are alive to little else, are extremely of trade; hence the numerous bankruptalive, and even very skilful, in cases where cies; hence the stagnation of commerce their own interests are at stake, you do and manufactures. not appear to me to perceive how your Though, therefore, I agreed most corinterests have been, or how they will be, dially with you in your opposition to the effected by wur. You entertain a sort of Corn Bill, the grounds of our opposition vague apprehension, that, unless Napo. were very different indeed. I knew, that leön be destroyed, you shall have your
a Corn Bill was necessary to enable the property taken away. You look up to land to pay the sum of taxes, demanded the government, that is, in your sense of by the government, but I wished the sum the word, to the Minister for the time be- of taces to be diministered
shed to ing, as the guardian of your property. have Corn Cheup, aud
of taxes Hence you are always found on their side not to be diminished. These iogether on the question of war, or peace. If they were impossible. They could not, and say war, you are for war : if they say they cannot, co-exist. If you are asked, at peace, you are for peace.
any time, what security you have for your On the subject of the Corn Bill, you property, do you not always answer, that were against the Ministers; because that your security is on the land of the nation 2 was a question, as you thought, involving Do you not say, that the estates of all no danger to your property. But, in fact, the land-owners are mortgaged to you? you were more interested in the passing This is a great mistake; for, it is only the of the Corn Bill than any other class of revenues which are mortgaged to you; the community; and, in explaining this but, to obviate all difficulty upon this seemiog paradox to you, I shall, in the score, take it for granted that you have easiest way, introduce the remarks which a bona fide mortgage upon all the land in I propose to make with regard to the ef- England. Can it, then, be your interest, fect, which war has upon the quality of that the land should be unable to pay your property, and upon your chances of you your annual demands ? The land, security, or insecurity.
upon your own principle is partly yours. What you most desire is, to have the Can you, then, be gainers by its produce interest of your stock regularly paid in being depreciated ? A certain farm, for infull, and to prevent any insecurity to your stance, pays a hundred pounds a year to. capital. Your interest is paid almost wards your annual demands. If produce wholly, and, indeed, entirely, by the land. I fall so low as to disable this farm from
paying you more than fifty pounds a year, This statement exhibits the fall in the how are you to be paid your dividends in value of the capital; the fall in the value full? Hence, it is clear, that the Corn of any estate in the funds. That which Bill was more for your protection than worth 95 pounds, in 1792, was for the protection of the farmers, who worth only 77 pounds in 1802, and only really eats and drinks of his own produce. 66 pounds in 1814. But, far is this view Your expences of living would keep pace of the matter short of the real mark; for with the price of the produce of the the currency, in which funds are bought land. In the end, the thing might be the and sold has also fallen in as great a prosame; but, if one half of your dividends portion. A guinea is risen to 28 shillings ;. was deducted, on account of the fall in and, therefore, in real money, a hundred the price of produce, you would soon three per cents, at 66, as they were during discover, that a Corn Bill, or any other the peace of Paris, last year, were worth such measure, was more for your security only 49 pounds; and, at this moment, than for that of the farmer.
they are vorth only about 44 pounds. In But, what is it, which has rendered the year 1792, the currency in which the high prices necessary to your security.? dividends were paid, and in which fuods WAR. War, which has augmented the were bought and sold, was equal in value taxes on the land, and which land, to be to real money.
So that, able to pay those taxes, must now have a
Guineas. Shillings, high price for its produce. War, there- In 1792, you could have sold a fore, has been your great enemy, and not hundred Three per Cents. the landlords and farmers, as you have
10 been taught to suppose.
In May, 1815, you caunot sell To go no further, therefore, you, above them for more than....
40 all people, ought to regret the renewal
Is there any one of you, who can deny of war. You cry out against those who these facts? And, if you cannot,
you are opposed to war; you accuse them of still look upon those as the enemies of your seditious, and almost, of treasonable mo- property, who wish for peace ? Can you tives, You call them enemies of law and deny, that it is war, which has had this of social order. And for what? Because alarming effect upon your property? And, you look upon war against Napoleon as yet, do you blame those, who are against necessary to the security of your pro- more war? That vile and prostituted perty; when the fact is, as I will now
news-paper, the Times, which you all proceed to show, that war has been, and read, sometimes, in drawing a comparison must be, ruinous to that property, which, between the situation of France and Engthough no part has been violently seized land, talks about the comparative price of on ; which, though you have still conti- the funds in the two countries ; and takes nued to receive your dividends to the full this as a criterion of national prosperity, nominal amount, has imperceptibly passed and of the solidity of the government. away from you to the amount of more Nothing can be more false than this printhan one half of what you really pos- ciple; but, suppose it to be true. There sessed in the year 1792. Your property is no such great difference in the price of has passed from your possession in two the funds in the two countries at this ways : first in point of credit, or the value moment. The French funds are five per of the capital, and next, as to the cur- cents. Our five per cents are at 88 in rency in which the interest is paid. This puper; in real money, they are worth 67 will clearly appear from the following pounds. And, we see, that the French statement of the price, the settled peace five per cents are worth, even now, 62 price, of three per cent stock during the pounds in real money ; for, in France, it peace, previous to the first war against the is gold, with which funds are purchased. Republicans of France, and of the subse. So that, if you are to weigh public opinion, quent peace prices.
popular confidence, and the solidity of Iu 1792, before the war against France, the governments in this scale, we have, on stcudy peace price of the Three per Cents. our side of the water, but little to boast
95 of in the comparison, though France is, During the Peace of Amiens in 1802, it was at this moment, surrounded by hostile After the Peace of Paris, in $814, it was 66 l armies, though she is menaced with an
invasion by a million of men in arms,
Amiens. Another 16 years of war, at and though millions of money are em- the same rate , would take away the reployed, in all probability, to excite dis- maining 10 guineas. So that, even in case sensions in her cities and provinces. Have of a second success," you would be you ever seen the matter in this light be without a penny. But, it is not thus, that fore? Is it not time, then, for you to the thing would travel. The stone that begin to think?
rolls down a hill, even if the surface bę Such is the state, to which you have smooth, goes swister and swifter as it apbeen reduced by the “ great statesman proaches the bottom; and, if it meet with now no more" and his successors of both rubs in its way, its bounds add to its factions. Sach is the price that you have velocity, till, at last, it comes, at a single paid for your support of those men and jump, like a ball from the cannon's their measures. Such is the fruit of those mouth. So it will be, because, so, from wars, which you were told were to secure the nature of things, it must be with you in the enjoyment of your property ; | funded property, if we now enter on a wars, which ended in placing the Bour- war of any considerable duration. bons, for eleven months, upon the throne To be satisfied of the truth of this, you of France; in restoring the Pope, the have only to look at what has taken place Jesuits, and the Inquisition, andin erecting in other countries, where there have been Jlolland and Hanover into kingdoms ; funding systems, and at the increasing wars, the success of which you have joined force of the Debt in England. Since the in celebrating!
funding system began, we have had seven But, now; if such have been the effects , wars. The debt created by each war is of war upon your property ; if, in fact, as follows: you, who had estates in the funds in
1st War, which ended in 1697 £21,000,000 1792, have lost more than the half of 2nd War, which began in 1702 $3,000,000 those estates, what are you ALL to expect 3rd War, Ditto 1739 48,000,000 as the consequences, to you, of another 4th War, Ditto 1756 72,000,000 war? I shall lay out of account all the 5th War, Ditto 1775 108,000,000 possible dangers from a stoppage of the 6th War, Ditto 1993 297,000,000 sinking fund, or any other measure, to 7th War, Ditto
413,000,000 which necessity might drive the minister for the time being ; I shall suppose that
1992,000,000 no danger can ever arise to you from There are perhaps, 30 or 40 millions internal commotions, produced by the of floating Debt, besides the amount of the pressure
of war; but, I must assume, and arrears of the last war; so that, about I think, you will allow the assumption to eight years of war would, in all human be correct, that the thing will, at least, probability, bring the Debt to 1600 milgo on as it has done ; and, of course, that lions, at which point it would render the your estates in the funds will daily grow funds possessed in 1792 worth nothing at of less and less value, in proportion as the all. But, the thing would hardly promass of debt is augmented. You are ceed; it would hardly get along, at any quite sure, that war will augment this rate, to this length. An addition of three mass ; and, yet, you raise not your voices or four hundred millions, is, probably, as against war, but on the contrary, appear much as it would bear, before the whole to be disappointed, that blood bas not thing would be blown up; for,by that time, yet been drawn.
the price of the guinea would be so high, The certainty that your estates will and the alarm would become so great, on continue to melt away as they have melted, your part, that you would sell your stock is, one would think, quite sufficient to at any price, till, at last, there would be make you deprecate the renewal of war. nobody to purchase. Having lost 50 guineas out of every 90 Is not this the natural march of your guineas that you possessed in 1792, in the property? Is there any one of you, who first restoration of the Bourbons, one will set his face against the facts, which I would think, that you would dread a have stated ? If wars have gone on ad, second“ success” of the kind as you would ding to the Debt in the above manner, dread the hour of death. The late wars why should not the same take place again? lasted 20 years, exclusive of the posce of) If the value of your estates has fallen in