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means sure of success by the way of arms. you are describing present themselves to There was, then, no mugnanimity here, your own imagination, and to that of your even if we could forget how the crowned al. hearers, in monstrous caricature. There lies had been treated by Napoleon when he is also a marvellous coincidence in the oco really had them in his power. The allies casions which excited in Mr. Burke a had been accused of magnanimity at Fon- frantic fear of liberty, and that which seems tainbleau; the nation were bellowing very to be producing a similar aburration in loudly about it; they began to be very you. llere I trust the parallel will fail. much out of humour that Napoleon had The influence of his name and of a mind not been put out of the way completely; still powerful, had no small share in give when your Lordship, in justice to the al- ing real existence to the horrors of his dislies, stepped forward and very clearly ordered fancy; and the prophecies for showed, that they had by no means been which he obtained so much credit, were guilty of any thing like mugnunimity; greatly accessary to their own fultilment. that they had made the best bargain that It is the recollection of that epoch which I they were able to make for themselves; hope may yet preserve us.

Then we had and, that the English nation might be sa- no such example for our instruction. tisfied, that the allies would have dealt Europe is yet at peace, and you, Sir, are iarder by Napoleon if they had been in a doing your part to rekindle a war, of situation to do it without danger to them- which the dreadful experience of the last selves.- Mr. Grattan scens very bitterly twenty-thrce years enables us, beforeproroked, that Napoleon should have pre- hand, to estimate the character. This is pared 60,000 men for the invasion of Eng. a subject for severe deliberation and not land. But, does not this gentleman al- for a display of rhetoric. “ Peace withlow, that the French have as great a right out security and war without allies." to invade England, as the English have to This Antithesis, we are told, drew forth iurade France? We made landings at the applause of the honorable assembly Toulon, at Quiberon, and we even now to whom you addressed your first philippic! are, if the public papers speak truth, send. But did you attempt to inform them, how ing all sorts of implements for killing many campaigns it may require to replace meu; for enabling the people to shed each Frauce in a situation capable of holding others blood, in the West of France. 1 out the security which she now offers? hope that this is not true; but, while our Her limits determined and acknowledged: newspapers are boasting of this, it is men of tried integrity, the friends of peace likely, that we shall excite much shame in and moderation, at the head of her counthe French nation for their having been led cils: her people, and even her army, unto make preparations for the invusion less indeed the late excitements have sti. England?

mulated it to fury, languishing for repose. The other topics I reserve for my next. And as to our wanting allies at a future -I am, &c.

WM. COBBETT. period, did you stop to say that we pur

chase them now, and that we shall spee

dily fail in the means of purchasing ? That TO THE Ricut Hox. II. GRATTAN.

to obtain such allies, subsides alone are Sir-From the parliamentary debates, needed; and that to continue even this as given in the Morning Chrovicle of the miserable trasfic in accomplices, peace is 26th inst. it appears that you have chosen indispeusible? 'The Government of France this critical juncture to commence a course is, you say, a stratocracy: did you explain of oratory in opposition to those princi. how it became such? and why she adopted ples in the support of which you have ac- that system of subjugation you censure so quired a celebrity, which, I fear, will give bitterly? She had to fight with Europe unduc importance to your new character. single landed: she conquered alliances Like your country man, and predecessor whilst we purchased them. The General in the same course, you have adopted a who led her to victory became, mis. style in which Antithesis holds the place chievously, I allow, but most naturally, of argument, and metaphor of facts; a her ruler. At length the tide of victory style of which deception is the essence, turned; the conquered allies proved faithwhich aggravates on the one hand, and less, as though they had been purchased; xxtenuates on the other, until the objects and this very General was given up, that

THE POWERS WHO SIGNED THE TREATY OF

PARIS.

the people of France might escape from of his silent departure, you talk of the a state of war, of which they had good beneficence of his reign ; and the Consticause to be weary. We, however, gave tution, agreed to, but not observed, was them a king with old notions, and with only not too good for these poor Frenchthe old nobility and priesthood at his heels: men !--The one descends from the throne these proved still less tolerable than war, unnoticed ; the other is received with and they recalled their Emperor. He re- acclamation. Yet in our Senate it is membered their sacrifice of himself for declared, and more wonderful, is bepeace, and knew that the promise of peace lieved, that the former was the choice, and would be the pledge of their attachment. the latter is the abhorrence of his subjects! lle, therefore, abjured his schemes of con

I am, Sir, &c. &c. quest, and submitted himself to moderate

M. Birkerck. councils. Yet you would again urge,

Wanborough, May 29, 1815. nay compel, to war that nation, headed by the same General, and with the same

CONGRESS OF VIENNA. breath in which you detait his triumphs! EXTRACT - FROM MINUTES OF conferences of lle made his brother King of Holland; he called his son King of Rome: and it is Alexander King of Poland, Frederick

Conference of the 12th May, 1815. William King of Sarony, and the imma

The Committee appointed on 9ih instant, and culate cabinet of Great Britain (which ap- charged to examine, whether, after the events pointed the King of Belgium by an armed which have passed since the return of Napoleon force,) together with his father-in-law, the Bonaparte to France, and in consequence of the equally legitimate sovereign of half Italy; docnments published at Paris on the Declaration these are the pure and honourable m'en

which the Powers issued against him on the 1Silk gers of political morality and the faith of March last, it would be necessary to proceed of treaties !!! The most unpardon to a vew Declaration, presented at the sitting of able offence of Napoleon was quitting this day the following Report:Elba, just before those righteous observers of treaties had fixed on the The Declaration published on the isth of place of his final seclusion. Voila March last against Napoleon Bonaparte and liis le congrés dessous" are words that can adherents, by the Powers who signed the treaty never be forgiven by the confederacy of of Paris, having, since his return to Paris, beea Dlonarchs. « Imperial Europe” sickened discussed in various shapes by those witoin he has at the sound ; but it was music to the employed for that purpose; these discussions people ;-to thousands in this island who having acqnired great publicity, and a letter adwould not yield, in real attachment to the dressed by him to all the Sovereigns, as well as a Constitution, to your former professions. note addressed by the Duke of Vicenza to the Napoleon takes possession of an offered heads of tlit Cabinets of Europe, having been also throne :- This, upon your new scale, is published by him with the manifest intention of “ gigantic wickedness." --Assumption by influencing and misleading public opinion, the force, of the government of an unwilling Committee appointed in the sitting of the 9111 people, is vice in moderation, and inst

. was charged to present a report on these “ has displeased you.” Ile intended to topics; and considering that in the above-mentake possession of England: he intends to tioned publications, it has been attempted to in. take possession of Belgium : he intends to validate the Declaration of the 13th of March, enslave Europe: on these presumptions by laying it down,-1. That that Declaration, Great Britain must be taxed to destruc directed against Bonaparte,' at the period of his tion; the wretched subjects of Russia, landing on the coast of Frauce, was without ap. Austria, and Prussia, must be led to plication now that lie lad laid hold of the reins of slaughter ;-France must be laid waste by government withont open resistance, and that this fire and sword !-If no intelligence had fact sufficiently proving the vislies of the nation, reached us, you could not have beliered he had not only re-entered into possession of his that Louis the Desired, having adminis. old riglıts in regard to France, but that the quertered with, wisdom an excellent consti- tion even of the legitimacy of his government tution, should not have collected even a had ceased to be within the jurisdiction of the small band of faithful adherents to grace powers ;– 2. That by offering to ratify the Treaty his exit. And now that we have heard of Paris, he removed every ground of war agajus!

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE.

66

him ;-The Committee has been especially charged condacted Bonaparte to Paris, and restored to to take into consideration -- 1. Whether the po. him for the moment the exercise of supreme sition of Bonaparte in regard to the Powers of power, have, donütless, in fuct, altered the posiEurope has changed by the fact of his arrival at tion in whiclı he was at the period of bis entering Paris, and by the circumstances that accompanied France; but these events, brongiit on by criminal the first success of his attempt on the throne of collusion, by military conspiracies, by revolting Francc;--Wheiher the offer to sauction the treasons, can create no right; they are absolutely Treaty of Paris, of the Sist of May, 1814 can null in a legal point of view; and in order to the deterınie the Powers to adopt a system different position of Bonaparte being essentially and from that which they announced in the Declara. legitimately altered, it would be necessary that tion of the 13th of flareli ;- 3. Whether it be the steps which he bas taken to establish himself necessary or proper to publishi a new declaration on the ruins of the government overturned by to confirm or mo'lify that of the 13th of Mareli? him, should have been confirmed by some legal The Committee having maturely examined these title. Bonaparte lays it down in tris publica. questions, submits to the assembly of Plenipo. tions, that the wishes of the French nation in tentiaries the following account of the result of favour of his re-establishment on the tirone its deliberations :-

suffice to constitute this legal title. The question

for tire powers to examine may be stated as fol FIRST QUESTION. Is the position of Boniparte in regard to the lows:--Can the consent, real or fictitions, expliPowers of Europe altered by the first success of his cit or tacir, of the French nation to the re-estaenterprise, or by the events which hare passed since blisdiment of Bonaparte's power, operate a legal his arrival in Paris.

change in the position of the latter in regard to The Powers, informed of the landing of Bo- toreign powers, and form a title obligatory on naparte in France, could see in him only a man

these powers ?- The Committee are of opinion who, by advancing on the French territory, with that such cannot isy any means be the effect of force and arris, and with the avowell project of such consent; and the following are their reaoverinrning the established Government, by ex.

sods :--The Powers know too well the principles citing the people and the army to revolt against which ought 10 guide them in their relations with their lawful Sovereign, and by usurping the title

an independent country, to attempt (as it is enof Emperor of the French, (i) lad incurred the deavoured to accuse them) " to impose npon

it laws, to interfere in its internal affairs, to prepenalties which all legislations pronounce against such outrages --a man who, by abusing the good scribe to it a form of government, to give it mas. faith of the sovereigns, had broken a solemu

ters according to the interests ar passions of its treaty,--a man, in fine, who, by recalling upon liberty of a nation to change its system of govern

neighbours (2). But they also know that the France, happy and tranquil, all the scourges of internal and external war, and upon Europe, at a

ment must have its just limiis, and that if foreign moment when the blessings of peace must liave

Powers have not the right to prescribe to it the ex• oonsoled her for her long sufferings, the sad neces.

orcise which it shall make of that liberty, they sity of a new general armament, was justly re.

have at least indnbitably the right of protesting garded as the implacable enenig of public welfare. against the abuse which it niay make of it at their Such was the origin, such were the grounds of expense. Impressed with this principle, the the Declaration of the 13ih of March ;-a Decla. Powers do not deem thenselves authorised to sation of which the justice and necessity liave impose a government on France; but they will been universally acknowledged, and which geblishment in France of a focus of disorders and of

never renounce the right of preventing the esta. ueral opinion has sanctioned. The events which

subversions to other States, under the title of a (1) The 1st Article of the Convention of the Government. They will respect the liberty of ilil of April, 1814, is as follows ; " The Em France in every way in which it shall not be ins peror Napolcon renounces for himself, his suc. cessors, and descendants, as well as for all tlie compatible with their own security and the gemembers of his family, all rights of sovereignty neral tranqnillity of Europe. In the existing arid of power, vot ouly over the French empire case, the right of the Allied Sovereigns to inter: and the Kingdom of Italy, but also over every fere in the question of the internal goverument of other country.” Notwithstanding this formal re2.unciation, Bonaparte in his different proclama- France, is the more incontestible, inasmuch as tions from the Gulf of Juan, from Gap, Grenoble the abolition of the power which now claims to and Lyous, epuiled himself “ by the Grace of God and tie constitutions of the empire Emperor

(2) It is thus that Bonaparte's Council of State al the French, dc. &c. &c. See Woniicur of March express themselves in their Report on the inten. 21, ivi5.

tions of the Powers. See Monitour of the 13th of April.

be re estahlished there, was the fundamental con. | Europe and the happiness of France. Never, in dition of a treaty of peace, on which rrjed all treating withi Bonaparte, would they have conthe relations vlicli, up to the return of Bona- sented to the conditions which they granted to parte to l'aris, subsisted between France and a government, which, " while offering to Europe the rest of Europe. On tile day of ilieir entrance a pledge of security and stability, relieved them into Paris, the Sovereigns declared that they from requiring from France the guarantees which would never treat of peace with Bonaparte (3). they had demanded under its former govern. This declaration, loudly applauded by France ment." (5) This clause is inseparable from the and by Europe, prodneed the abdication of Na-treaty of Paris; to abelislı it, is to break this poleon and the convention of the 11th of April: treaty. The formal consent of the Frencia pait formed the principal basis of the negociation; tion to the return of Bonaparte to the throne it was explicitly pronounced in the preamble of would be equivalent to a dcciaration of war the treaty of Paris. The French pation, eren againsi Europe: for the siatc of peace did not supposing it perfectly free and united, cannot exist between Europe and France, except by the withdraw itselt from ihis fundamental condition treaty of Paris, and the treaty of Paris is incom. without abrogating the treaty of Paris and all its patible with the power of Bonaparte. It this existing relations with the European system. reasoning had need of further support, it might The allied Powers, on the other hand, by insise be found in the very offer of Bonaparte to rality ing on this very condition, only exercise a right the treaty of Paris. This treaty biad been scruwhich it is impossible to contest to theiu, uniess pulously observed and executed : ibe transactions it be maintained that the most sacred compacts of the Congress of Vienna were only its supple. eap be perverted as suits the convenience of either ments and developments; and without the new of the contracting parties. It hence tollows, that attenipt of Bonaparte, it would have been for a the will of the people of France is by no means long series of years one of the bases of the public snfficient to re-establishi, in a legal sense, a Go- right of Europe : but this order of things has vernnent proscribed by solemn engagements, given place to a new revolution; and the agents which that very people entered into wiili all the of this revolutioni, although they proclaim incesPowers of Europe; and that they cannot, under santly “ that (0) nothing has been changed," conany pretext, give validity as against these Powers , ceive and feel themselves that ull is changed to the riglit of recalling to the throne, bim, whose around them. The question is 11o longer the exclusion was a condition preliminary to every mantenance of the treaty of Paris, but Ilse pacific arrangement with France: the wish of making of it afresh. The Powers find themselves, the French people, even if it were fully ascer. with respect to France, in the condition in which tained, would not be the less null and of no etfect tiey were on the 31st of March, 1814. It is not in regard to Europe towards re-establishing a to preveut war, for France has in fact rekindled power, against which all Europe has been in a it, it is to terminate it that there now offers itselt state of permanent protest from the 31st of to Enrope a state of things essentially different March, 1814, np to the 13th of March, 1815; tron that on which the peace of 1814 was fonndand in this view, the position of Bonaparte is ed. The question, then, has ceased to be a ques. precisely at this day what it was at these last tion of right: it is no more than a question of mentioned periods.

political calculation and foresight, in which the

powers have only to cousult the real interests of Should the offer to sanction the Treaty of Paris The Cominittee thinks it may dispense with cri

their people and the common interest of Europe, change the dispositions of the Powers ? » tering here into an exposition of the considera. France has had no reason to complain of the tions which, under this last view, have directed Treaty of Paris. This Treaty reconciled France the measures of the governmeuts. It will be suf. with Europe; it satisfied all her true interests, ticient to recall to notice, that the man, who, in secured all her real advantages, all the elements 110 w offering to sanction the treaty of Paris, pie. of prosperity and glory, which a people called 10 tends to substitute bis guarantee for that of a one of ibe first places in the European system Sovereign, whose loyalty was without stain, and could reasonably desire, and only took from her benevolence without measure, is the same who that which was to her, under ihc deceitful exduring 15 years ravaged and laid waste the earth, terior of great national eclat, an inexhaustible to tind means of satisfying his ambition, who source of sufferings, of'rnin, and of misery. This sacrificed millions of victims, and the happiness Treaty was even an iminense benefit for a conna of an entire generation, io a system of conquests, try, reduced by the madness of its chief to the whon truces, little worthy of the name of peace, most disastrous situation (4). The Allied Powers have only rendered more oppressive and more would have betrayed their interests and their odious ; (7) who, after having by mad enterprizes duties, if, as the price of so much moderation and generosity, they had not, ou signing the treaty, obtained some solid advantage; bnt the (5) Preamble of the Treaty of Paris. sole object of their ambition was the peace of (6) This jilea recurs perpetually in the report

of iné Council of State of Bonaparte, published (3) Declaration of the 31st of March, 1814. in the Moniteur, April 13, 1815.

(4) The Emperor, convinced of the critical (7) The Committee here think it right to add situation in which he has placed France, and of the important observation, that the greater part the impossibility of saving it himself, appeared to of the invasions, and forced unions, of which Jesign bimself and consent to an entire and un Bonaparte formed successively, what he called conditional abdication.---Letter of Marshal Ney the Great Empire, took place during those perfi. to the Prince of Benevent:

divus intervals of peace, more destructive to

SECOND QUESTION.

tired fortune, armed all Europe against liim, and none of the sophistries by which it is pretended exhausterl all the means of France, was forced to to be attacked can at all attect it :--4. That abandon his projects, and abilicated power to these reasons remain in all their forre, and that save some relics of existence; wo, at the mo. the changes which have in fact occurred since the inent wiien the nations of Europe were giving Declaration of the 13th of March, have produced themselves np to the hope of a durable tranquilo no alteration in the position of Bonaparte and of lity, meditated new catastrophes, and by a donble France with regard to the Allies.-3. That the perfidy, towards the powers who had tou gener. offer to ratify the Treaty of Paris' cannot on any ously spared liim, and towards a government account alter the disposition of the Allies.which lie could not attack withont the blackest Therefore, the Coinmittee is of opinion that it treason, nisurped a thione which he had renomuced, would be useless to publish a fresh declaration. and which he never occupiell except for the mi- The Plenipotentiarres of the Powers who sery of France and the world. This man has no signed the Treaty of Paris, and who as such are other guarantee to propose to Europe than luis responsible for its execution with regard to the word. After the crnel experience of 15 years, acceding Powers, having taken into cousiderawlio would wave the courage to accept this gnation, and sanctioned by their approbation the ranteed and of the French nation has really em preceding report, have resolved, that there shall brac d his cause, who could any longer respect be made to the Plenipotentiaries of the other the security which it could offer? Peace with a Royal Courts a communication of the minutes of government placed in such lands, and composed of this day. They have further ordered that an exsuch elements, would only prove a perpetnal state tract of the said minntes shall be made public.of uncertainty, anxiety, and danger. "No power Here follow the signatures in the alphabetical could really disarın : nations would not only en-order of the Courts : joy any of the advantages of a true pacification; AUSTRIA.—Prince METTERNICH, they would be crushed by charges of all kinds ; as

Prince WESSENBERG. confidence would no where revive, indnstry and SPAIN (Espagne).-P. GOMES LABRADOR. commerce would every where langnislı ; there

FRANCE.- Prince TALLEYRAND, would be no stability in political relations ;

Duke of DALBERG, gloomy discontent would sit brooding on every country, and at a day's notice, alarmed Europe GREAT BRITAIN.-Clancarty,

Count Alex de NoAltres, would expect fresla explosions. The Sovereigns Blave certainly not mistaken the interests of their

CATHCART, subjects, when they have thought that open war,

STEWART. with all its inconveniences, and all its sacrifices, PORTUGAL.- The Count De PALMELLA, preferable to such a state ; and the measures which

SALDANHA, they have adopted, have inet with general appro.

LOBO. bation.-. The opinion of Europe on this great oc. casion is pronounced in a manner very positive and PRUSSIA.- Prince Hardenberg, very solemn; never could the real sentiments of

Baron HUMBOLDT. mations have been more accnrately known and more faithfnlly interpreted than at a moment RUSSIA.-Count RASOU MOUSKY, when the representatives of all the Powers were

Count STAKELBERG, assembled to consolidate the peace of the world.

Coint NESSELRODE.
THIRD QUESTION.

SWEDEN.-Count LOEWENHIELM.
Is it necessary to publish a new Declaration ?

The undersigned Plenipotentiaries, approving The observations which the Committee have the whole of the principles contained in the pre. just presented, furnish the answer to the last ques. sent extract from the ininutes, kave affixed io it tion which remains to be examined. It considers, their signatures. -1. That the Declaration of the 13th of March

Vienna, May 12, 1815. was dictated to the Powers by reasons of such evident justice and such decisive weight, that

BAVARIA..-Connt RechBERG,

DENMARK.-C. BERNSTORFF, Europe than even the wars with which it was tor.

I. BERNSTORFF. mented. It was thus that he took possession of HANOVER.--Connt MUNSTER, Piedmont, Parma, Gewoa, Lucca, or the States

Count HARDENBURGI. of Rome, of Holland, of the countries composing the 32d Military Division. It was thus at a perio:

NETHERLANDS.-Baron SPAEN, of peace (at least with all the continent), that lie

Baron GAGERN, struck the first blow against Poringal and Spain, SARDINIA.--The Marquis de ST. MARSAN. and he thonght to have finished the conquest of

Count Rossi. those countries by cupring and andacity, when SAXONY.--Count SCHULEMBURG. the patriotism and energy of the people of the Peninsula drew him into a sanguinary war, the

TWO SICILIES.--The Commander RUFFO. commencement of his own dowufall, and vf the WURTEMBERG.-Count. WinzinGERODE, salvation of Europe.

Baron LINDEN.

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