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the evidences of attachment to the federal
government. The feelings excited by this journey are fully expressed in the following letter, written after his return to Philadelphia.
“ In my late tour through the Southern States, I experienced great satisfaction in seeing the good effects of the general government in that part of the union. The people at large have felt the security which it gives, and the equal justice which it administers to them. The farmer, the merchant, and the mechanic, have seen their several interests attended to, and from thence they unite in placing a confidence in their representatives, as well as in those in whose hands the execution of the laws is placed. Industry has there taken place of idleness, and economy of dissipation. Two or three years of good crops, and a ready market for the produce of their lands, have put every one in good humour; and in some instances, they even impute to the government wbat is due only to the goodness of Providence,
“ The establishment of public credit is an immense point gained in our national concerns. This I believe exceeds the expectation of the most sanguine among us; and a late instance, unparalleled in this country, has been given of the confidence reposed in our measures, by the rapidity with which the subscriptions to the bank of the United States were filled. In two hours after the books were opened by the commissioners, the whole number of shares were taken up, and four thousand more applied for, than were allowed by the institution. This circumstance was not only pleas
ing as it related to the confidence in government, but also as it exhibited an unexpected proof of the resources of our citizens."
The hearts of all Americans were with General Washington at this period; but notwithstanding these public appearances, there was in fact much hostility to the government at the Southward.
On the 21th of October, 1791, the President met the second Congress in the established form.
During this session a great national question came before the Legislature which the President was necessitated ultimately to decide.
The constitution provides that there shall not be more than one representative to thirty thousand inhabitants. An enumeration having been made, the House of Representatives passed a bill providing for each state to send one representative for every thirty thousand of its population. This ratio in several instances leaving a large fraction, operated hardly on the small states. The Senate, to cure the evil, assumed a new principle of apportionment. They found the whole population of the United States; and dividing this aggregate number by thirty thousand, took the quotient as the number of representatives, and then apportioned this number upon the several states according to their population ; to which the blouse concurred.
When the President bad the bill before him for his signature, he took the opinion of his cabinet upon the constitutionality of the arrangement, Mr. Jefferson and Mr. Randolph thought the bill unconstitutional. General Knox was undeci. sive, and Colonel Hamilton conceived that the expression of the constitution might be applied to the United States, or to the several states, and thought it best to coincide wịth the construction of the Legislature. After due deliberation, the President thought the bill unconstitutional, and not hesitating to do his duty, he returned it with the following objections.
“Gentlemen of the House of Representatives,
! I have maturely considered the act, passed by the two Houses, entiled ' an act for the apportionment of representatives among the several states according to the first enumeration,' and I return it to your House, wherein it originated, with the following objections,
“ First, The constitution has prescribed that representatives shall be apportioned among the several states according to their respective numbers, and there is no proportion or division which, applied to the respective numbers of the states, will yield the number, and allotment of represen- . tatives proposed by the bill.
« Secondly, The constitution has also provided, that the number of representatives shall not exceed one for thirty thousand; which restriction is by fair and obvious constsuction, to be applied to the separate and respective numbers of the states, and the bill has allotted to eight of the states more than one for thirty thousand.”
In a new bill, a representative for every thirty three thousand to each state was substituted.
The first presidency of General Washington
closed without other occurrences of great magnitude. The last session of the second Congress was violent and impassioned, and the members separated in a state of great irritation ; but neither they nor their constituents had as yet impeached the motives of the President, yet it was evident that, if he should remain at the head of
government, bis reputation must soon pass the ordeal of party conflict. He had determined to decline being a candidate of the presidency at a second election, and to this purpose, bad written a valedictory address to the American people; but the critical state of the country, and the urgent intreaties of his friends induced him to relinquish the determination.
General Washington re-elected President-State of Parties–Di.
vision in the Cabinet— The President endeavours to promote univn-Influence of the French Revolution— Measures to secure the Neutrality of the United States in the war between France and England--Mr. Genet's illegal practices--He insults the Government— The Executive restricts him—He appeals to the People-They support the Administration The President dea termines to arrest Genet-He is recalled-- Negotiation with Britain—Insurrection in Pennsylvania,Democratic Societies - British Treaty—Communication between the French Executive and the Legislature of the United States--The President refuses to the House of Representatives the Papers respecting Diplomatic transactions-His interpositions in favour of the Marquis La Fayette-Takes the Son of the Marquis under his Protection and Patronage.
1793-7.] WIEN the constitutional period arrived for the re-election of a President, it appeared, that General Washington had a second time the unanimous suffrage of his country for this exalted office. He entered upon its duties in the prospect, that the administration of the governmert would be attended with accumulated difficulty.
The character of the American patriot is with reluctance blended in these pages with events of a local or temporary nature. It is painful to reflect, that his fair fame was even for a moment sullied by the foul breath of calumy. The pen is