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which descends from the brain through the arches of the vertebræ, and gives off nearly all the nerves to the various organs of the body. --- STAMENs.-The male organs of flowering plants, standing in a circle within the petals. They usually consist of a filament and an anther, the anther being the essential part in which the pollen, or fecundating dust, is formed. STERNUM.–The breast-bone. STIGMA.—The apical portion of the pistilin flowering plants. STIPULEs.-Small leafy organs placed at the base of the footstalks of the leaves in many plants. - - - STYLE.-The middle portion of the perfect pistil, which rises like a column from the ovary and supports the stigma at its summit. Subcutaneous.--Situated beneath the skin SucroRIAL.-Adapted for sucking. SUTUREs (in the skull)—The lines of junction of the bones of which the skull is composed.
TARsus (pl. TARs).-The jointed feet of articulate animals, such as Insects. TELEosTEAN FISHEs.—Fishes of the kind familiar to us in the present day, having the skeleton usually completely ossified and the scales horny. TENTAcula or TENTAcLEs.-Delicate fleshy organs of prehension or touch possessed by many of the lower animals. TERTIARY. —The latest geological epoch, immediately preceding the establishment of the present order of things. TRACHEA.—The windpipe or o for the admission of air to the lungs. TRIDACTYLE.-Three-fingered, or composed of three movable parts attached to a common base. TRILoBITEs.-A peculiar group of extinct Crustaceans, somewhat resembling the Woodlice in external form, and, like some of them, capable of rolling themselves up into a ball. Their remains are found only in the Palaeozoic rocks, and most abundantly in those of Silurian age. TRIMoRPHIc.—Presenting three distinct forms.
Zoons.-In many of the lower animals (such as the Corals, Medusae, &c.) reproduction takes place in two ways, namely, by means of eggs and by a process of budding with or without separation from the parent of the o of the latter, which is often very different from that of the egg. he individuality of the species is represented by the whole of the form produced between two sexual reproductions; and these forms, which are apparently individual animals, have been called zooids.
Animals of Australia, 84.
- with thicker fur in cold cli-
-, blind, in caves, 103.
– extinct, of Australia, 291.
Antarctic islands, ancient flora of,
Ants attending aphides, 193.
-, slave-making instinct, 202.
-, neuters, structure of, 215.
Apes, not having acquired intel.
lectual powers, Igg.
Aphides, attended by ants, 193.
Aphis, development of, 366.
Arab horses, 24.
Aralo-Caspian Sea, 292.
Archiac, o de, on the succession of
Artichoke, Jerusalem, 106.
Ascension, plants of, 326.
Asclepias, pollen of, 141.
Asses, striped, 119.
-, improved by selection, 29.
Aucapitaine, on land-shells, 332.
Audubon, on habits of frigate-bird,
-, on variation in birds' nests,
-, on heron eating seeds, 325,
Australia, animals of, 84.
—, dogs of, 197.
-, extinct animals of, 291.
–, European plants in, 317.
—, glaciers of, 315.
Azara, on flies destroying cattle,
Azores, flora of, 308,
Babington, Mr., on British plants,
Baer, Won, standard of Highness, 91.
—, comparison of bee and fish, 290.
—, embryonic similarity of the
Baker, Sir S., on the giraffe, 166.
Balancement of growth, 109.
Barberry, flowers of, 72.
Barrande, M., on Silurian colonies,
—, on the succession of species,
—, on parallelism of palaeozoic
—, on affinities of ancient species,
Barriers, importance of, 297.
Bates, Mr., on mimetic butterflies,
352, 353, 354.
Batrachians on islands, 329.
Bats, how structure acquired, 130.
—, distribution of, 330.
Bear, catching water-insects, 132.
Beauty, how acquired, 149, 389.
Bee, sting of, 153.
—, queen, killing rivals, 153.
—, Australian, extermination of,
Bees fertilising flowers, 53.
—, hive, not sucking the red
—, Ligurian, 70.
—, hive, cell-making instinct, 205.
—, variation in habits, 194.
—, parasitic, 201.
—-, humble, cells of, 206.
Beetles, wingless, in Madeira, 101.
with deficient tarsi, 101.
Bentham, Mr., on British plants, 34.
, on classification, 346.
Berkeley, Mr., on seeds in salt water,
Bermuda, birds of, 327.
Birds acquiring fear, 195.
-, o of, 151.
—annually cross the Atlantic, 309.
—, colour of, on continents, 99.
—, footsteps, and remains of, in
secondary rocks, 266.
—, fossil, in caves of Brazil, 291.
—, of Madeira, Bermuda, and
Birds, song of males, 64.
— transporting seeds, 308.
—, waders, 324.
—, wingless, 100, 130, 131.
—, affinities of, 355.
Bladder for swimming, in fish, 138.
Blindness of cave animals, 102.
Blyth, Mr., on distinctness of Indian
—, on striped hemionus, 119.
—, on crossed geese, 224.
Borrow, Mr., on the Spanish pointer,
Bory St. Vincent, on Batrachians,
Bosquet, M., on fossil Chthamalus,
Boulders, erratic, on the Azores, 308.
Branchiae, 138, 139.
— of crustaceans, 143.
Braun, Prof., on the seeds of Fuma-
Brent, Mr., on house-tumblers, 196.
Britain, mammals of, 330.
Broca, Prof., on Natural Selection,
Bronn, Prof., on duration of specific
—, various objections by, 158.
Brown, Robert, on classification, 343.
—, Séquard, on inherited mutila-
Busk, Mr., on the Polyzoa, 180.
Butterflies, nimetic, 352, 353, 354.
Buzareingues, on sterility of varie-