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Leonard Corstenson,

(Lennart Torstenson,).

"THE ARGUS-EYED, BRIAREAN-ARMED,”

SENATOR OF SWEDEN, COUNT OF ORTALA, CHIEF OF THE
SWEDISH ARTILLERY UNDER, AND GENERALISSIMO OF
THE SWEDISH ARMIES SUBSEQUENT TO THE DEATH OF,

Gustabus Adolphus.

"Beneath SWEDEN'S Throne, (i. e. after GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS,) the greatest
of SWEDISH Commanders.”—(GEIJER'S "History of the Sitedes.")

"THE MOST ACTIVE AND TALENTED CF ALL THE
GENERALS IN THIS [THE THIRTY YEARS'] WAR."
(KOHLRAUSCH'S "History of Germany.')

TORSTENSON richly deserves the surname of BAJAZEC-
ILDERIM THE LIGHTNING-for, like the wildest thunder-peals was
the din of his artillery, and even as the electric flash and shock of the thunder-
bolt were the rapidity of his operations and the shattering force of their blows."
For, as the light

Not only serves to show, but render us
Mutually profitable; so our lives,
In acts exemplary, not only win

Ourselves good names, but do to others give
Matter for virtuous deeds, by which we live."

CHAPMAN.

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Errata and Omissions.

Readers are particularly requested to examine the Errata.

This work-originally intended only as a mere brief translation has so enlisted its Author's sympathies, that he now looks upon the following pages as nothing more than a comparatively perfect proot-sheet or series of collected notes-the Cadre or Stamm of a future work on the same subject.

This statement is called forth by the fact that when the present book was half completed, the author came into the possession of an immense amount of valuable and interesting information, which it was then too late to attempt to embody in its pages; all of which is reserved for a second and more perfect edition.

The Author does not hold himself responsible for mistakes in orthography, punctuation, and typography, which he has endeavored, but unavailingly, to have rectified; and all Errata, however glaring, whose correction is not absolutely necessary to convey his meaning, have not been noted hereinafter.

A few alterations in the punctuation would have been advisable; unimportant omissions and mistakes in punctuation have not been noted.

The spelling of many of the proper names and territorial nomenclature are from old foreign works, extremely difficult to read, and still more to translate. This fact must be sufficient explanation for many apparent errors. In numerous instances, no two works spell the same names alike, and the THEATRUM EUROPÆUM often spells the same name differently in contiguous pages, which can readily be accounted for by the fact that its data were derived from different sources, languages and contributors.

Page II. Text, 32d line from top, for "tramped" read "trampled."

Note*, substitute therefor, "The Thirty Years' War may more properly be said to have commenced 23d May, 1618, when the two Regents or Commissioners of the Emperor FERDINAND II. and their Secretary were thrown from the window of the Secretary of State's office, in the Royal Palace (Hradschin) of Prague, although the flames of contention had been kindled years before, and was terminated by the Peace of Westphalia, 14th-24th October, 1648." Page IV. Text, 14th line, for "Jaggernautic," read "Juggernautic."

Page VI. Text, 19th line, for "HARTZFELD," read "HATZ

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