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himself in respect of such misrepresentation, by showing that it was caused without any default on his part, and wholly by the fraud of the shipper, or of the holder, or some person under whom the holder claims.

THE MERCANTILE LAW AMENDMENT ACT, 1856.

19 & 20 VICT. C. 97.

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Sec. 1.

An Act to amend the Laws of England and Ireland affecting

Trade and Commerce. “WHEREAS inconvenience is felt by persons engaged in trade by reason of the laws of England and Ireland being in some particulars different from those of Scotland in matters of common occurrence in the course of such trade, and with a view to remedy such inconvenience it is expedient to amend the laws of England and Ireland as hereinafter is mentioned":

Be it enacted as follows :

No writ of fieri facias or other writ of execution, and no writ of attachment against the goods of a debtor, shall prejudice the title to such goods acquired by any person bona fide and for a valuable consideration before the actual seizure or attachment thereof by virtue of such writ; provided such person had not, at the time when he acquired such title, notice that such writ, or any other writ by virtue of which the goods of such owner might be seized or attached, had been delivered to and remained unexecuted in the hands of the sheriff, under-sheriff, or coroner.

In all actions and suits in any of the superior courts of common law at Westminster or Dublin, or in any court of record in England, Wales, or Ireland, for breach of contract to deliver specific goods for a price in money, on the application of the plaintiff, and by leave of the judge before whom the cause is tried, the jury shall, if they find the plaintiff entitled to recover, find by their verdict what are the goods in respect of the non-delivery of which the plaintiff is entitled to recover

Sec. 2.

and which remain undelivered; what (if any) is the sum the plaintiff would have been liable to pay for the delivery thereof; what damages (if any) the plaintiff would have sustained if the goods should be delivered under execution, as hereinafter mentioned, and what damages if not so delivered ; and thereupon, if judgment shall be given for the plaintiff, the court, or any judge thereof, at their or his discretion, on the application of the plaintiff, shall have power to order execution to issue for the delivery, on payment of such sum (if any) as shall have been found to be payable by the plaintiff as aforesaid, of the said goods, without giving the defendant the option of retaining the same upon paying the damages assessed ; and such writ of execution may be for the delivery of such goods; and if such goods so ordered to be delivered, or any part thereof, cannot be found, and unless the court, or such judge or baron as aforesaid, shall otherwise order, the sheriff, or other officer of such court of record, shall distrain the defendant by all his lands and chattels in the said sheriff's bailiwick, or within the jurisdiction of such other court of record, till the defendant deliver such goods, or at the option of the plaintiff, cause to be made of the defendant's goods the assessed value or damages, or a due proportion thereof; provided that the plaintiff shall, either by the same or a separate writ of execution, be entitled to have made of the defendant's goods the damages, costs, and interest in such action or suit.

THE LARCENY ACT, 1861,

24 & 25 VICT. C. 96.

As to Restitution and Recovery of Stolen Property. IF any person guilty of any such felony or misdemeanor as is Sec. 100. mentioned in this Act, in 'stealing, taking, obtaining, extorting, embezzling, converting, or disposing of, or in knowingly receiving, any chattel, money, valuable security, or other property whatsoever, shall be indicted for such offence, by or on the behalf of the owner of the property, or his executor or administrator, and convicted thereof, in such case the property shall be

restored to the owner or his representative ; and in every case in this section aforesaid the court before whom any person shall be tried for any such felony or misdemeanor, shall have power to award from time to time writs of restitution for the said property, or to order the restitution thereof in a summary manner : provided that if it shall appear before any award or order made that any valuable security shall have been bonâ fide paid or discharged by some person or body corporate liable to the payment thereof, or being a negotiable instrument shall have been bonâ fide taken or received by transfer or delivery, by some person or body corporate, for a just and valuable consideration, without any notice or without any reasonable cause to suspect that the same had by any felony or misdemeanor been stolen, taken, obtained, extorted, embezzled, converted, or disposed of, in such case the court shall not award or order the restituiton of such security ; provided also, that nothing in this section contained shall apply to the case of any prosecution of any trustee, banker, merchant, attorney, factor, broker, or other agent intrusted with the possession of goods or documents of title to goods for any misdemeanor against this Act.

FACTORS ACT, 1889.

52 & 53 VICT. C. 45.

An Act to amend and consolidate the Factors Acts.

[26th August 1889.

BE it enacted, etc.:

Definitions.

Preliminary. 1. For the purposes of this Act(1.) The expression “mercantile agent" shall mean a

” mercantile agent having in the customary course of his business as such agent authority either to sell goods, or to consign goods for the purpose of sale,

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or to buy goods, or to raise money on the security

of goods :
(2.) A person shall be deemed to be in possession of

goods or of the documents of title to goods, where
the goods or documents are in his actual custody or
are held by any other person subject to his control

or for him or on his behalf :
(3.) The expression “goods" shall include wares and

merchandise :
(4.) The expression “document of title "shall include any

bill of lading, dock warrant, warehouse-keeper's cer-
tificate, and warrant or order for the delivery of
goods, and any other document used in the ordinary
course of business as proof of the possession or
control of goods, or authorising or purporting to
authorise, either by endorsement or by delivery, the
possessor of the document to transfer or receive

goods thereby represented :
(5.) The expression “ pledge" shall include any contract

pledging, or giving a lien or security on, goods,
whether in consideration of an original advance or
of any further or continuing advance or of any

pecuniary liability :
(6.) The expression “person” shall include any body

of persons corporate or unincorporate.

mercantile

Dispositions by Mercantile Agents. 2.-(1.) Where a mercantile agent is, with the consent of Powers of the owner, in possession of goods or of the documents of title

agent with to goods, any sale, pledge, or other disposition of the goods, respect to dismade by him when acting in the ordinary course of business of position of

goods. a mercantile agent, shall, subject to the provisions of this Act, be as valid as if he were expressly authorised by the owner of the goods to make the same ; provided that the person taking under the disposition acts in good faith, and has not at the time of the disposition notice that the person making the disposition has not authority to make the same.

(2.) Where a mercantile agent has, with the consent of the owner, been in possession of goods or of the documents of title to goods, any sale, pledge, or other disposition, which would

Effect of pledges of documents of title. Pledge for antecedent debt.

have been valid if the consent had continued, shall be valid notwithstanding the determination of the consent: provided that the person taking under the disposition has not at the time thereof notice that the consent has been determined.

(3.) Where a mercantile agent has obtained possession of any documents of title to goods by reason of his being or having been, with the consent of the owner, in possession of the goods represented thereby, or of any other documents of title to the goods, his possession of the first mentioned documents shall, for the purposes of this Act, be deemed to be with the consent of the owner.

(4.) For the purposes of this Act the consent of the owner shall be presumed in the absence of evidence to the contrary.

3. A pledge of the documents of title to goods shall be deemed to be a pledge of the goods.

4. Where a mercantile agent pledges goods as security for a debt or liability due from the pledgor to the pledgee before the time of the pledge, the pledgee shall acquire no further right to the goods than could have been enforced by the pledgor at the time of the pledge.

5 The consideration necessary for the validity of a sale, pledge, or other disposition, of goods, in pursuance of this Act, may be either a payment in cash, or the delivery or transfer of other goods, or of a document of title to goods, or of a negotiable security, or any other valuable consideration; but where goods are pledged by a mercantile agent in consideration of the delivery or transfer of other goods, or of a document of title to goods, or of a negotiable security, the pledgee shall acquire no right or interest in the goods so pledged in excess of the value of the goods, documents, or security when so delivered or transferred in exchange.

6. For the purposes of this Act an agreement made with a mercantile agent through a clerk or other person authorised in the ordinary course of business to make contracts of sale or pledge on his behalf shall be deemed to be an agreement with

ghts acquired by exchange of goods or documents.

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Agreements through clerks, &c.

the agent.

Provisions as to consignors and consignees.

7.-(1.) Where the owner of goods has given possession of the goods to another person for the purpose of consignment or sale, or has shipped the goods in the name of another person, and the consignee of the goods has not had notice that such person is not the owner of the goods, the consignee shall, in

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