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ll times and in all places, could have preserved so inviolate a sanctity? Not one. But suppose even that we could by an unceasing care and watchfulness have kept our souls pure from presumptuous deadly sin, O who could have guarded against the sins of infirmity, against those less prominent innumerable sins, which every glance of the eye and motion of the tongue and intuitive thought would lead us to commit, despite of our better selves, and when even the mind was on its watch-tower looking out against their coming? But men fell not only by sins of infirmity; strong and sudden temptations, and the corrupt bias of their own ungodly hearts, made them to fall seven times a day, and oftener, into wilful deadly sin. And what was most pitiable in their case, though most consonant with justice, was that, while this unsparing law existed, sins once committed must ever remain scored against the delinquent repentance could not blot out their guilt: sorrow and the holiest resolutions could make no atonement for past transgressions. Every fresh sin was laying up in store a fresh aggravation of God's wrath, was separating by an ever-increasing interval the ruined soul from the presence of its God. At such a time as this, when men knew not how to restore themselves to God's favour, when they had recourse to a variety of expedients, mostly of their own invention, to effectuate their peace with him, the Son of God came down from heaven, took upon him our nature, and, in the flesh thus consecrated, offered himself up as a sacrifice to his Father for the sins past, present, and future of all who should believe on his name. No sins, however numerous, however heinous, though red as scarlet, though countless as the seashore sand, but might be remitted when he expired upon the cross-remitted on the exercise of sorrow, and the godly resolution of a heart believing in the pardoning efficacy of his death.
And herein it is, brethren, that Christ is precious. Before he came, there was no pardon actually procured. It was only a thing of contingency, depending on his coming. For even the appointed means of absolution, under the Jewish law, had no present in trinsic power of remission, but derived all their efficacy in the prospect of that death which they so strikingly shadowed forth; and that which they shadowed forth, but few had the keenness of spiritual vision to perceive. So that, without Christ's sacrifice, there was no remission. But, now that he is come, we, who were once afar off, are brought nigh by the blood of Jesus. Those sins, for which we might have mourned in vain, are
no longer imputed to us. Their guilt is can-
To little use would it have been to have had our former sins forgiven, if still we continued ever falling into the very same transgressions. Each day, as it passed over our heads, would but reiterate the same mournful story-holy resolutions broken through, and the same outpourings of unvaried grief. Whereas, the condition of our being Christ's disciples, and of partaking in the benefits of his death and passion, requires that we grow in grace and in the knowledge of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ; that we shine more and more in all Christian excellence unto the perfect day; that we aim after the fulness of the stature of the Son of God. But never could we do this in our own strength. No one sin could we crucify, no one unhallowed thought could we suppress, no one foot could we advance upon the way of life, without a strength greater than our own. The path which leads to heaven, my brethren, is a thorny path, full of briars and roughnesses, exceedingly unpleasant to flesh and blood; and he, who would walk in it by himself, would faint and grow weary at the very outset; much less could he advance into its far off distances. But, blessed be God, one of the after-fruits of this day's commemoration was the obtaining for weak man, so wavering in his obedience, of a strength greater than his own, the indwelling energy of that Spirit which opens the eyes, and strengthens the knees, and lifts up the weary hands. Christ is precious to the believer in this, the gift of his Spirit. For he can now exclaim with the apostle, "When I am weak then am I strong; for I can do all things through Christ who strengtheneth me."
But, while the Holy Spirit is thus neces sary to us in the destruction of the body of sin, and in the growing advancement of the Christian life, ever should we bear in mind that our own strenuous exertions are as neces sary to the same purposes. In the great work of our salvation God makes men fellow-workers with himself. So that the commandment is, "Work out your own salvation with fear and trembling; for it is God who worketh in you both to will and to do, of his good pleasure.'
(3). Christ is precious to them that believe in him, because of the hope of eternal life.
Before the Son of God came down to us, clouds and thick darkness were, in a great measure, obscuring the knowledge of man's final destiny. Witness, in confirmation of
this, the crude notions which circulated through the heathen world upon this subject, when their veriest sages spake with stammering lips and bewildered thoughts, not knowing what they said. But, when the Son of Righteousness arose, with healing on his wings, the mists of error and the obscurities of conjecture fled away like the shadows of the morning. Thenceforward heaven was open to our view; and, like the protomartyr Stephen, we might behold Jesus standing at the right hand of God. The surpassing glories of that secret dwelling-place are now revealed -revealed, that is, as much as our finite faculties may conceive of them.
On all these accounts, therefore, Christ is precious to them that believe in him. He is precious in that he hath obtained the remission of their sins, the gift of his Holy Spirit, and the promise of an eternal life of glory. My brethren, is Christ thus precious to you? If not, then are you unpardoned, sanctified, living without hope in the world. O what a state is this! Better never to have been born than thus to appear before God. Better to have been brought up amid the gross darkness of heathenism than thus to die, with all the privileges of your calling, all the ineans and opportunities of grace, all the warnings of the divine mercy, with which you have been favoured, set at nought. Verily I say unto you, it shall be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon in the day of judgment than for you.
But this leads me, in conclusion, very briefly to consider the closing words of the
II. "But unto them which be disobedient, the stone which the builders disallowed, the same is made the head of the corner."
into ruins, and not one stone remains upon another to testify where once it stood, that faith which they so despised has risen into a lofty and spacious temple, of which "that stone which the builders disallowed is made the head of the corner. And that temple stands secure in every age, bound firmly together by its "corner-stone," notwithstanding the assaults of evil men and evil angels to cast it down. Over its stately portico is inscribed, in characters of living glory, "The gates of hell shall not prevail against thee." The rains may descend, and the floods dash against it; but it shall stand unshaken, for it is founded upon. a rock.
My brethren, Christ," the head-stone of the corner," is not without great significance to the wilful, impenitent sinner. May we learn this, and act upon the conviction. What does the character of Christ, as "the head un-corner-stone," teach us? What, but as that stone is immoveable, fixed, not to be dislodged through any violence, so his threatenings as well as his promises are very faithfulness and truth;" that "there is no variableness neither shadow of turning with him?" "Hath he said, and shall he not do it? hath he threatened, and shall he not fulfil?" The firm, unmoveable corner-stone is an apt emblem of the Lord's inflexible purposes, whether of wrath or of mercy. O then, how should this knowledge of the character of our Judge cause us in time to turn from the iniquity of our ways, that sin be not our ruin, to make haste and prolong not the time to keep his commandments! Many there are, who encourage themselves in sin, trusting to God's mercy hereafter to look over their offences. Some vague expectation they have that, notwithstanding they repent not, yet all will be well with them when they stand before his throne. O awful, deadly delusion! as if his words were a mockery! as if he said one thing and meant another! "Heaven and earth," saith he, "shall pass away; but my words shall not pass away." And what are his words-these living realities which shall have their actual fulfilment ? Son of man shall come in the clouds of hea ven with power and great glory, and his holy angels with him; and before him shall be gathered all nations; and the books shall be opened, and the judgment set. Then they that have done good shall go into life everlasting, and they that have done evil into everlasting fire." Who can hear these words, and feel convinced that every jot and tittle of them shall be fulfilled, and not turn from the evil of his way, and live? "Behold! today if ye will hear his voice, harden not your
So it proved with the Jews. They who sat in the seat of Moses, and should have been as master-builders, building up the people in a most holy faith, of which a spiritual Messiah to bring salvation to Israel should have been the key-stone, on the contrary, deceived them with vain imaginations, with carnal notions of an earthly conqueror and a Jewish pre-eminency; of which the fatal consequence was that, when the Holy One came to his temple, they crucified him, and put him to an open shame. But their intentions were frustrated. The weak and defenceless sect, which they sought to crush by putting its Founder to an ignominious death, in a short time, like the grain of mustard-seed in the parable, struck its roots deep, and grew into a tall and wide-spreading tree, whose branches are as a shadow to all people, and whose leaves are for the healing of the nations. While their temple has fallen
hearts." "Behold!" if ye
will profit by the word spoken, "now is the accepted time, now is the day of salvation. Time is passing rapidly away, bringing with it an end to everything which concerns us here. Eternity is at hand: soon will its awful realities burst upon our sight. O let us be wise while time is ours, and flee unto that cross which the church points out to our view to-day.
A WELSH SKETCH.
entered upon his duties, he saw how matters stood; that the parochial system, Britain's great boon, was but partially developed in his field of having the glory of his great Master at heart, be labour; and, as "a good and faithful steward," set about building a school-room. After many difficulties the structure was completed; and at the date of my visit the Llandeloy District National School was at full work, under the care of an able master, a mistress, and an assistant, and the building free from debt. But I am afraid that, unless the wealthy of our church, who have the education of their benighted brethren at heart, will aid him in his attempts to Christianize his community, trouble will befall him, his past labour and anxiety will go for nought, as he has no one in his parishes willing to "bear his
"And he that blasphemeth the name of the Lord, he shall burdens." May the Lord raise up many friends for surely be put to death."-LEV. xxiv. 16.
men that a great deal can be done where there is a desire to do good, and that God will assuredly strengthen those who labour in his service.
this good pastor, and the extension of our Saviour's kingdom! Here I found above a hundred chilSOME months ago I visited the most western coast dren, being "trained in the way they should go," of South Wales, Pembrokeshire, at the recom- who a few months before ran as wild, but not so mendation of a physician of eminence, for a warmly clad, as their own little mountain sheep. "change of air" and scenery. At that time II merely note this as an example to other clergyresided in London; and I hardly need inform the reader that my removal from almost the most eastern city in Great Britain to the most western one, St. David's, was very beneficial-that the atmosphere of the one was as misty and unhealthy as the habits, pursuits, and dwellings of upwards of two millions of my fellow-creatures could make it, and that of the other as pure and salubrious as the freshest breezes of the Atlantic could render it.
During my walk to this school-room I fell in with an old man, over whose head nearly seventy summers had passed. I found him to be of the better class of labourers, able to converse with me in English; but his dialect was rather broad and rough. Though old, he appeared strong, and possessed a colour on his cheek as fresh as the After a residence of a few weeks in the neigh-bloom of youth. The only natural indications of bourhood of St. David's, I was enabled to obtain old age were his short quick step, and his silvery nearly a perfect insight into the curiosities of the hair. I thought him a fine specimen of an ancient venerable cathedral, and the places of most interest Briton, his person tall and commanding. But, in the immediate neighbourhood. The surround-above all, he "feared the Lord," whose "word ing country was also explored; and I believe that every object within a circuit of twelve miles, worthy of being seen, was visited by me. Often would I stop at the field-gap, the cottage, or farm door, to exchange the usual salutations, or make some inquiries necessary to reaching or visiting the object or place in view. And it was during one of those pilgrimages, a visit to a new national school, distant from St. David's about seven miles N.E., that the substance of the following sketch
was related to me.
Perhaps a passing word or two with regard to this school will not be very much out of place. About three years previous to my visit to this country, which with the exception of Radnorshire is the most rude, barren, and uncultivated in Wales, scarcely a tree being seen for miles, a portion of the hundred of Dewisland (such being the name of the division of this part of the county) contained nine parishes, with a population of about 3,000 souls, without a single day-school; consequently the minds of the inhabitants must have been as uncultivated as their lands. There was no auxiliary or helping hand to aid the pastors in the discharge of their duties, in preparing the young of their charge for time and eternity. At the time mentioned, about three years prior to my visit, the vicar of a couple of parishes in the centre of this hundred "was gathered to his fathers," and an energetic young man was appointed vicar in his place. The moment this worthy incumbent
was a lamp unto his feet, and a light unto his path" (Ps. cxix. 105). After having conversed on several subjects, my old friend became silent for a while, as if in deep meditation; but suddenly he raised his expressive countenance, while over his cheeks some tears were seen trickling, gave vent to some deep sighs, and exclaimed,
How true, sir, that expression is, Whosoever curseth his God, shall bear his sin' (Lev. xxiv. 15)! This morning a poor neighbour of mine, one who, I am sorry to say, lived not as he ought, committed that great sin, self-destruction; his case, sir, is an exemplification of this text."
The old man had, doubtless, been meditating on this occurrence during his silence; and, as we had to walk a little further together before parting, he consented to give me the whole particulars of this very melancholy event.
"Well, as you ask me," said my friend, "I shall endeavour to relate to you my neighbour's history and sad end. His father is somewhere about my age: we were fellow-labourers, working together on the same farm for several years: he was a thoughtless, stubborn, and self-willed man he married just about the time I did, now forty years ago; and this son of his, on whose body the coroner will presently hold an inquest, was his second boy. The eldest son followed more after his mother-was quiet, steady, and attentive to his work; but of Thomas I might say, Like father, like son.' He grew up, followed
a small piece of cord. This morning with daylight a body was found suspended from a beam in an adjoining cart-house-it was the blasphemer's body!"
"Aye," continued the old man, "who can tell the number of times this poor fellow was warned by heaven of his danger in continuing in his sinful course; but the Lord has said, My Spirit shall not always strive with man,' and that we are to quench not the Spirit.""
Reader, this is a true sketch. In company with the old man I visited the cart-house, in which was laid the body prior to the inquest, as well as the home of the afflicted family, in which place I witnessed scenes of horror and distress that bade me remember that "he that blasphemeth the name of the Lord, he shall surely be put to death." CHRISTIANA.
the trade of a horse-trainer, and became a husband and a father. And, O sir, what a sight was at his house this morning! his aged father, his poor distracted wife, and those helpless ones his children, all mourning like unto those who are without hope.' The sight of them nearly broke my poor heart. His father gave him no good precept, no example of piety-taught him not his duty towards God and man; and as he grew in stature he grew in sin. He kept company with the wicked; and, O sir, at last he became an open blasphemer of his Maker. Perhaps you are aware, sir, that we, the Welsh people, are considered as possessing great knowledge of scripture; and he, like many more, could quote passages from that best of books: he could turn and twist them to answer his blasphemous ends; and he could repeat a great deal of it, but could not apply any of its truths to the salvation of his soul. Of him it could be said that whither he went he profaned the Lord's holy name' (Ezek. xxxvi. 20). Thomas's wicked companions were amused with his blasphemies; whenever he frequented their haunts, they plied him with intoxicating liquors to hasten the consummation of the promised retribution, the lot of all those who 'forget "Follow the example which he, the Son of God, has set God' (Ps. 1. 22). Day by day he grew more he employed them all in love to man: his omniscience, to up for your admiration. Though his attributes were infinite, reckless and wicked; and about two years ago warn; his mercy, to invite; his power, to convince; his manhe was apprehended for stealing a watch. His hood, to minister; his godhead, to redeem. And now, he habit of drunkenness led him into habits of idle- calls on you to devote your faculties to his service, or rather ness; and, to find the means of satiating his pro-to the service of your fellow-creatures, for his sake. He expensities, as he could not do so by honest labour,pects you to give this proof that the mercies bestowed upon he had recourse to robbery. His sin found him you have not been bestowed unworthily."-ARCHBISHOP out: he was tried, convicted, and sentenced to six months' imprisonment. It was thought that such an occurrence would prove a blessing to him; but, after his release, he became worse than ever. During his debaucheries and his imprisonment, who can tell the sufferings of his family! That young creature, whom he had promised at the altar to protect, to cherish, and to love, left to care and provide for herself; and his children, bone of his bones and flesh of his flesh, left to perish, so far as he cared. I cannot help shedding some tears; but I trust, sir, you will excuse my weakness."
Who could not "excuse" such a "weakness," as he called it-such real sympathy? Would that we had more of it in our land. I really could not help weeping with him. If our language was a little different, I found that our feelings and heart-throbbings beat in unison. After he had found release in tears he resumed :
CAPE OF GOOD HOPE.-A letter from a missionary, who had been compelled to flee from Clarkson (a Moravian out-station), and seek an asylum at Fort Peddie, says: "The sanguinary fury of the Kaffirs has covered the land with desolaThe cause of their discontent was that the British authorities had given a severe check to their predatory incursions by means of military outposts, and the establishment of an armed police of blacks: added to this, the pride of the Kaffir chiefs was lowered by a number of restrictions, which the government had imposed upon them. Sandilla, the powerful head of the Geikas, was at the head of the movement from the beginning: that movement was common to the whole nation of the Kaffirs, and its avowed object has been throughout to exterminate all the whites. Sandilla had, in anticipation of the outbreak, bethought himself of a powerful expedient in fur"Christ, I believe, said, 'All sins shall be therance of his plot. He brought forward a youth, forgiven unto the sons of men, and blasphemies fourteen years of age, as a prophet. Umlandzwherewith soever they shall blaspheme; but he beni is said to have been an idiot from his childthat shall blaspheme against the Holy Ghost hath hood; and for this reason, as it has been given out, never forgiveness, but is in danger of eternal dam- up to the present day his spirit has been incarnation' (Mark iii. 28, 29). Though great the sincerated in a subterraneous cavern; but at the time and dreadful the punishment, I am afraid that poor Thomas was guilty of it. His blasphemies at length were the talk of the neighbouring coun. try, pitied by a few, but laughed at and encouraged by many. At one of his debaucheries he stole from a sinful companion a sovereign: he was apprehended by the policeman, taken before a magistrate, and was remanded for further examination. Last night of all he made his escape from the station-house, went to his home, wished his poor family a good-bye, and provided himself with
of the last earthquake the spirit made its escape through a rent in the ground, and found its way back to its earthly tabernacle. The youth has, it is said, ever since given signs of great miraculous powers, and will put an end to every white man in a couple of months' time: in order to this, he is to bring pitch darkness over the face of the land for four days and nights so as to enable the Kaffirs to master the whole white population with readiness: he is also to fill the white men's gun-barrels with water, convert every bush into a party of
Kaffirs, and bring all who fall in battle to life again. Sandilla's orders are to regard every native as an enemy, who does not besmear his body with red, or continues in the service of the whites, and to treat them accordingly: his war cry is, 'Kill, and cat!' in other words, Plunder as much as you can, and make yourselves merry: the country will soon be yours". And never was an order more punctually obeyed. Every Kaffir smeared himself red, and all the Kaffir servants instantly quitted their masters: they took to feasting and revelry in all directions, and their minds were worked up to bloodthirsty frenzy. Neither property nor person is any longer secure. Alas! the present war is one of extermination. O pray to the Lord of heaven and earth, that the whole land do not become a howling wilderness; and, in your prayers, forget us not." Of Umballa, another Kaffir chieftain, bishop Gray reports, in his "Visitation Journal," 1850: "Umballa is the principal chief of the T'Slambie tribes. He has upwards of 10,000 people under him. He is not, I fear, a promising subject himself, being addicted to drinking, and eating up his people,' i. e., robbery and injustice. He does not bear a good character, compared with the other Kaffir chiefs; but he is an able and influential man, and no mission exists among his people. We found him sitting in a large smoky hut, in the middle of his concubines, wives, children, &c. There was a fire in an earthen basin in the middle of the hut, which partially lighted it. Most of the people were smoking. We crept into this crowded reception-hall with some difficulty, and were nearly blinded by the smoke. After I had seated myself on the floor, I bade Mr. Shepstone explain to the chief who I was. He got up to welcome, me, and to shake hands." The bishop here entered into some explanations regarding their former interview, the object of his visitation tour, &c. "I then told him that I had not yet heard of the teachers whom I had sent for; that they had to come a great way from beyond the sea; but that I hoped they would soon arrive. He said that I must send him the archdeacon, who had been to see him; that he had taken a great fancy to him, and would have him for his teacher. I told him that he could not be spared, and enumerated all the places in the archdeaconry that he had to look after; and that I would send him a good man whom he would like, and who would teach him about God. Umballa then said, "That I was a great chief, and that he was a great chief; that he would be very glad if I would come and teach him; but that he knew this was impossible; for he had heard how many places I had to go to; but that, if I could not come myself, I must send him the archdeacon." Thinking that it was from pride that he desired to have one of our great men to teach a great chief, I told him that the son of one of our great chiefs in England (the hon. and rev. H. Douglas, who had volunteered for this especial work) was willing to come and teach him. He said, Very well he might come too; but he hoped I would let him have the archdeacon.' This he repeated several times during our conversation, which lasted two hours. If I felt quite sure that he appreciated in any degree the character of my dear friend and brother, and desired to have one so
eminently qualified for the work with him, for his own sake, I should augur well for the success of our future mission; but I could not satisfy my mind that this was the case, although I think it far from improbable... He promised to help the missionaries in every way in his power when they came; and, when I asked him where he thought they had better settle, he said he would go about with them, and help them to choose a spot. All his people listened with much interest to what was passing; and he was so much excited that the perspiration ran down his naked body during the greater part of our interview. After taking some sour wine, we parted very good friends." Yet the bishop had previously observed, "He is the shrewdest, and perhaps the most influential of the Kaffir chieftains, and one of the least hopeful, I fear, for missionary operation."
SPAIN." In 1849 the population of this king. dom amounted to 14,216,219 souls. It possessed 15,640 schools; namely, 183 of a superior order, attended by 23,449 youths and adults; 7,847 general or 'complete' schools, with 436,941 pupils; and 7,510 primary or incomplete' schools, having 203,221 pupils. These 15,640 schools were attended by 510,111 males and 153,500 females. From the year 1834 a number of monastic buildings have been appropriated as schools; but there are still as many as 10,525, which have no local habitation, some of them being gathered under the porch of churches, or in the courts of town-halls. The university of Madrid is the only one which is complete in all the fa culties: Barcelona, Santiago de Compostella, Seville, and Valencia are the only universities which have medical and chirurgical faculties. The whole number of matriculated students was in 1847-48, 11,606, and in 1849-50, 11,201. The clergy in 1787 numbered 183,425 individuals; but in 1826 they had declined to 150,519. In 1849 the priests amounted to 27,103, and they served 19,518 churches. The amount of church property sold was estimated at £35,392,676; of what there has been sold at £34,929,150. The public treasury pays the clergy altogether £1,554,540 per annum.
UNITED STATES.-"The episcopal churches are the Romanist, which has 1,073 places of worship, 1,081 clergy, and 1,233,350 members, being communicants: the episcopal methodists, who have 5,042 clergy, and 1,112,756 communicants; and the protestant episcopalians, who have 1,232 places of worship, 1,497 clergy, and only 67,550 communicants" (American Almanac, 1851).
THE SANDWICH ISLANDS.-(A precedent for European legislatures).-"Yesterday (Aug. 15, 1851) a deeply interesting discussion took place before an Owhyhee Agricultural Society. This society embraces nearly all the agriculturists and merchants in the islands, and many of the mechanics. There had been a disposition o the part of some to connect distilleries with the sugarmaking business, in order to convert the skimmings, refuse sugar, &c., into an article of commerce, as is done in the West Indies. This had been strongly recommended by the minister of foreign relations. At the present time planters
*This statement, though given from American authority, is obviously most untrue. The "episcopal methodists" are episcopal only in name.