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of the society has been uniformly carried out, and the result of that system is now fully manifest. Two generations of female children at least have passed through these scriptural schools, and are, with very few exceptions, giving satisfactory proofs that the labour which has been bestowed upon them is amply repaid. Other societies, recently formed, are attracting general attention; but not one of them has rendered the work of this society useless. In proportion as the adult population of Ireland examine and think for themselves are they anxious that their children should be scripturally and usefully educated. Although this society has been, as well as others, a pioneer in the way to more enlarged labours, and has broken up, as it were, the fallow ground, it is now almost overlooked. But the female children of Ireland still need, and also wish for education, and endure many hardships rather than be deprived of it. The Romanist priests are increasingly active and persecuting, because they feel their influence is waning; and they probably know that the truth must and will prevail. This society is the only one in Ireland which gives fixed annual grants to its mistresses; a system by which the efficiency and permanence of its schools has been promoted and secured. They are at present 204 in number, which are attended by 9,546 pupils. We cannot conceive it to be possible that such a blessed work as this, rich as it has been and is in spiritual and educational fruits, should be permitted to languish, and perhaps fall to pieces, for lack of liberal countenance on the part of English churchmen and protestants." H. S.
THE BLESSING OF THE SACRAMENT OF THE LORD'S SUPPER*.
infinitely unequal, "without all contradiction the less is blessed of the better" (Heb. vii. 7).
Now I think it needs no proof to maintain that it is not only natural for man to expect that God will bless an act of religion done towards him, but even inconsistent with the divine nature as revealed to us to think otherwise. And undoubtedly there is no action of a Christian of a more decidedly religious character than a reception of the Lord's supper, whensoever that act is undertaken and performed in a fit state (if I may so speak) of moral preparation; and consequently there is no action upon which spiritual blessings are more likely to follow. For, first, it is of itself not merely a renewed acknowledgment, on man's part, of the covenant of mercy to which are attached promises of favour, promises which are "yea and amen" for ever; but it is also a remembrancer, before God, of him through whose merits all the blessings of the mercy covenant are derived to us. And, secondly, it is performed always under the most engaging and solemn circumstances, and with all the adjuncts of true religious worship-confession of sin and of utter demerit on our part, praise, thanksgiving, and prayer; all of which God on his part is willing to accept, and therewith to bless with his most satisfying favour: "Whoso offereth me thanks and praise, he honoureth me" (Ps. 1. 23; xxxii. 5); and "them that honour me I will honour" (1 Sam. ii. 30): "Whosoever shall confess me before men, him will I confess also before my Father which is in heaven" (Matt. x. 32): "If ye, being evil, know how to give good gifts unto your children, how much more shall your heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit to them that ask him?" (Luke xi. 13).
Observation: It may be here remarked that the duty of receiving the Lord's supper by no means requires the sanction of direct promises. For, even supposing that there are no blessings whatever to be expected from it, we are not the less bound to obey our Lord's injunction, nor could which would ungratefully refuse compliance with we in any way justify that hardness of heart the last request of man's best and greatest Friend,
THE term "spiritual" is one which is frequently employed to conceal the indistinctness of our conceptions concerning religious matters. Among many it has taken entire possession of the whole subject of the Lord's supper, and consequently" added much to its obscurity.
That we may, in some measure, remedy this indistinctness, let us here observe that the relation which exists between man as a religious being, and God as the object of religion, is brought about through the medium of that in man's nature
which is nearest to the nature of God. Now this is what we term "spirit," in which, as we conceive, lies that capacity of communion with his Creator which, as far as we know, man has alone of all the creatures of this earth.
When, therefore, we speak of spiritual acts, we would be understood to mean those which spring from this relation between God and man in the way of religion; just as by spiritual blessings we intend such influences as God can convey and man can receive through the same mutual relation; for in this communion between two, so From "Some plain Words upon the Lord's Supper;" by G. F. De Teissier, M.A., fellow and tutor of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. London: T. Hatchard, 187, Piccadilly. 1851. Mr. De Teissier writes in an earnest spirit, and there wesome important observations in his book; though we nfess we cannot always quite agree with what he asserts.
Do this in remembrance of me." Add to which, his divine nature gives to every positive command of his the highest and most incontrovertible sanction, which must always hold good, unless there be counteracting circumstances of equal authority, and so must last till the object of the institution be superseded.
When the Jews asked of Christ, "What shall we do that we might work the works of God?” Jesus answered and said unto them, "This is the work of God, that ye believe on him whom he hath works: he answered them about the one work, sent" (John vi. 28). They asked him about that all important one, to believe in Jesus Christ. It is through faith that we have that communion with the Saviour which is necessary to eternal life. And this faith is true, when in proportion to a man's advantages it operates upon his whole nature, moral and intellectual, bodily and spiritual. Faith also is the measure of the value of a man's works before God: without it they are worthless. If this be true of all actions generally, it is more particularly true of those actions which have the most immediate reference to God, namely, religious actions, or those in which a
man expresses his relation to God as the object of religion. Faith on man's part is that principle which enlivens this relation, and draws down from God his blessings; so that every religious action is rewarded according to its motive faith, and the faith itself is rewarded through the action. It will be evident, therefore, that the amount of divine blessing is in proportion to the amount of human faith; and it cannot be necessary, as neither is it possible, to determine precisely the blessings which attach to every individual Christian on receiving the Lord's supper.
It is sufficient for us to know that the blessings are such as are produced by the influence of God's Spirit upon our spirits, and that this influence is not alike to all, forasmuch as all are not alike capable. Nor, by consequence, are the blessings alike to all; for unto him that hath shall be given, and he shall have more abundantly" (Matt. xiii. 12, xxv. 29).
Meanwhile it is faith which inwardly receives and feeds upon Jesus Christ, resting upon his merits, applied through his sufferings to itself. And it teaches the Christian gladly to embrace every seasonable opportunity of showing forth his firm belief in his Saviour by an outward act of remembrance in receiving the Lord's supper. It teaches him that there is no value in the act itself apart from the spirit which should pervade it; but it teaches him, at the same time, that it is his privilege as well as his duty to perform the act; and that to be found in the path of duty is to be found in the way of blessings.
In an external point of view, however, the act of receiving the Lord's supper may be considered as an act, if I may so speak, of concentrated Christianity; forasmuch as it ought to presuppose and imply on the part of the communicant a thorough faith in Christ's merits and atonement, an honest wish to abide by the gospel covenant, a hearty and humble love to God who is so gracious unto sinners for Christ's sake, and a fervent ratitude to the great and good Person who has ood man's friend before God from the beginning. and upon such an act, when beheld and accepted by our heavenly Father, the favour of his goodness would surely follow, to strengthen the faith, the will, the love, and the gratitude which we evince, and so to enlarge our capacity, and therewith increase the blessing.
And it should be observed that "the eating of the flesh, and drinking of the blood of Christ," as expressed in St. John vi. 51-57, is not to be taken, as it usually is, for a command, but rather for a part of the promise made to a true faith in Jesus Christ as the Saviour. The command is, Believe: the promise is everlasting life to follow. And why? Because by obediently believing we do, as it were, eat the flesh of Christ and drink his blood; we accept of him as our offering for sin; he becomes to us, in reepect of our souls, what food is to our bodies; we have through him the assurance of an eternal life within ourselves (compare John vi. 27, 29, 40, with verses 47, 48, and 51). And we thus "receive, embrace, and possess the blessings procured through our Lord's work, with spiritual joy and gladness, and with sincerity and singleness of heart" (comp. Gill. on Heb. xiii. 10).
When, therefore, we receive the Lord's supper
according to Christ's institution, we profess such a faith in him as he has commanded us to have; and, if we profess it truly, we are sure that we shall receive the promise; not by virtue of any act of ours, but because of the faithfulness of him who is "full of grace and truth" (John i. 14); not because there is any express promise attached to the Lord's supper, or because the receiving it can of itself give us life, but because faith inherits (Rom. iv. 13) the promises, and because faith is blessed through every act which it puts forth in obedience to God. Such is the truth which our Lord so frequently impressed upon those who came to him for succour: 'Η πίστις σου σέσωκέ σε "It is thine own faith which hath saved thee" (Matt. ix. 22; Mark x. 52; Luke vii. 50).
In the reception then of the Lord's supper, considered as an act of faith, the communicant, while he contemplates the figures of Christ's body and blood set forth in that sacred rite, feels his faith, through the very act itself, become more lively, so as to be able to apply more and more the merits and the sufferings of the Saviour. Each, according to his case and circumstances, finds a benefit. The sinner's penitence is deepened, his hope of mercy confirmed: the broken heart is comforted, the wounded spirit healed, the timid soul encouraged to go forth in the strength of the Lord, and to make mention of his righteousness only. With such blessings is faith rewarded through the action; and, where the action cannot be done, there no less is faith accepted, there no less does it receive Jesus Christ, and eat his flesh and drink his blood.
We conclude, then, from all that has been said, that the blessing of God comes upon those who rightly receive the Lord's supper, in proportion to their several capacities; just as upon prayer and other acts of faith blessings follow. But we conclude, also, that it is neither wise nor prudent to dwell upon strong metaphorical expressions, which have been the produce of the misinterpretation of scripture passages, or of the somewhat superstitious earnestness of former Christians, and that it is least of all reasonable or kind in us to enforce, as many do, a literal explanation of such expressions, when the minds of most Christians are unable to bear them, or else by bearing them become perverted from the right use of reason.
FEMALE INFANTICIDE IN THE DOAB.*
REFLECTING, as one is apt to do, rather bitterly the thought will arise how little has England on the degraded condition of the woman of India, done for hert, how few and feeble the attempts that have been made to raise her position or to defend her rights. Rights of women! Alas! in India these may be summed up in a few wordshave been well touched by a happier pen than ours. to suffer and to die. The sufferings of the sex
zine for August, 1851; reprinted at the press of Bishop's * From an article bearing this title in the Benares MagaCollege, Calcutta. A frightful picture is here given us of the extent to which infanticide is prevalent, and proofs also that the practice may be checked. Let Christian Englishmen be zealous to do away the hideous practice.-ED.
There are a few bright exceptions to this rule, and lately a very noble attempt to elevate the native female has been made in Calcutta, under the auspices of Mr. Drinkwater Bethune, to which we emphatically wish "God speed."
"To the fair of other lands the fate of the Raj pootnee must appear one of appalling hardship. In each stage of life death is ready to claim her, by the poppy at its dawn, by the flames in riper years; while, the safety of the interval depending on the uncertainty of war, at no period is her existence worth a twelvemonth's purchase. The loss of a battle or the capture of a city is a signal to avoid captivity and its horrors, which, to the Rajpootnee, are worse than death”*.
The woman of India has suffered deep and long, but she has suffered in silence, and her sufferings have been, at least in appearance, voluntary with her own hand has she lighted the funeral fires which were to consume her life along with the lifeless body of her husband; and (in some races) with her own hand has she quenched the spark of infant vitality as each girl was born to her. Our earlier settlers in India, intent on commerce and wealth, had little opportunity to notice the wrongs of the women of the country. At a later period they were averse to meddling with the customs of the people, and at home, unless the sufferings of some begum of rank could be worked up into "political capital," little notice was likely to be taken of the women of India. Later still, lord William Bentinck found it no easy matter to fight the battles of the innocent uncomplaining widow, amidst the official apathy or secret opposition of men who should have been the first to assist him.
However, our present affair is not with the wrongs of Indian women in general, but with the peculiar and unnatural crime which, amongst certain classes, consigns the female infants to immediate death.
And first, to take a more extended glance. Infanticide is a world-wide crime. Except the land of our own Saxon forefathers, we can scarce name a country unstained by the blood of its infant children. Men of letters and refinement have equalled the savage and surpassed the brute in this special ferocity. In all continents-in Europe, Asia, Africa, and America, in almost every island from the rocks of Iceland to the reefs of the Pacific, the hand of the parent has been lifted against his child, The usual cause in other countries has been want or luxury, in India either superstition or pride. Before the time of English domination, thousands of hapless children were thrown as votive offerings to the river gods. These sacrifices have been stayed; but still as we write, hundreds of infant females are being hurried out of the world victims to the pride of their parents.
Let us examine the source of this particular pride, which has proved so tragical to the Rajpootnee girls. Like other martial and gallant races, the early Rajpoots were not insensible to the claims of chivalry. Their women were free. Instead of being mewed up, as is now their lot, in the female apartments, all reasonable liberty was granted to them. Some privileges of the ladies indeed remind us of the best days of romance, and carry us away to the western world, to the days of Charlemagne or the crusades. The distressed Rajpootnee damsel, or the forlorn matron
in the hour of danger, would send her jewelled bracelet to some "preux chevalier," like Bayard of old, "sans peur et sans reproche," who thenceforth would serve his mistress to the death, nor ask but one return, that she should accept and wear the proffered guerdon of his loyalty, a boddice of silk or embroidery. History relates that the emperor Humaioon, son of Baber, was so in-. spired with romantic devotion on receiving a bracelet thus sent by the princess Kurnavati in her distress, that "forgetting the usual phlegm of his nature he pledged himself at once to her service, vowing to obey her behest, even if the demand were the castle of Rinthumbor". The knight thus chosen was styled "Rakhibund bhai," the bracelet-bound brother; and on such a connection the breath of scandal was never known to pass. But, not only might the daughter of a Rajpoot thus choose her liege knight, she might do more, she had a liberty which our own AngloSaxon damsels, unless of royal rank, have seldom tasted-she might choose her own husband, and might herself inform the happy lover on whom her choice had fallen. On a given day the chiefs assembled, and passing through the gallant line of suitors, the Rajpootnee maiden threw the mala or garland over the favoured swain. These assemblies broke up sometimes in so much heat, that at last it was found impossible with safety to convene them. To this day in the mid Doab, as the sun enters the summer solstice, the village youths while away the glowing nights with the chant of "Ala and Bodun." In these and other such romaunts, we learn how readily the disappointed suitors flew to arms, and, with all their love turned into hate, pursued the accepted rival. So much noble blood was shed on an occasion of this sort in the warfare between Jyechund and Pirthee Raj, that from that day no mala has been thrown. The Rajpoot tribes, convulsed by internal dissensions, and hardened by frequent warfare, forgot their old chivalrous ways. The gentler sex, who had caused the mischief, were the first to suffer, and their liberty was changed into thraldom. When they could no longer woo or be wooed by fair means, they must be won at all events, and the sword became the arbiter of their lot. The stronger of the Rajpoots began to carry off by force of arms or by stratagem the marriageable women of other cognate tribes. This practice gave new life to the old Hindoo superstitions of the inferior position of the father-inlaw. The son-in-law became more than ever the social superior of his father-in-law. If the wife were henceforth a slave, the wife's father need expect but little courtesy or consideration. A Rajpoot of the present day is subject to his sonin-law hand and foot, can refuse him nothing, and without disgrace cannot accept so much as a meal at his hands.
† Mr. Rafter, in his "Savindroog," suggests that the corset was chosen as a proof of affection, because that garment is so close to the heart of the wearer; but we are inclined to believe that it was selected to denote a pure and fraternal gift, being the custom for brothers to give presents of dress to their married sisters.
Tod's Annals, quoted by the author of Savindroog. Tod's Annals of Rajasthan. The annalist here refers "The point of honour is carried so far, that it is reckoned to the Rajpoot practice of sacrificing their women, rather disgraceful to receive any assistance in after-life from a sonthan let them fall into an enemy's hands.
in-law or brother-in-law" (Elphinstone's India, vol. i. p. 358.)
There is a tradition prevalent in the Doab, that a Chowhan Thakoor, being sorely pressed by his son-in-law, and smarting under the sense of disgrace which his mere position as the father of a married daughter seemed to entail upon him, called together his sons, and bound them by an oath to save his family from future contempt by destroying every female child that might be born to them. Hence, as some say, the origin of female infanticide amongst the Chowhan Rajpoots, men in other respects the noblest of a not ignoble race*. But there have been other and more subtle influences at work. At the very root of the evil stands this principle: the Hindoo disbelieves the purity of the sex: a daughter arrived at puberty must, he thinks, be married or be disgraced. When he seeks a husband for her, it must be in his own caste, but it must also be in a subdivision of that castet, higher if possible, but at all events differing from his own. To intermarry in one's own subdivision is impossible: such a union would be set down as incestuous.
Disgrace is attached to marriages with men of "The owner of a hyde inferior relative rank. of land, whether Seesodea, Rhatore, or Chohan, would scorn the hand of a Jareja princess". What, then, is a Rajpoot father to do with his marriageable daughters? He must, it is clear, seek a husband for them in a rank equal to his own, or in a higher rank; but, if his own subdivision be high-if he be a Chowhan or a Rahtore, he will not easily find such a son-in-law, or if he do find him, will have to pay high in hard coin for blood and rank. And this is why a Rajpoot mourns when a daughter is born to him, and rejoices when he has a son. The one brings disgrace, anxiety, or at the least heavy expense upon his house: the other increases his wealth and his dignity.
So far, then, we have attempted to trace the domestic position of the Rajpoot girls. This position is a false one. So, it may be said, is that of thousands of their sisters in Europe, who suffer from the prevailing scarcity of husbands. But, in the western world, we have no false private code of morals ruling, as in India, that celibacy is a disgrace. Hundreds of our best and most useful persons are unmarried women. The state which Christianity has sanctified, heathenism has
more than debased-it has annihilated. There is
no such element in Indian society as that which the adult unmarried female so gracefully supplies in Europe. A woman in India must marry or she must cease to be. The conventional rules, then, of the society in which the Rajpoot for some centuries past has found himself, left him but this option, to give up his pride or his daughters.
bondsmen of sin and death, that we should behold the works of him that shall come again, and hear that gospel preached, which is thy power unto salvation, grant us, we beseech thee, thy Holy Spirit, that we may be taught of him the things of Christ in all their fulness. And give us more and more cause to thank thee, O merciful Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that, whereas thou hidest these things from the wise and prudent of this world, thou hast graciously revealed them unto us, thy babes and children in Christ Jesus. Even so, Father, may it seem good in thy sight, for his righteousness' sake, who, with thee and the Holy Spirit, liveth and reigneth, world without end. Amen.
"The light of the gospel is an exhilarating light, a refreshing, clearing, and comfortable light; darkness and sadness-they go together. Now, and that Satan envies us. Light and gladness, the gospel ever brings joy with it. As the wise men, when they saw the star, rejoiced with exceeding great joy', still you shall see, wherever the gospel takes its place, it brings joy with it. They entertain it as Zaccheus did Christ: he received him joyfully.' And the eunuch, when he saw this light, he went his way rejoicing.' The dejected and despairing gaoler too, as soon as he 'believed, he prayed.' And the city of Samaria, they entertained the gospel,' and there lightened by baptism, and forthwith rejoiced.' was great joy in that city.' All these were en"Tis this joy and comfort Satan repines at. He loves to have us rejoice in evil; or, if that will not maligus the light of the gospel. O it is an enbe, gloomy in piety. In all these respects Satan livening light! it recovers us out of the holds of death, and so it despoils him. It is a detecting light, and so it discovers him: it is a directing light, and so it disappoints him: it is a clearing and comforting light, and so it vexes him. The church's comfort is the devil's torment" (bp. Brownrig).
JESUS CHRIST CRUCIFIED THE SUM AND
BY THE REV. J. E. PHILIPPS,
1 COR. ii. 2.
"For I determined not to know anything among you,
save Jesus Christ and him crucified."
to both Jews and Greeks. To the Jews it was a "stumbling-block;" for they, looking as they did for some supernatural display of the divine glory, such as had attended the giving of the law from Mount Sinai, could not be brought to believe that he, who made his appearance in the world under such humiliating circumstances, and who had recently suffered an ignominious death, could be their long-promised Messiah. Proud of their national privileges as the children of Abraham, they could not brook the indignity of being placed upon no better footing as regarded salvation than the other nations of the earth; nor could those amongst them, who, like the Scribes and Pharisees, thought to purchase heaven by an exact compliance with the requirements of the law, view without disgust a religious system which offered no peculiar immunities to those who had for ages occupied the high position of God's people; but which threw open its blessings to men of every country, and every race--to "Barbarian, Scythian, bond and free."
Ir should be matter for much thankfulness to us, my reverend brethren, who are charged with the arduous and responsible duties of the Christian ministry, that, besides the ample instructions for fulfilling them, which are given in the valuable epistles to Timothy and Titus, we have also the example of him who gave those instructions, and who so fully acted up to the great principles embodied in them; for, if we wish to form a true estimate of the qualifications necessary for the efficient discharge of our high and holy function, we cannot do better than attentively consider the distinctive features in the character and conduct of the great apostle What was to the Jews, for these reasons, a of the Gentiles. By carefully observing " stumbling-block,' was to the Greeks, on what he said and did, by marking the spirit other accounts, "foolishness;" for they and temper which he displayed in the vary-"sought after wisdom." They had culing circumstances of his laborious and eventful life, and by contemplating that rich assemblage of graces for which he was so distinguished, we cannot fail of obtaining a deeper insight into the nature and obligations of our ministerial office, and of being stirred up to a more zealous and active performance of our pastoral duties.
As it would clearly be impossible, upon the present occasion, to examine, though ever so slightly, the apostle's numerous ministerial excellencies, I shall confine myself to the the consideration of what seems, from the declaration in the text, to have been the distinguishing characteristic of his preaching: "I determined not to kno anything among you, save Jesus Christ and him crucified." And may that blessed Spirit, without whose help and guidance every human undertaking must fail, be present with us at this time; that we may profit by the subject about to be brought before us, and that the truth, however feebly and imperfectly delivered, may "commend itself to every man's conscience in the sight of God."
We learn from the opening chapter of this epistle that the gospel, as first preached by the apostle at Corinth, had met with much opposition; and that the great doctrine of salvation through a crucified Redeemer was alike hateful, though for different reasons, Preached at the bishop of Salisbury's visitation, at Dorchester, on the 9th October, 1851.)
tivated literature with much success, and had acquired a great fondness for those studies which call the powers of the human mind into exercise, and furnish matter for subtle argumentation. They excelled also in the practice of oratory. It was with them a distinct and important feature of education; and those who wished to gain the public ear, and to obtain converts to their opinions upon those points which were the favourite subjects of discussion, had little chance of success unless their ideas were clothed in the glowing language, and presented in all the captivating graces, of a finished rhetoric. There was nothing, then, either in the subject which the apostle brought before them, or in his manner of treating it, which was calculated to gratify this taste of theirs. There was, on the contrary, what seemed to them the height of folly and absurdity in the idea that the mere regeneration of mankind was to be effected through the instrumentality of One, who had suffered death as a malefactor; while the apostle's plainness of speech, in making this announcement, so different from that style of oratory which they so highly prized, was not calculated to make his statements more palatable, and the doctrines of the cross less offensive. Yet, notwithstanding all this, such obstacles to the reception of the gospel as in the eye of reason might have seemed insurmountable were overcome by the method pursued by the apostle.