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with God through our Lord Jesus Christ;" they "have access by faith" into his most holy presence; they stand in his favour in a state of grace (Rom. v. 1, 2); because "by faith" they are "covered with the robe of " their Redeemer's "righteousness" (Isa. lxi. 10), the wedding garment provided for their acceptance, and they partake of his blessing.
This is the second point of Christian doctrine, the understanding of which is needful-that, in order to draw nigh unto God (Heb. vii. 19), we must be made accepted in his beloved Son (Ephes. i. 6), our Redeemer, whose "righteousness is unto all, and upon all them that believe" in his name (Rom. iii. 22).
But, further, as the children of men are, in consequence of their fallen state and nature, still inclined to evil, notwithstanding they may have obtained pardoning mercy, and are permitted to have access as righteous persons into the presence of the most holy Lord God Almighty, yet, in order that they may be assured that their supplications at the throne of grace shall not be rejected, but shall be heard and answered, he who is their sinatoning Redeemer and the Lord their righteousness, is also made known to them in his holy word as their "great High Priest that is passed into the heavens" (Heb. iv. 14), who "ever liveth to make intercession for them that come unto God by him" (Heb. vii. 25), their Mediator and Advocate at the throne of grace, "the one Mediator between God and man” (1 Tim. ii. 5), whom the Father "heareth always" (John xi. 42), and who can be touched with the feeling of our infirmities," having been "in all points tempted" and tried "like as we are, yet without sin" (Heb. iv. 15); "and who, being holy, harmless, undefiled, separate from sinners, and made higher than the heavens" (Heb. vii. 26), is both able and willing to undertake the cause of the suppliants at his mercy-seat.
their heavenly Father, in the all-prevailing name of his "beloved Son, in whom he is well pleased" (Matt. iii. 17), “in every thing by prayer and supplication with thanksgiving to make known their requestsjunto God", that "the peace of God, which passeth all understanding," may "keep their hearts and minds through Christ Jesus" (Phil. iv. 6, 7), because "we have an Advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous; and he is the propitiation for our sins" (1 John ii. 1, 2).
And as the gift of the Holy Spirit is the promised blessing of the New Testament dispensation, or the "new covenant" (Heb. viii. 13), in a peculiar manner, since "Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us, that we might receive the promise of the Spirit through faith" (Gal. iii. 13, 14), their prayer to their heavenly Father will be most especially that this best of blessings may be bestowed upon them, that they may be "endued with his Holy Spirit, and enriched with his heavenly grace," to "comfort their hearts and establish them in every good word and work" (2 Thess. ii. 17); or that "the God of peace" may "sanctify them wholly," that "their whole spirit and soul and body may be preserved blameless, unto the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ" (1 Thess. v. 23).
"As many as are led by the Spirit of God, they are the sons of God" (Rom. viii. 14). These persons as the obedient children of their heavenly Father will be mindful of their "duty towards God and their duty towards their neighbour." For this purpose they will pray for his grace to enable them to "love the Lord their God with all their heart, with all their soul, with all their mind, and with all their strength, and to love their neighbour " (Mark xii. 30, 31) and their fellowcreatures as themselves; so as to honour their superiors in rank and station, and to injure no one in his person, in his family, in his property, or in his character, or even desire to benefit themselves
This is the third benefit which is obtained from our Lord Jesus Christ by his believing people-to that, through his mediation and intercession every needful blessing will be bestowed upon them by their heavenly Father, in answer to their "effectual fervent prayers" (James v. 16).
Thus to the penitent sinner, who confesses, and desires to forsake his sins, and to "flee from the wrath to come" (Matt. iii. 7), our Lord Jesus Christ is made known in his holy word, first, as "the propitiation for our sins" (1 John iv. 10), through whom and for whose sake pardoning mercy is vouchsafed to all who humbly and earnestly seek it, through faith in his blood-shedding and death; secondly, as "the Lord our Righteousness, whose "righteousness is unto all and upon all them that believe" (Rom. iii. 22); so that they are admitted into the presence of God for his sake, to present their supplications before him; and, thirdly, as their High Priest and Mediator, through whom every blessing that they need is to be obtained at the throne of grace.
Those, who put their trust in the propitiation for sin or the atonement of Christ for their pardon, in his righteousness or obedience to the law of God for their justification before God, and in his mediation as their High Priest or Intercessor for obtaining the blessings of divine grace, may "draw nigh to God" (James iv. 8) at all times as
the detriment or injury of others, but "to do unto all men as they would have others do to themselves" in the like circumstances. They will pray to the Lord God Almighty to enable them, by his grace, so to act; calling upon him as their Father, through Jesus Christ their Saviour; regarding him as being in heaven, out of sight, yet "looking upon all the inhabitants of the earth" (Ps. xxxiii. 14), “searching all their hearts" (1 Chron. xxviii. 9), knowing all their secret thoughts. To hallow his glorions and fearful name, and "not to take it in vain," will be their first desire and prayer; for "the fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom" (Ps. cxi. 10). The coming of his kingdom, that he may reign as the Lord of all, and especially may rule in and reign over themselves, will be that for which they will be most anxious, and that the "will" of God may "be done on earth," as it is done "in heaven," around his throne in glory, where all is humble and willing obedience. They will therefore "remember the sabbath-day to keep it holy" (Exod. xx. 8), as set apart to the service of God, an anticipation of the "rest" which "remaineth for the people of God" (Heb. iv. 9) in his heavenly kingdom, and the only representation of it that is to be found upon earth. Their dependence upon God for their daily subsistence and nourish
ment will lead them to pray to him, further, fo- 5,6): "They are before the throne of God, and every thing that is requisite for their daily sup- serve him day and night in his temple; and he port and comfort. They will be anxious also for that sitteth on the throne dwells among them; a daily-renewed sense of pardoning mercy, and aud the Lamb which is in the midst of the throne for grace to enable them to render according to feeds them, and leads them unto living fountains the benefits done to them; to forgive, as they hope of waters, and God wipes away all tears from their to be forgiven. And they will pray for daily pre-eyes" (Rev. vii, 16. 17). What have such beings servation from temptation, "from all the deceits to do with earth? Nothing whatever. and snares of the world, the flesh, and the devil," that they may not do that which is sinful in consequence of complying with the evil suggestions of their spiritual enemies; but that, by the grace of the Holy Spirit, they may be strengthened with strength in their souls to "mortify all their evil and corrupt affections," the whole body of sin. Thus they will show themselves to be truly the children of God, and heirs of glory.
But it is said that "there is joy in heaven, in the presence of the angels of God, over one sinner that repenteth" (Luke xv. 7-10). Yes, when the tidings are conveyed through the mansions of bliss, that the end is accomplished, with regard to any of the fallen race of man, for which the Son of God became the Son of man, to seek and to save that which was lost" (Luke xix. 10), then the hosts of heaven tune their harps to higher notes of praise and thanksgiving to him whose love to man was so wondrously displayed. But they know nothing of the concerns of this world further than he, who "fills heaven and earth" (Jer. xxiii. 24) with his presence, is pleased to communicate them to those who surround his throne in glory. And, if he sees fit to send his angels on any service with regard to the heirs of salvation (Heb. i. 14), still no mutual intercourse is held between them and the inhabitants of this world; they receive no messages from mankind, to be delivered to him whose commands they obey. There is no means of communication whatever for the children of men with the God of heaven, but through him alone who became man for our sakes, that he might be qualified to be our Redeemer and Mediator. Through him the Holy Spirit is given to them that ask for this best of blessings from their heavenly Father, in the name of his beloved Son; and, by the grace of the Holy Spirit, those who are reconciled to God are enabled, in answer to their humble and earnest supplications for it, to live in obedience to his holy will and commandments, and to "walk in the same all the days of their life," so as to "adorn the doctrine of God our Saviour in all things" (Titus ii. 10); and to look forward in hope to his eternal kingdom and glory, as "the gift of of God, through Jesus Christ our Lord" (Rom. vi. 23).
Such is the Christian character. While we endeavour to exemplify it, we must ever remember that it is to the Lord Jesus Christ we are indebted for every thing with regard to God and heaven. He himself declared: "I am the way, the truth, and the life; no man cometh unto the Father but by me" (John xiv. 6). We must trust alone to the death of Christ in our stead, as our substitute, for the expiation of our offences. We must trust alone to his obedience or righteousness for our acceptance in the presence of God, so as to draw nigh to the God of heaven as our Father," and be regarded by him with favour as his children. And we must trust alone to the mediation of Christ for obtaining those blessings which we need, from the Giver of all good, day by day continually. The Lord Jesus Christ must be our whole and sole dependence for pardon, for justification before God, and for obtaining the gifts of divine grace; so that all the glory of our salvation may be ascribed to him alone. When the holy scriptures declare to us that "God so loved the world that he gave his only-begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life" (John iii. 16), and that "he, who spared not his own Son, but delivered him up for us all, will with him also freely give us all things" (Rom. viii. 32), what wickedness is it for any of the children of men to presume to call upon other invisible beings to intercede with God for them; as the apostate It is indeed from the grace of the Holy Spirit church of Rome teaches its adherents to do! Our that all good in the children of men proceeds in Lord Jesus Christ is "omnipresent" (Matt. xviii. the first instance. He convinces the conscience 20) and "omniscient" (Rev. ii. 23) as the eternal" of sin " (John xvi. 8): he brings home to it a Son of God. This is not the attribute of any sense of its guilt and danger; and he leads the created being whatever. Those who have lived penitent sinner to seek earnestly for pardoning in this world as human beings know nothing of mercy. He carries on in the hearts of believers its concerns after they have left it: "The dead in the Lord Jesus Christ the work which his grace know not anything, neither have they any more begins, by testifying to them of Christ, and glori a portion in anything that is done under the sun; fying him in them (John xv. 26, xvi. 14), and he their love and their hatred is perished" (Eccles.brings forth the head-stone" of the spiritual ix. 5, 6), and come to an end. So Hezekiah "said in the cutting off of" his "days, I shall behold man no more, with the inhabitants of the world" (Isa. xxxviii. 11). The saints in glory are better employed than in attending to the concerns of this lower world. They have done with it for ever. Their own salvation excites so greatly their wonder, love, and praise, that their song is, "Unto him that loved us, and washed us from our sins in his own blood, and hath made us kings and priests unto God and his Father, to him be glory and dominion for ever and ever" (Rev. i.
building "with shoutings of Grace, grace, unto it" (Zech. iv. 7); that they, "walking in the fear of the Lord, and in the comfort of the Holy Ghost" (Acts ix. 31), may press forward in the narrow way to the kingdom of heaven, and may "rejoice in hope of the glory of God" (Rom. v. 2), that, "when Christ, who is" their "life," hope, and their joy, "shall appear in power and great glory, they shall be made like unto him in his eternal and glorious kingdom, and shall appear with him in glory" (Col. iii. 4), and shall be blessed in partaking of his great and
blessed salvation throughout the countless ages of eternity.
Let me ask my reader, Do you call yourself a Christian? If your faith and hope be truly in the Lord Jesus Christ, you may here learn how to walk with God in humility day by day as your Father; "as seeing him who is invisible" (Heb. xi. 27), and may live as a child of God under his all-seeing eye, while you "worship God in the Spirit, praying in the Holy Ghost" (Jude 2), "and rejoice in Christ Jesus, and have no confidence in the flesh " (Phil. iii. 2). And thus you may have a good hope through grace" (2 Thess. ii. 16), that, whenever you shall be called out of this dying world, "an entrance shall be ministered unto you abundantly into the everlasting kingdom of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ" (2 Peter i. 11), to sing the praises of redeeming love for evermore. That this may be the blessedness of the writer and readers of this essay, may God of his infinite mercy grant, for Christ our Redeemer's sake, Amen.
BY THE REV. DENIS KELLY, M.A.,
'Man worships man."-COWPER.
I FEAR it must be admitted that there is a tone of exaggeration which pervades many of our remarks, and especially our panegyrics when speaking or writing of religious characters, which ought I think, to be deprecated, as being of an injurious tendency. Some of the eulogistic phrases which are in general use are applied so lavishly and indiscriminately, that, although excellent in themselves, we could, from the abuse that has been made of them, almost wish them erased from our religious vocabulary. Such are "The truly amiable person;" the "man of purest motives;" of the "perfectly single eye;""one who has no other object in view but the glory of God," &c., &c.
exaggeration of any kind never did or never could serve the cause of God. This perfection, this angelical excellence is not, as all the world knows, to be found in the human character. I would not detract an iota from the merit of those who on scriptural authority are styled "the excellent of the earth," and who in comparison of others are transcendently excellent indeed; but the almost superhuman virtue and amiability ascribed to them is not possessed by them, nor by any of mankind. Alas! it is easy to speak of "the perfectly pure and wholly disinterested motive;" of being "superior to all selfish considerations or ambitious aimis"; of "having no one object in view but the glory of God and the good of men." But this perfectly pure motive, this perfect simplicity and singleness of eye, is not attained so easily or all at once. We must look to a higher and purer state of existence for these. Alas! if we were to wait until our motives were perfectly pure, and wholly without alloy of selfishness of any kind, there are few indeed who must not retire from God's service-from the field of action. Indeed in no particular is the mercy and compassion of heaven more strikingly evinced than in his acting towards us as our Lord did towards the disciple who came to him by night, accepting what is sincere, pardoning what is defective, provided that imperfection be lamented, mourned over, and struggled against. It may sound well to speak of an individual as superior to all aspiring and selfish aims; but where shall you find one, in point of fact, who is so? Where shall you find the individual who will arrogate such merit to himself, except it be the self-deceived, self-righteous man, the whited sepulchre"? There is not a man upon the face of the earth, who is not "by nature," ambitious and self-interested. There is not a man living, who is superior to the weaknesses and imperfections of our fallen nature: all share them. Or, if we might possibly find one who had nearly reached this height of perfection, we should be much more likely to find him amongst those who, through severe and painful discipline, and the disappointment of cherished hopes, and having drunk deep of the cup of bitterness, have been brought to an indifference either to the world's censure or applause; or still rather amongst those who are on the brink of eternity, in whose view this world shrinks into nothingness, while the next bursts on them in its tremendous glory and magnificence.
These high and laudatory expressions, beautiful in themselves, are upon the lips of too many, and are applied with too lavish and indiscriminate I object to these pictures of faultless excela generosity. This tone of exaggeration is very lence, therefore, because they are not true to often observable in what is termed Christian bio- nature; and all feel and know that they are not. graphy." Most of the lives of eminent religious The first impression made on the minds of all who characters are written in a strain of almost un- read them is, that they are overdrawn and exmixed eulogy. Take up a volume professing to aggerated. And this does harm: it creates an record the life and actions of a religious charac-unfavourable impression. We say, "This is indeed ter, and you may guess before you open the book that you shall be presented with one shewing a list of virtues and excellencies undimmed by a shade; or, if that shade be added, it is touched in such a way, with so much softening and apology, as to neutralize the effect of it, so that it scarcely makes any impression on the mind, and prevents not our regarding the individual pourtrayed as a character of faultless excellence.
Now I object to this on many accounts. I object to it because exaggeration is untruth, and
very beautiful, but it is not faithful-wants reality." Alas! how often have I desired, while reading the memoirs of some confessedly good and excellent men, to have found a little more of that impartiality, that severe justice which are spicuous in some of our eminent historians. For what a powerful impression of the truthfulness of
How beautiful the impartiality of the sacred historians! dreadful crimes; Paul's contention; Peter's duplicity, &c Abraham's falsehood; Noah's horrible ingratitude; David's &c.
the narrative is left on the mind by the manifestly just and even balance in which the virtues and failings of the individual are weighed. First we read of the virtues and excellences which win our admiration and applanse. We next find the pen of the historian recording with equal fidelity and freedom from reserve the failings and imperfections which counterbalance those virtues. Nothing is kept back the darkest shades are laid on with as rigorous impartiality as the fairest and brightest strokes. And a powerful effect is produced on the mind by this. We feel that all this is realthat it is true, that it is inflexible and incorruptible justice that is sketching the picture. Nor is this unfavourable to our general impressions of the character itself, but the contrary. The virtues shine more brightly when relieved by the shadings of their failings; and the whole makes us feel that which we knew to be the truth, viz., that human nature is weak and corrupt at its best estate. It moreover humbles us and makes us turn our thoughts inwards, and keep us from forming harsh judgments. I own we should be pleased to see a little more of this rigorous impartiality in the biographies of eminent Christians. I should like to see the shades of their characters drawn with the bold unfaltering hand of justice and truth. How often then should the sketch given, instead of being an unmixed eulogy, stand thus: "Such a one possessed indeed many excellent qualities. He was upright, generous, pure, blameless in conduct. He possessed those qualifications which made him a fine and useful public character-great zeal and energy, and untiring industry and unflinching moral courage; but he did not possess in an equal degree the milder virtues. He was often harsh, repellent, fond of power, jealous of a rival, impatient of contradiction or dictation. He had much of intellectual pride; in short, he laboured under the defects which are usually attendant on those qualities which fit one for public usefulness-for taking the lead in a great cause." Or again: "Such an individual was most amiable and gentle in private life, the charm of every circle in which he moved; but he was singularly deficient in energy and moral courage, and those other qualities which are necessary to render effective service to any cause; one whom you could love, but on whose firmness or decision you could not depend." And what would be the effect of this biographical impartiality? of this mingling of light and shade in the characters drawn? Would these severely true pictures affect us less than the mawkish ones of unmingled excellence and worth? I believe that, on the contrary, they would commend themselves to us at once by their rigorous impartiality. We should feel that we were reading of men of like infirmities with ourselves-poor, weak samples of human nature; or, if we were disposed to find fault, we need only to contrast our own indolence and selfindulgence with their labours of self-denying exertions-our own temporizing and wavering and timidity and "shrinking from the cross," with their moral courage and decision; our own comparatively ungenerous habits with their boundless liberality; our own comparative inutility with their extensive usefulness-to perceive at once our vast inferiority to them, and so to seal our lips in silence.
But I object to this tone of exaggeration on another account-because it has a tendency to foster that idolatry of man to which the heart is naturally so prone. Man delights in making to himself idols: he delights to bow down and worship the idol of his own forming. He likes to have a model to which he may point and say, "There is an instance of faultless excellence." Now they who find their interest in man's submission to this sort of idolatry will naturally foster the feeling they, whose ambitious views it subserves to exalt their ministers into demi-gods, and make the people bow down to them and almost worship them, will sanction and encourage it. But Christianity fosters it not: on the contrary, it is careful to keep men back from this idolatrous admiration of any; it speaks of inspired apostles as men of like passions with others. The consequences of this species of idolatry are most pernicious. For, when they who form to themselves these exalted models are undeceived, and discover (as all must eventually do), that their idols have their failings like other men, then they begin to visit on religion itself the faults of their idols. And I fear that indifference to religion has sometimes resulted from the disappointment which some have felt from discovering that the idolized model had his failings as well as others.
And I dislike this idolatry of individuals still more because it frequently leads to the most uncharitable judgments. Men, when they have thus formed to themselves these models of ideal excellence, begin to judge others by their self-constituted standard; and the almost unavoidable consequence of this is that invidious comparisons will be made. "O, such a one's motives were so pure, his disposition so truly amiable, he was so perfect a character, so liberal, so disinterested, 80 delightful a character altogether!" But there does not appear to be the same simplicity of inten tion and singleness of eye in the other: he does not look near so amiable: his manner, his tone, his accent, are not near so sweet and engaging: he wants his blandness and gentleness: "ah what a difference!" And what is the consequence? A strong prejudice is conceived against the less favoured individual. Well-affected grief and pity for his deficiencies may indeed be expressed; but in a little time the most disparaging and harsh and malevolent remarks are made of him; and it is well if the most wanton and cruel calumnies against him do not in the end arise as the eventual offspring of these exaggerated judg. ments.
Therefore, I object to these highly-coloured pictures of human excellence. I dislike these excessive eulogies-these expressions of wonder and delight at the mention of men's names; I know what they are near akin to. When we hear these expressions, we are almost sure to find that uncharitableness and malevolence are close at hand. I approve not of the arrogating of the gift of "discerning of spirits." For, he who takes on himself to pronounce so decisively on the supposed faultless excellence of one, will pronounce just as peremptorily on the imagined failings and deficiencies of another: he, who this moment will break out with fulsome panegyric of his idol, one who is superior to all self-interested views and aspiring aims, will in the next put the invidious
question to another, "But are you such a one? are you free from ambition and self-seeking?" Alas! did such men only look into their own hearts, how cautious and slow would they be in putting such questions! The less we have to do with scanning men's motives, and still more with interpreting their looks and tones and accents, the better. They who have fancied themselves the most skilful adepts in these arts have proved themselves to be the most arrant fools. It would be better to dwell on those points we are not liable to mistake on, viz., on actions, well authenticated facts: it is better to state simply what a man has done than how he looks or speaks, or how he differs from this favoured individual or the other. Has he laboured on self-denyingly, when another has given over? is he blameless in his conduct? has he been a kind, dutiful, and obedient son? is he esteemed and beloved by those who knew him best? is he strict in conduct, just and generous? &c., &c. I would not say anything with a view to lower the admiration of true excellencefar otherwise. I would not either abridge the privilege of forming a judgment upon facts-wellauthenticated facts; but I do from my heart repudiate that silly self-conceit, that imaginary clearness and penetration and sagacity in diving into characters, which can pronounce oracularly on a character from the most trivial circumstancefrom a look, a tone, an expression, or vent its envenomed spleen and malevolence, under a feigned pity for the supposed failings and imperfections of an individual who does not come up to the ideal standard of excellence. I look upon the whole to be as silly and ridiculous and affected as it is uncharitable and spiteful. The weakest-minded persons, or, to speak plainly, the greatest fools I have met, have been those who imagined they possessed this sort of cleverness. Such, at all events, results have proved them to be.
BETTING is love of money, urging you to try to increase what you have, by obtaining it from your neighbour, without giving him any thing valuable for it. It is very nearly allied therefore to robbery, and is always a neighbour to fraud and deceit. It is said, in palliation, all are equal;' that every man has an equal chance.' My answer is, that assertion is very open to doubt; it is very often a grievous mistake. There is deep calculation by some. Some even boast that money may surely be made by it. Some are possessed of more information than others, and they who have that information seek to turn it to account, not by imparting their knowledge, that all may avail themselves of it, but by an instant endeavour to overreach those who have it not; and I think those who know most will allow that in nothing is more deceit practised.
Equally unfortunate and unhappy, to my mind,
*The Morality of Betting examined. A Sermon preached in the parish church of Richmond, Yorkshire, on Sunday, the 20th of June, 1852. By the Rev. Lawrence Ottley, M.A. Rector, on occasion of the death of one of his parishioners by his own hand, owing to unsuccessful betting at Epsom races.
London: Hatchard. 1852.
are they who lose and those who win in this system. The man who loses often curses himself. The man who wins is cursed by others. The whole system is one of Satan's devices, to absorb your energies in a matter connected solely with earth, to rob you of your peace of mind, and of all interest in religion.
A gambler of this order can take no pleasure in religious duties, or the spiritual welfare of his fellow-creatures. His mind is full of these exciting but miserable affairs. If he loses, he gives his money for nothing. If he wins, he obtains it for nothing. Each man is striving to obtain the other's money; and both winner and loser are breaking two commandments of the law of God, which says, "Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself," and "Thou shalt not covet."
Were I to attempt to relate the miseries and crimes, the drunkenness and thieving, and other foul iniquities to which this system leads, some would be inclined to think that an overdrawn picture was placed before them. If the number of servants made dishonest, of parents unhappily robbed by their own children, of tradesmen defrauded by those they trusted, or ruined by their own folly, of families brought to destitution, of persons deprived of reason; nay, if in any one year the number of coroner's inquests of which the correct verdict might be, 'Death through covetousness,' and the other collateral domestic evils arising from betting, were laid before you, it would be a picture of woe which would greatly distress you, and would more easily fill a volume than be contained in a sermon.
More indignant self-dissatisfaction is seldom felt, and never more strongly expressed, than by a disappointed gambler. How many horrible execrations of his own folly, and of the lives and limbs of all supposed to have been accessory to his loss, have I not heard from the compressed and impassioned lips of the man who has lost his bet! His family feel it equally with himself: he becomes morose and unquiet. The whole affair is as unlike Christianity as Christ is unlike Satan.
My dear brethren, before you make another bet, or become in any way an accessory to this system, beseech you to remember that, when you are drinking to the success of your stake, you may be drinking to the utter destruction of some poor man whose all is wrapt up in the cast of that sweepstakes. You may win, or you may lose; you may have won or lost what is a small matter to you; but by your example you give an impetus to that system, which has brought many a fellowman to desperation and to death. And who can say what man partook of the sweepstakes in which some poor self-murdered man's money was deposited? I repeat that, if you win a bet through any of the numerous holders of these iniquitous stakes, you may be a direct gainer by that which has caused another's death. Thus the man who makes money by betting sometimes makes it by murder. It may be that he knows nothing of the suicidal act committed through a loser's desperation, or even of the person who commits it; but the effect is the same whether you know the man or not. Your having gained was the cause of another's loss. If this statement cannot be disproved, then it is evident the system is contrary to all fair and honest monetary and mercantile