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assumes that when, in your reply to the Yamên, you say that it is in a greater degree their "duty" to make every effort to assure protection in the case of peaceable Japanese than of other foreigners, you refer to the occasion now existing for such efforts, rather than to the extent or the obligation of protection, which can not be less in the case of citizens or subjects of a neutral and friendly power than in that of subjects of a belligerent. W. Q. GRESHAM.

I am, etc.,

Mr. Denby to Mr. Gresham.

No. 1986.]

Peking, September 30, 1894.

SIR: I have the honor to state that there has recently existed in Peking such a feeling of uneasiness among the American missionaries, in view of possible popular disturbances on account of the war, that I felt it my duty to obtain from the Yamên some assurances of their safety.

On the 19th instant, in a personal interview, I stated to the Yamên that there prevailed among the people many rumors of an antiforeign character; that hostility to Japanese seemed inclined to become hostility to foreigners in general. I told them that if they considered it advisable, I would recommend all the American residents to leave the city and take refuge at Tien-Tsin or Shanghai, but that if they remain here it must be with an understanding that their protection was accepted by the Yamên as a responsibility.

The minister promptly replied, accepting the responsibility of the protection of all Americans in the city, and urging them to remain at their posts. They promised to give additional orders to the police in the matter, and to post proclamations at all American mission chapels, of which a list was given them.

It is to be hoped that these measures will guard us against any local disturbances.

I have, etc.,

CHAS. DENBY, Jr., Chargé d'Affaires ad interim.

Mr. Denby to Mr. Gresham.

No. 1987.]

Peking, October 3, 1894.

SIR: I have the honor to state that this legation, more than fully occupied in the management of particular matters of business, and having so small a staff, consisting only of Mr. Cheshire and myself, has been unable to enter, in correspondence with the Department, as fully as desirable upon some of the general aspects of the war.

At the outbreak of hostilities the statesmen of China manifested a laudable intention to gain the approval of foreign powers. They have shown themselves willing to accede to any reasonable demands, and have made every effort to inflict as little inconvenience as possible upon the neutrals in their borders and upon neutral shipping. Those defen

sive measures of which we have had to complain, as the blockade of Ningpo and Shanghai and the proposed examination of men-of-war, were dictated by fear, and were not put forward in any spirit of disregard of neutral rights.

The present crisis has already had a good effect on the status of foreigners in the official and popular estimation. We are often appealed to for information and advice, and our superiority in all practical matters is freely recognized. A significant instance of the changed attitude toward us was shown in a recent imperial decree removing an official from office at Tientsin, in which, amongst other charges against him, he is said by the Emperor "to have made himself ridiculous to foreigners." Such a statement would never have appeared in an official paper a few months ago.

Everything needful has been done for our security here and elsewhere. Two attacks by rowdies have been made recently on American missionaries in this city, but no injury was suffered, and measures have been taken to prevent the recurrence of such events. The recent examinations, in which 17,000 students took part, passed off without any antiforeign demonstration whatever.

The effect of this war, except in the remote contingency of dissolution of the Empire, must be beneficial to China. The foremost minds already see the necessity for a renovation of her methods and the desira bility of entering on the path of Western civilization. Such a step on her part will benefit not only herself, but the whole world.

I have, etc.,

CHAS. DENBY, Jr., Chargé d'Affaires ad interim.

Mr. Denby to Mr. Gresham.

No. 1992.]

Peking, October 8, 1894.

SIR: In my dispatch, No. 1986, of the 30th ultimo, I had the honor to inform you of the steps taken to impress upon the Yamên their responsibility for the protection of foreigners in Peking and the acceptance of this responsibility by them.

I have the honor to state that the proclamations which they promised to issue have now appeared. These proclamations, a translation of which is inclosed, are couched in language most calculated to have a beneficial influence on the populace. They are of enormous size and are stamped with the seal of the commandant of the gendarmerie. One or more copies have been posted on the walls of every missionary establishment, every legation, and every foreign residence in the city.

I inclose herewith a translation of a note from the ministers in which they forward me a copy of the proclamation. In this note they refer to the punishment which has been inflicted on the assailant of two American missionaries in a street disturbance, which it was recently necessary to bring to their attention.

A copy of a note, expressing the gratitude of this legation for the Yamên's action in these matters, is inclosed.

I have, etc.,

CHAS. DENBY, Jr., Chargé d'Affaires ad interim.

[Inclosure 1 in No. 1992.]

Proclamation issued by the Yamên of the general commandant of the gendarmerie for general information.

Whereas since the treaties of commerce between China and foreign countries were entered into peace has long continued to reign, the reigning dynasty has regarded all foreigners with equal kindness, making no discrimination against any.

The Japanese, however, have now abrogated their treaty and commenced hostilities. They are employing their forces on our coasts. This, however, is a matter that does not involve foreigners of other nationalities. It is China's duty to take special care in giving protection to missionaries and their churches in Peking. But there have been loafers who have circulated rumors for the purpose of creating trouble in the vicinity of the Erh Tiao lane, inside the Anting gate, where there is an American missionary establishment. There has been much improper talking, which has put the missionaries in a state of apprehension and fear, and has decidedly affected the friendly relations existing. If such things occur in this locality other localities will not be free from similar rumors, and it is necessary that proclamations be issued strenuously warning the soldiery and people that they must continue to live quietly and peacefully, to attend to their own affairs, and not foolishly listen to wild and unfounded stories, thus taking part in their circulation.

If there be rowdies who outrage all propriety, and have no respect for anyone, and stir up a row and excite people to creating a disturbance at any missionary establishment, the police authorities of the places concerned are hereby ordered to suppress them. Any who dare to act in disobedience of orders issued are at once to be put into fetters and brought to the gendarmerie to be rigorously punished. No leniency whatever will be shown.

Strenuous instructions were issued to the police authorities for the arrest of the rowdies who insulted and attacked the Reverend Mr. Headland and wife outside the Chi Hua Gate. The vagabond who committed the outrage, Wang Tao-erh, has been arrested, and the Yamên will administer to him vigorous punishment for the offense committed.

Let this official notice be given to all, in the hope that a state of peace and mutual good feeling may continue to prevail. The police authorities of all the wards are to take action in earnest and to zealously investigate all cases. If any dare to be idle or remiss in their duty and connive at offenses committed, on ascertaining such to be the case, they will be reported for impeachment.

Let all tremblingly obey and not disregard this special proclamation.
Kuang Hsii 20 year 9 month 6 day. (October 4, 1894.)


[Inclosure 2 in No. 1992.]

The Tsung-li-Yamên to Mr. Denby.

OCTOBER 6, 1894.

SIR: Some time since we had the honor to receive your note with reference to the assault made upon the Reverend Mr. Headland and wife outside the Chi Hua Gate, wherein you stated that the Yamên had promised to cause the arrest and punishment of the leader in the affair, and also to put out proclamations, but that, up to the present time, you had not been informed what had been done, and you requested that the gendarmerie be urged to take action in these matters.

The Yamên were about to address the gendarmerie, urging that these matters be dealt with, when the minister received a communication from that office stating that, in regard to the assault made upon the Reverend Mr. Headland and wife by rowdies outside the Chi Hua Gate, and the rumors that had been circulated around the missionary establishment at the Erh Tias Hu-tung, whereupon the issuance of proclamations has been requested, the police officers, in obedience to instructions, had apprehended one Wang Tao-erh, a rowdy, who had assaulted the missionary, and he has been severely punished and ordered to wear the cangue so that his offenses may be made known to the public. Proclamations also have been cut and issued and sent to the local authorities concerned, with instructions to have them posted at the foreign legations and the missionary residences as a means of repressing evil doers.

The man Wang Tao-erh, above referred to, is an inexperienced, stupid fellow, and the severe punishment, besides being cangued, meted out to him by the gendarmerie should be sufficient warning to other foolish men like himself, and cause the laws to be respected.

The posting of proclamations at the various missionary establishments and other places should be sufficient to cause the people to know that they should observe the

injunctions therein contained, as well as to remove all doubts and misgivings and prevent the circulation of all false rumors.

The action taken we regard as very satisfactory and proper.

We inclose herewith a copy in Chinese of the proclamation, and request you to transmit it for the perusal and information of the foreign representatives at Peking. Cards of ministers inclosed.

[Inclosure 3 in No. 1992.]

Mr. Denby to the Tsung-li-Yamên.

OCTOBER 8, 1894. YOUR HIGHNESS AND YOUR EXCELLENCIES: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your note of the 6th instant inclosing a copy of a proclamation posted by the general commandant of the gendarmerie at the various American missionary establishments and at other places in this city.

This legation is deeply grateful for the efforts of your highness and your excellencies to prevent any trouble befalling the citizens of the United States who are under your protection, and for the punishment of the rowdies who recently made an attack upon them.

A translation of your note and of the proclamation inclosed has been sent to the honorable Secretary of State for his information.

I have, etc.,

CHAS. DENBY, Jr., Chargé d'Affaires ad interim.

Mr. Denby to Mr. Gresham.

No. 2000.]


Peking, October 14, 1894.

SIR: I have the honor to inclose herewith a translation of a decree which appeared in the Gazette of the 12th instant, forcibly enjoining the protection of the missionaries in this city.

The Chinese Government is making commendable efforts to guarantee foreigners from molestation or injury. In addition to the proclamations recently posted and this decree, other measures have been taken, such as the placing of small companies of soldiers in the vicinity of foreign residences. We are also said to be under the friendly surveillance of secret police.

The city at present seems more than usually tranquil.

I have, etc.,

CHAS. DENBY, Jr., Chargé d'Affaires ad interim.

[Inclosure in No. 2000.]

Decree issued by His Majesty, the Emperor, published in the Manuscript Gazette, October 12, 1894.

The foreign missionary establishments situated in Peking have long enjoyed peace and quiet and it is right, should necessity arise, that every protection should be

extended to them.

The Japanese have engaged in war with China, but this does not in the least involve foreigners of western countries. During the present year there has been a large influx of peons from the various provinces into Peking. It is to be feared that there may be among them some ignorant fellows who may recklessly excite the people. There is a still worse class of cruel and unscrupulous rowdies who will avail of rumors to create disturbances.

It is therefore urgently necessary that measures should be taken to guard against such acts. To this end let the office of the gendarmerie and the police censors of the five cities issue instructions to their subordinate officers that they must earnestly act to suppress disturbances and give special care to the protection of the missionaries. Any one who violates the law and creates trouble must be immediately arrested and severely punished. Not the least leniency is to be shown.

No. 2002.]

Mr. Denby to Mr. Gresham.

Peking, October 15, 1894.

SIR: I have the honor to confirm my telegram of this date, as follows:


Reports of danger of residence Peking exaggerated. Only one attack on Ameri cans; insignificant; promptly punished. Excellent proclamations enjoining the protection of foreigners issued at my request.

There have been repeated back to Peking recently several telegrams, sent to London and elsewhere, reporting the danger of residence in this city. The alarm expressed in them is not shared by well-informed residents. It is my impression that these telegrams originated at other points and did not proceed from Peking. Whatever their object, whether to justify foreign interference or to serve other purposes, they will cause groundless anxiety in Europe and America, which it is to be hoped the above telegram may help to allay.

The fact of the matter is that, while the excitement caused by the threatened Japanese invasion justified the precautions reported in my dispatch No. 1988, of the 3d instant, that excitement has now subsided, and there is no reason at present to regard ourselves as unsafe.

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SIR: If it has not already occurred to you to do so, I would suggest that you advise American missionaries and other Americans residing at a distance from the treaty ports that it will be out of the power of our naval officers on the Asiatic station to protect them in case of sudden outbreaks, and that upon the manifestation of symptoms of violence it would be well for them to remove to or near the treaty ports. W. Q. GRESHAM.

I am, etc.,

No. 1784.]


Mr. Denby to Mr. Gresham.


Peking, January 9, 1894. (Received February 28, 1894.) SIR: I have the honor to inclose herewith a copy of a communication sent by me to the Tsung-li-Yamên, asking that a proclamation be issued reprobating the practice of counterfeiting or fraudulently imitating trade-marks on American piece goods, and directing all officials to arrest and punish all persons who are found guilty of this offense.

I have, etc.,


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