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The Imperial Government do not feel called upon to explain to the Chinese Government the reasons underlying their resolution, but the courteous action of your excellency and Mr. Denby makes them especially anxious that you should not remain in ignorance of the actual grounds upon which their determination rests.
The position in which Mr. Denby's last telegram placed the question left, in the estimation of the Imperial Government, no room for hope that a satisfactory accommodation on the subject was possible, and a no less serious obstacle to the conclusion of an arrangement is the fact, which has but recently come to the knowledge of the Imperial Government, that the Chinese Government is still holding the vessel, the alleged unconditional release of which was advanced as the pretext for the proposed general understanding.
Thanking your excellency for your courtesy in this matter, and requesting you to convey to Mr. Denby the expression of my high appreciation of his kindness, I beg to renew, etc.,
MUTSU MUNEMITSU, Minister for Foreign Affairs..
(Inclosure 2 in No. 1960.]
DEPARTMENT FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS,
Tokyo, August 23, 1894. SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your excellency's note of the 18th instant, communicating the copy of a telegram from the U. S. chargé d'affaires at Peking.
While the Imperial Government are disposed to do everything in their power to protect neutral commerce, they do not think they can reasonably be expected, in the direction indicated, to relax to any extent their belligerent rights, since it would be impossible for them to secure any satisfactory guarantee that the vessels in question might not be employed in conveying contraband of war. Besides, by having recourse to the expedient of extinguishing established lights along her coast, China has clearly deprived herself of the right, even if her motives were wholly disinterested, to ask Japan's indulgence in the matter of Chinese light-house tenders.
I beg, therefore, to ask your excellency to have the kindness to inform Mr. Denby that the Imperial Government can not grant the request preferred through the inspector-general of the Chinese customs. I avail, etc.,
MUTSU MUNEMITSU, Minister for Foreign Affairs.
PROTECTION OF CHINESE IN GUATEMALA.*
Mr. Yang Yü to Mr. Gresham.
CHINESE LEGATION, Washington, August 16, 1894. (Received August 16.) SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge with sincere thanks the receipt of your note of the 11th instant, in which you kindly transmitted to me a sealed envelope, received through the minister of the
* See Guatemala, post, “Good Offices on Behalf of Chinese."
United States to Guatemala. The said envelope was found to contain a joint petition addressed to me by the Chinese subjects residing in the country of Guatemala. It appears that there are perhaps one hundred Chinese residing in that Republic, where our Government has no accredited representative to whom our people can look for protection. The petitioners pray that some expedient may be found by which the interests of the Chinese residents may be cared for and protection secured to them.
Inasmuch as China has no treaty relations with the Republic of Guatemala, no representative can be properly appointed by our Government to that country. This being the case, the suggestion presents itself that the good offices of the U. S. Government may be invoked, by which the minister and consular representatives of the United States to Guatemala may be duly invested with the proper authority to afford protection to those Chinese who may reside in that country.
I shall be glad to be informed, in due course, whether or not the U. S. Government can see its way to entertain favorably the proposal as stated above. Accept, etc.,
TREATY REGULATING EMIGRATION.
Mr. Gresham to Mr. Denby, Chargé.
DEPARTMENT OF STATE,
Washington, August 25, 1894. SIR: I transmit herewith for your information a copy of the convention signed in this capital on March 17, 1894, by the plenipotentiary of China and myself, for the regulation of emigration between the United States and China.
This convention was advised and consented to by the Senate on the 13th instant, and I have notified: the Chinese minister of the fact and of my readiness to exchange ratifications as soon as he shall have received the necessary ratification copy and powers from his Govern. ment.
As the convention is to take effect upon such exchange you are expected, upon receiving advice to that effect, to bring the treaty to the knowledge of citizens of the United States in China, through the consulate-general and the several consulates, inviting attention to the reciprocal provisions of Article vi concerning registration and advising all American citizens in China being “laborers, skilled, or unskilled," as defined in the convention, of their obligation to conform to such laws or regulations as the Government of China may enact, similar to the registration act of May 5, 1892, for the registration of such American laborers in China.
You will also take steps to cause notification to be made to all other citizens of this country, including missionaries, residing both within and without the treaty ports of China (but not diplomatic and other officers of the United States residing or traveling in China upon official business, together with their body and household servants), of their obligation to make due registration in the nearest consulate of the United States, or at the legation, within a date to be announced, and annually thereafter, in order that the legation may seasonably be in a
position to fulfill, on behalf of this Government, the stipulated obligation to furnish to the Government of China registers or reports showing the full name, age, occupation, and number or place of residence of ali such American citizens. I am, etc.,
(Inclosure in No. 925.]
Convention between the United States of America and the Empire of
[Emigration between the two countries.]
Signed at Washington March 17, 1894. Ratification advised by the Senate August 13, 1894. Ratified by the President August 22, 1894. Ratified by the Emperor of China in due form. Ratifications exchanged' at Washington December 7, 1894. Proclaimed December 8, 1894.
BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.
Whereas a convention between the United States of America and China, concerning the subject of emigration between those two countries, was concluded and signed by their respective plenipotentiaries at the city of Washington on the 17th day of March, one thousand eight hundred and ninety-four, which convention is word for word as follows:
Whereas, on the 17th day of November A. D. 1880, and of Kwanghsü, the sixth year, tenth moon, fifteenth day, a treaty was concluded between the United States and China, for the purpose of regulating, limiting, or suspending the coming of Chinese laborers to, and their residence in, the United States;
And whereas the Government of China, in view of the antagonism and much deprecated and serious disorders to which the presence of Chinese laborers has given rise in certain parts of the United States, desires to prohibit the emigration of such laborers from China to the United States; And whereas the two Governments desire to coöperate in prohibiting such emigration, and to strengthen in other ways the bonds of friendship between the two countries;
And whereas the two Governments are desirous of adopting reciprocal measures for the better protection of the citizens or subjects of each within the jurisdiction of the other;
Now, therefore, the President of the United States has appointed Walter Q. Gresham, Secretary of State of the United States, as his plenipotentiary, and His Imperial Majesty, the Emperor of China, has appointed Yang Yü, officer of the second rank, subdirector of the court of sacrificial worship, and envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to the United States of America, as his plenipotentiary; and the said plenipotentiaries having exhibited their respective full powers, found to be in due and good forn, have agreed upon the following articles:
The high contracting parties agree that for a period of ten years, beginning with the date of the exchange of the ratifications of this convention, the coming, except under the conditions hereinafter specified, of Chinese laborers to the United States shall be absolutely prohibited.
The preceding article shall not apply to the return to the United States of any registered Chinese laborer who has a lawful wife, child, or parent in the United States, or property therein of the value of one thousand dollars, or debts of like amount due him and pending settlement. Nevertheless every such Chinese laborer shall, before leaving the United States, deposit, as a condition of his return, with
the collector of customs of the district from which he departs, a full description in writing of his family, or property, or debts, as aforesaid, and shall be furnished by said collector with such certificate of his right to return under this treaty as the laws of the United States may now or hereafter prescribe and not inconsistent with the provisions of this treaty; and should the written description aforesaid be proved to be false, the right of return thereunder, or of continued residence after return, shall in each case be forfeited. And such right of return to the United States shall be exercised within one year from the date of leaving the United States; but such right of return to the United States may be extended for an additional period, not to exceed one year, in cases where by reason of sickness or other cause of disability beyond his control such Chinese laborer shall be rendered unable sooner to return, which facts shall be fully reported to the Chinese congul at the port of departure, and by him certified, to the satisfaction of the collector of the port at which such Chinese subject shall land in the United States. And no such Chinese laborer shall be permitted to enter the United States by land or sea without producing to the proper officer of the customs the return certificate herein required.
ARTICLE III. The provisions of this convention shall not affect the right at present enjoyed of Chinese subjects, being officials, teachers, students, merchants or travellers for curiosity or pleasure, but not laborers, of coming to the United States and residing therein. To entitle such Chinese subjects as are above described to admission into the United States, they may produce a certificate from their Government or the Gov. ernment where they last resided, viséd by the diplomatic or consular representative of the United States in the country or port whence they depart.
It is also agreed that Chinese laborers shall continue to enjoy the privilege of transit across the territory of the United States in the course of their journey to or from other countries, subject to such regulations by the Government of the United States as may be necessary to prevent said privilege of transit from being abused.
ARTICLE IV. In pursuance of Article III of the immigration treaty between the United States and China, signed at Peking on the 17th day of November, 1880 (the 15th day of the tenth month of Kwanghsü, sixth year), it is hereby understood and agreed that Chinese laborers or Chinese of any other class, either permanently or temporarily residing in the United States, shall have for the protection of their persons and property all rights that are given by the laws of the United States to citizens of the most favored nation, excepting the right to become naturalized citizens. And the Government of the United States reaffirms its obligation, as stated in said Article III, to exert all its power to secure protection to the persons and property of all Chinese subjects in the United States.
ARTICLE V. The Government of the United States, having by an act of the Congress, approved May 5, 1892, as amended by an act approved November 3, 1893, required all Chinese laborers lawfully within the limits of the United States before the passage of the first named act to be registered as in said acts provided, with a view of affording them better protection, the Chinese Government will not object to the enforcement of such acts, and reciprocally the Government of the United States recognizes the right of the Government of China to enact and enforce similar laws or regulations for the registration, free of charge, of all laborers, skilled or unskilled (not merchants as defined by said acts of Congress), citizens of the United States in China, whether residing within or without the treaty ports.
And the Government of the United States agrees that within twelve months from the date of the exchange of the ratifications of this convention, and annually chereafter, it will furnish to the Government of China registers or reports sbowing the full name, age, occupation, and number or place of residence of all other citizens of the United States, including missionaries, residing both within and without the treaty ports of China, not including, however, diplomatic and other officers of the United States residing or traveling in China upon official business, together with thoir body and household servants.
ARTICLE VI. This convention shall remain in force for a period of ten years beginning with the date of the exchange of ratifications, and, if six months before the expiration of the said period of ten years neither Government shall have formally given notice of its final termination to the other, it shall remain in full force for another like period of ten years.
In faith whereof, we, the respective plenipotentiaries, have signed this convention and have hereunto affixed our seals. Done, in duplicate, at Washington, the 17th day of March, A. D. 1894.
WALTER Q. GRESHAM, (SEAL.]
(Chinese signature.) (SEAL.] And whereas the said convention has been duly ratified on both parts, and the ratifications of the two Governments were exchanged in the city of Washington on the 7th day of December one thousand eight hundred and ninety-four.
Now, therefore, be it known that I, Grover Cleveland, President of the United States of America, have caused the said convention to be made public to the end that the same and every article and clause thereof may be observed and fulfilled with good faith by the United States and the citizens thereof.
In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed.
Done at the city of Washington this 8th day of December, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and ninety-four, and of the Independence of the United States the one hundred and nineteenth. (SEAL.
GROVER CLEVELAND. By the President: W. Q. GRESHAM,
Secretary of State.