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CHINA.

FRIENDLY OFFICES TO JAPANESE IN CHINA."

Mr. Denby, chargé, to Mr. Gresham.

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{Telegram.)

PEKING, July 21, 1894. Have received a telegram from the U. S. minister in Japan with reference to taking Japanese citizens under the protection of the United States in case of war. Chinese Government has given consent and asks the United States to protect Chinese in Japan. A reply is requested.

Mr. Gresham to Mr. Denby, chargé.

[Telegram.]

DEPARTMENT OF STATE,

Washington, July 26, 1894. China acceding, you may act as custodian Japanese legation and afford friendly offices for protection Japanese subjects in China, either directly or through consuls acting under your instructions, but you will not represent Japan diplomatically.

Mr. Denby, chargé, to Mr. Gresham.

LEGATION OF THE UNITED STATES,

Peking, July 27, 1894. (Received September 11.) SIR: I have the honor to report that the Japanese chargé d'affaires at Peking has made all his arrangements for placing under the protection of the United States the interests of the subjects of Japan in China, immediately upon the outbreak of hostilities between these two countries.

In that event all Japanese residing or traveling in the interior are to be recalled to the treaty ports. The Japanese consuls and all the members of the legation are to be withdrawn, and the care of the legation and consulates and the protection of Japanese subjects are to be left to the officials of the United States.

In view of the fact that the assistance of our consuls will be more in demand by Japanese immediately upon the declaration of war than

See Senate Ex. Doc. No. 36, Fifty-third Congress, third session.

later, and in view of the fact that it would be difficult and expensive to give them proper instructions by telegraph at the last moment, I have considered it advisable to notify them, by circular, in advance, that our Government has undertaken, in case of war, to protect the subjects of Japan in Chinese territory. A copy of this circular was mailed yesterday to each of the consuls of the United States in this country, and I have the honor to inclose a copy herewith. It will now only be necessary to advise them by telegram of a declaration of war. I have made an arrangement for the transmission of these telegrams, should they become necessary, through the consulate-general at the least expense. I have, etc.,

Chas. DENBY, JR., Chargé d'Affaires ad interim.

[Inclosure.]

Mr. Denby, chargé, to U. S. consular officers in China.

LEGATION OF THE UNITED STATES,

Peking, July 26, 1894. SIR: At the request of Japan, and with the consent of China, the U.S. Government has agreed, in event of war between those two powers, to take under its protection all Japanese subjects residing in Chinese territory.

Under these circumstances it will be your duty on receipt of telegraphic advice from this legation that hostilities have begrin, to give every proper assistance consistent with the functions with which

you are charged and the discharge of your own duties to the subjects of Japan within your jurisdiction. I am, etc.,

CHAS. DENBY, JR., Chargé d' Affaires ad interim.

Mr. Denby, chargé, to Mr. Gresham.

LEGATION OF THE UNITED STATES,

Peking, July 31, 1894. (Received September 12.) SIR: Much misapprehension seeming to exist in the minds of the U. S. consuls in China as to the scope of their duties as to the protection of Japanese subjects in China, in case of war, and application having been made to me for further instructions on the subject, I have considered it desirable to inform them, somewhat more in detail than was done in my circular of the 26th instant, of what would be expected of them. I inclose herewith a copy of a circular which I have this day mailed to the consuls at the various ports. I have, etc.,

CHARLES DENBY, JR.

(Inclosure.-Circular.) Mr. Denby, chargé, to U. S. consular officers in China. Confidential.]

LEGATION OF THE UNITED STATES,

Peking, July 31, 1894. SIR: This legation having been requested to state more specifically what will be the duties of the U.S. consuls as to the protection of Japanese in case of war, I have the honor to give you further instructions as follows:

In such an event, on receipt of notice from this legation, you will exert your good offices for the protection of Japanese subjects in your vicinity, such action on your part to be as consul of the United States, and in no respect as representing Japan, and to be strictly confined to snch acts as are proper for a consul of a power friendly to and at peace with China. You may, if requested, become custodian of the Japanese consulate and take charge of the archives. It will not, however, be proper to raise the American flag on such buildings. It will not be necessary to make any official announcement of your attitude toward the citizens of Japan. Such notice will be given through the proper authorities at Peking. Your duties will be confined to the protection of Japanese subjects only; you will not be charged with any Japanese consular functions or authority. I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant,

CHAS. DENBY, JR., Chargé d'Affaires ad interim.

Mr. Denby, chargé, to Mr. Gresham. No. 1905.1

LEGATION OF THE UNITED STATES,

Peking, August 2, 1894. (Received September 12.) SIR: I have the honor to report to you that, at the request of the Japanese chargé d'affaires, I took charge yesterday at noon of the legation of Japan and of the interest of the subjects of Japan in China.

Inclosed herewith are copies of his official request to me, of my reply, and of the dispatch which I addressed to the Yamên notifying the prince and minister of this action.

I telegraphed promptly to the U.S. consuls, who had been notified by circular to expect such an announcement, that Japanese interests had been placed under American protection, and I sent you a cipher tele. gram which I confirm in Inclosure No. 4 herewith. I have, etc.,

CHAS. DENBY, JR.

[Inclosure 1 in No. 1905.]
Mr. Komura to Mr. Denby, chargé.

LEGATION OF JAPAN,

Peking, August 1, 1894. Sir: In view of my departure from Peking this afternoon with all the members of this legation, I have the honor to request that you will at once take charge of Japanese interests in China, in accordance with the arrangement made between our respective Governments. I avail, etc.,

J. KOMURA,

H, I, J, J's. Chargé d'Affaires.

(Inclosure 2 in No. 1905. ]

Mr. Denby, chargé, to Mr. Komura.

LEGATION OF THE UNITED STATES,

Peking, August 1, 1894. SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your official letter of this date stating that, in view of your departure from Peking, you request me at once to take charge of Japanese interests in China, in accordance with the arrangements made between our respective Governments,

I have the honor to state in reply that, acting under the orders of the honorable Secretary of State, I hasten to accede to your request. I will at once advise by telegraph the consuls of the United States in China and the honorable Secretary of State at Washington that you have this day committed to this legation the interests of the subjects of Japan in China.

This information will also be at once communicated by me to the
Chinese Government.
I avail, etc.,

CHAS. DENBY, JR.

(Inclosure 3 in No. 1905.]

Mr. Denby to the Tsung-li-Yamên.

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LEGATION OF THE UNITED STATES,

Peking, August 1, 1894. YOUR HIGHNESS AND YOUR EXCELLENCIES: I have the honor to state that the chargé d'affaires of Japan at this capital has to day, in view of the state of hostilities which unfortunately exists between your two countries, requested this legation to take under the protection of the United States all the subjects of Japan residing in Chinese territory.

Acting under the authority of the honorable Secretary of State, and with the assurance hitherto given me by your highness and your excellencies that the Government of China would consent thereto, I have acceded to this request, and it now becomes my duty to advise you that, from this date until further notice, this legation, and the consuls of the United States at the treaty ports acting under its instructions, will exert their friendly offices for the protection of Japanese subjects residing in Chinese territory.

In requesting that this information be communicated to the provincial and customs authorities, I beg to express the hope that your highness and your excellencies will not only take every precaution to prevent outbreaks of violence at the foreign settlements, but also will issue stringent orders to the authorities of the provinces and of Manchuria and Mongolia, enjoining the protection of Japanese subjects who may be traveling in the interior in those localities and to permit their safe return to the treaty ports. I avail, etc.,

CHAS. DENBY, JR.

(Inclosure 4 in No. 1905.- Telegram.]

Mr. Denby, chargé, to Mr. Gresham.

AUGUST 1, 1894. (Sent 3 p. m.) War is declared. Japanese chargé d'affaires left Peking to-day; has

ed interests Japanese subjects in charge of legation of the United States. Outbreak feared Tientsin. Request war vessel.

Mr. Denby, chargé, to Mr. Gresham.

No. 1907.)

LEGATION OF THE UNITED STATES,

Peking, August 3, 1894. (Received September 12.) Sir: During the last few days, chiefly on the 30th and 31st July and the 1st August, this legation has been frequently appealed to by the Chinese Government and the Japanese chargé d'affaires in Peking.

For some reason, not as yet explained, the Japanese charge found himself in the unfortunate position of being unable to communicate with his Government. For six days he remained without instructions. In the meantime China had notified him that diplomatic relations were broken off. His position at Peking was unpleasant and somewhat dangerous. Under these circumstances he addressed himself to me, and I undertook to obtain advice from Tokyo for him.

With this intention, I addressed two telegrams to Mr. Dun, American minister, stating in the first that the Japanese chargé proposed to leave Peking, and in the second that the immediate transfer of the protection of the interests of Japanese subjects to the authorities of our country was necessary. He turned over his legation to me at noon on the 1st instant, as stated in my dispatch No. 1905, of August 2, and at 3 o'clock left Peking with all the members of his legation, not having as yet received instructions.

Yesterday afternoon I received, however, a reply from Mr. Dun announcing that Japan had given notice of the existence of war with China and that the Japanese chargé d'affaires had been recalled. This information, which fully justifies his departure, I promptly transmitted to him at Tientsin.

The difficulties of the Chinese Government were of a somewhat similar character. It had been decided to declare war against Japan, but the ministers of the Yamên were unable to learn definitely whether the U. S. Government had consented to assume charge of Chinese subjects in Japan. On the 28th ultimo they wrote me that Japan had commenced hostilities and requested me to inform you and ask that our minister at Tokyo be ordered to assume protection of the Chinese. I telegraphed you the same day, as confirmed in my dispatch No. 1900 of the 30th ultimo. In the meantime and subsequently the Yamên telegraphed repeatedly to Mr. Yang, at Washington, and to the Chinese minister at Tokyo on this subject, but received no reply. On the 31st two secretaries of the Yamên called at this legation and told me that China was only awaiting information from you in order to declare war and recall their minister. They asked me, in the name of the prince, to telegraph again to you. As I was confident, however, that you had already instructed Mr. Dun, I telegraphed to him instead. Without waiting for an answer to this telegram, they notified the for

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