The Making of an American Senate: Reconstitutive Change in Congress, 1787-1841
University of Michigan Press, 2002 - 264페이지
At the Constitutional Convention in 1787, the framers created a Senate that was nothing short of an American House of Lords. Until the early 1800s, it remained the insulated, legislatively reactive, and executive-friendly upper chamber the Framers intended. By 1841, however, it had become the distinctly American Senate we recognize today: popularly oriented, legislatively proactive, and often independent of executive influence. The Making of an American Senate uses this story to explain how Congress is at times capable of dramatic and enduring institutional change.
To explain this upheaval that reshaped every major aspect of the Senate, the author introduces the concept of reconstitutive change, a theory based on the "garbage can" model of organization choice. Reconstitution, she argues, is produced by the confluence of two streams, the first creating pressures and opportunities, and the second supplying direction and mobilizing support. The first stream is composed of major changes in national political parties, the national electorate, and the national governmental agenda. The second is composed of institutional vision, or prevailing beliefs about what governmental role the institution should play, and institutional catalysts, or members of Congress who bring about change.
This book will engage political scientists concerned with Congressional history, institutional change, and the founding of new institutions. It will also interest historians of the Founding Era and the early American Republic.
"Elaine Swift has plumbed and assembled a rich variety of source materials to trace the early 'reconstitution' of the U.S. Senate from the anglophilic House of Lords into a recognizably American governing institution. The result is a detailed, thoughtful, and persuasive explanation of a major institutional change. It is, equally, a shining example--substantive and theoretical--of the relevance of political history for the pursuit of political science." --Richard F. Fenno, University of Rochester
"This is a fascinating work on a long-neglected subject--the shaping of the U.S. Senate during its early decades." --David Mayhew, Yale University
Elaine K. Swift is Associate Professor of Government, Eastern Washington University.
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The Making of an American House of Lords The Senate in the Constitutional Convention of 1787
The Development of an American House of Lords Congresses One through Ten 17891809
Explaining Reconstitutive Change
Setting the Stage for Reconstitution 180929
The Making of an American Senate Congresses Eleven through Twenty 180929
Explaining the Making of an American Senate
The Endurance of an American Senate Congresses Twentyone through Twentysix 182941 and Beyond
Methodology Content Analysis of Newspapers
National Newspaper Coverage of Nonelection News of the House and Senate Congresses Two through Twentysix 17921841
Methodology Senate Legislative Box Scores of Presidential Support
Senate Legislative Box Score of Presidential Support Congress Two through Twentysix 17911839
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1st sess American House American Senate anglophilic Annals of Congress appointments autonomy average bicameralism chairs chap chapter check and balance committee leaders Cong Congresses Eleven conservative elites Constitution convention coverage Debates democratic dimensions early Senate economic elected electorate executive factor Farrand Federalist Papers formal framers Hamilton House of Lords Ibid ideal important institutional activists institutional vision interests issues James Barbour James Madison John Quincy Adams large-state delegates last sessions leadership legislative legislatures lower house major marked shifts membership ment Monroe national government national governmental agenda National Intelligencer newspaper nominations Paine Wingate partisan percent petitions popular presidential pressures and opportunities rank and file reconstitutive period role Rufus King rules select committees Senate's serve small-state delegates social South Carolina standing committees tariff Thomas Hart Benton tion tive Twentieth Congresses U.S. Congress United University Press upper chamber upper house Virginia Plan votes Washington William Branch Giles York