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the courts, preclude legislative and municipal corruption, and secure responsibility by concentrating executive power.” Through the approaching Constitutional Convention, he says the people can secure justice through reformed courts, fix responsibility for abuses of executive power;-in short, they can increase the value of property and the reward of honest labor."

Mr. Tilton, in The Independent, in allusion to the recent Republican defeat in Connecticut, concludes; “the policy of negro suffrage is clearly seen to be the only policy for the National welfare.” ....“What then, is the next step,” he asks, “in the progress of reconstruction ?” In italics he answered, “We must make Impartial Suffrage the rule and practice of the Northern as well as the Southern States.” He proposes a new amendment to the Federal Constitution which will ecure to every American citizen, black and white, North and South, the American citizen's franchise. What is meant in this article of the Independent by impartial suffrage is understood by these words in another part of it. "The Republican party in Connecticut was abundantly strong enough to secure Impartial Suffrage. But it chose, instead, to insult its black-faced brethren, and refused their alliance.” Mr. Raymond, in the New York Times, speaks without a stammer on the suffrage question. It declares, “In New York suffrage is now absolutely universal for all citizens except the colored people; and upon them it is only restricted by a slight property qualification."

A correspondent of the Boston Congregationalist, in a letter from New York, tells us, A Constitutional Convention is to be held shortly in this State, and we expect to see universal suffrage adopted. .... The StrongMinded Women aim to secure female voting, but they will fail, as they should.” The Congregationalist has also an editorial article headed, “The steps to Reconstruction," in which it speaks excellently of “a millennium of Republican governments," and of Impartial Suffrage in them, as near at hand. But it too speaks only of freedmen to be clothed with the rights of citizenship in the millennial, latter-day glory so soon to be. Over the black male citizen this editor shouts, “chattel, contraband, soldier, citizen, voter, counselor, magistrate, representative, senator,— these all shall be the successive steps of his wonderful progress !!”

I have produced these as the best representatives of the different styles or types of the radical or progressive movement in the work of reconstructing the government. That the Standard and Independent believe fully in the right of women to Equal Suffrage and citizenship is known to every attentive reader of those journals. But at an hour like this, it is painful to witness anything like agreement even, with the language of the others I have cited.

... To rob the freed slave of citizenship to-day is as much a crime as was slavery before the war on Sumter; and to withhold the divinely conferred gift from woman is every way as oppressive, cruel, and unjust as if she were a black man. ....

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CHAPTER XIX.

THE KANSAS CAMPAIGN-1867.

The Battle Ground of Freedom-Campaign of 1867—Liberals did not Stand by their

Principles-Black Men Opposed to Woman Suffrage-Republican Press and Party Untrue-Democrats in Oppositiou-John Stuart Mill's Letters and Speeches Extensively Circulated-Henry B. Blackwell and Lucy Stone Opened the Campaign-Rev. Olympia Brown Followed-60,000 Tracts Distributed-Appeal Signed by Thirty-one Distinguished Men-Letters from Helen E. Starrett, Susan E. Wattles, Dr. R. S. Tenney, Lieut. Governor J. P. Root, Rev. Olympia Brown-The Campaign closed by ex-Governor Robinson, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, and the Hutchinson Family -Speeches and Songs at the Polls in every Ward in Leavenworth Election DayBoth Amendments lost-9,070 Votes for Womau Suffrage, 10,843 for Negro Suffrage.

As Kansas was the historic ground where Liberty fought her first victorious battles with Slavery, and consecrated that soil forever to the freedom of the black race, so was it the first State where the battle for woman's enfranchisement was waged and lost for a generation. There never was a more hopeful interest concentrated on the legislation of any single State, than when Kausas submitted the two propositions to her people to take the words "white" and "male" from her Constitation.

Those awake to the dignity and power of the ballot in the hands of all classes, to the inspiring thought of self-government, were stirred as never before, both in Great Britain and America, upon this question. Letters from John Stuart Mill and other friends, with warm words of encouragement, were read to thousands of audiences, and published in journals throughout the State. Eastern women who went there to speak started with the full belief that their hopes su long deferred were at last to be realized. Some even made arrangements for future homes on that green spot where at last the sons and daughters of earth were to stand equal before the law. With no greater faith did the crusaders of old seize their shields and start on their perilous journey to wrest from the infidel the Holy Sepulcher, than did these defenders of a sacred principle enter Kansas, and with hope sublime consecrate themselves to labor for woman's freedom; to roll off of her soul the mountains of sorrow and superstition that had held her in bondage to false creeds, and codes, and customs for centuries. There was a solemn earnestness in the speeches of all who labored in that campaign. Each heart was thrilled with the thought that the youngest civilization in the world was about to establish a government based on the divine idea—the equality of all mankind-proclaimed by Jesus of Nazareth, and echoed by the patriots who watched the dawn of the natal day of our Republic. Here at last the mothers of the race, the most important actors in the grand drama of human progress were for the first time to stand the peers

of men. These women firmly believed that Republicans and Abolitionists who had advocated their cause for years would aid them in all possible efforts to carry the Constitutional Amendment that was to enfranchise the women of the State. They looked confidently for encouragement, and inspiring editorials in certain Eastern journals. With Horace Greeley at the head of the New York Tribune, Theodore Tilton of the Independent, and Wendell Phillips of the AntiSlavery Standard, they felt they had a strong force in the press of the East to rouse the men of Kansas to their duty. But, alas! they all preserved a stolid silence, and the Liberals of the State were in a measure paralyzed by their example. Though the amendment to take the word "male" from the Constitution was a Republican measure, signed by a Republican Governor, and advocated by leading men of that party throughout the campaign, yet the Republican party, as such, the Abolitionists and black men were all hostile to the proposition, because they said to agitate the woman’s amendment would defeat negro suffrage.

Eastern politicians warned the Republicans of Kansas that“negro suffrage” was a party measure in national politics, and that they must not entangle themselves with the “woman question." On all sides came up the cry, this is “the negro's hour.” Though the Republican State Central Committee adopted a resolution leaving all their party speakers free to express their individual sentiments, yet they selected men to canvass the State, who were known to be unscrupulous and disreputable, and violently opposed to woman suffrage.* The

* DISAGREEMENTS IN THE REPUBLICAN STATE CENTRAL COMMITTEE—THE SUFFRAGE QUESTION. — The Kansas State Journal publishes a letter from Judge SAMUEL N. Wood, in which he declares himself unqualifiedly in favor of impartial suffrage. He says :

“I have not opposed, and shall not oppose negro suffrage. It should be adopted because they are a part of the governed, and must have a voice in the Government, just as much as women should. What I have had to do with is the inconsistency and hypocrisy of those who advocate negro suffrage and oppose Woman suffrage; the inconsistency and

All Parties against Woman Suffrage.

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Democratic party* was opposed to both amendments and to the new law on temperance, which it was supposed the women would actively support.

The Germans in their Conventions passed a resolutiont against the new law that required the liquor dealers to get the signatures of one-half the women, as well as the men, to their petitions before the authorities could grant them license. In suffrage for women they saw rigid Sunday laws and the suppression of their beer gardens. The liquor dealers throughout the State were bitter and hostile to the woman's amendment. Though the temperance party had passed a favorable resolution in their State Convention, yet some of their members were averse to all affiliations with the dreaded question, as to them, what the people might drink seemed a subject of greater importance than a fundamental principle of human rights. In

hypocrisy of those negroes who claim rights for themselves that they are not willing other human beings with equal intelligence should also enjoy."

The same paper says that at the meeting of the Republican State Central Committee in Leavenworth, last week, the following resolution was offered and laid on the table, by a vote of two yeas to one nay:

Resolved, That the Republican State Central Committee do not indorse, but distinctly repudiate, as speakers, in behalf and under the auspices of the Republican party, such persons as have defamed, or do hereafter defame, in their public addresses, the women of Kansas, or those ladies who have been urging upon the people of Kansas the propriety of enfranchising the women of the State.

Mr. Taylor, who offered the resolution, has accordingly published the following pro

test:

The undersigned, a member of the Republican State Central Committee of Kansas, protests against the action of the Committee this day had, so far as relates to the placing of the names of I. S. KALLOCH, C. V. ESKRIDGE, and P. B. PLUMB, on the list of speakers to canvass the State in behalf of Republican principles, for the reason that they have within the last few weeks, in public addresses, published articles, used ungentlemanly, indecent, and infamously defamatory language, when alluding to a large and respectable portion of the women of Kansas, and to women now engaged in canvassing the State in favor of impartial suffrage.

R. B. TAYLOR. * DemocRATIC RESOLUTION.-Resolved, That we are opposed to all the proposed amendments to our State Constitution, and to all unjust, intolerant, and proscriptive legislation, whereby a portion of our fellow citizens are deprived of their social rights and religious privileges.

† ACTION OF THE GERMANS.-St. Louis, Sept. 26. -A special dispatch to the Republican from Wyandotte, Kansas, says: “The German Convention, which was held at Topeka on Monday last, adopted resolutions against Sunday and temperance laws, and declared that they would not support any man for State, Legislative, or municipal office who would not give his written pledge to oppose such laws. An unsuccessful effort was made to commit the Germans to negro suffrage. The female suffrage question was not touched.”

1 STATE TEMPERANCE CONVENTION.–LAWRENCE, KANSAS, Sept. 28.-A mass State Temperance Convention was held here last night, and was addressed by Senator Pomeroy, ex-Gov. Robinson, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Susan B. Anthony. Resolutions were passed committing the Temperance people to female suffrage, and to prevent the repeal of the Temperance law of last winter, to the abrogation of which the Germans pledged themselves in their Convention on the 23d.

telligent black men, believing the sophistical statements of politicians, that their rights were imperiled by the agitation of woman suffrage, joined the opposition. Thus the campaign in Kansas was as protracted as many sided.

From April until November, the women of Kansas, and those who came to help them, worked with indomitable energy and perseverance. Besides undergoing every physical hardship, traveling night and day in carriages, open wagons, over miles and miles of the unfrequented prairies, climbing divides, and through deep ravines, speaking in depots, unfinished barns, mills, churches, schoolhouses, and the open air, on the very borders of civilization, whereever two or three slozen voters could be assembled.

Henry B. Blackwell and Lucy Stone opened the campaign in April. The following letters show how hopeful they were of success, and how enthusiastically they labored to that end. Even the New York Tribune prophesied victory.* At Gov. ROBINSON'S HOUSE, FOUR MILES NORTH OF

LAWRENCE, KANSAS, April, 5, 1867. DEAR MRS. STANTON :-We report good news! After half a day's earnest debate, the Convention at Topeka, by an almost unanimous vote, refused to separate “ the two questions " male and white. A delegation from Lawrence came up specially to get the woman dropped. The good God upset a similar delegation from Leavenworth bent on the same object, and prevented them from reaching Topeka at all. Gov. Robinson, Gov. Root, Col. Wood, Gen. Larimer, Col. Ritchie, and “the old guard” generally were on hand. Our coming out did good. Lucy spoke with all her old force and fire. Mrs. Nichols was there—a strong list of permanent officers was nominated—and a State Impartial Suffrage Association was organized. The right men were put upon the committees, and I do not believe that the Negro Suffrage men can well bolt or back out now.

The effect is wonderful. Papers which have been ridiculing woman suffrage and sneering at “Sam Wood's Convention" are now on our side. We have made the present Gov. Crawford President of the Association, Lieut.Gov. Green Vice-President. Have appointed a leading man in every judicial district member of the Executive Committee, and have some of the

* The New York Tribune, May 29, 1867: “Womanhood suffrage is now a progressive cause beyond fear of cavil. It has won a fair field where once it was looked upon as an airy nothing, and it has gained champions and converts without number. The young State of Kansas is fitly the vanguard of this cause, and the signs of the agitation therein hardly allow a doubt that the citizenship of women will be ere long recognized in the law of the State. Fourteen out of twenty newspapers of Kansas are in favor of making woman a voter. Governor Crawford, ex-Governors Robinson and Root, Judge Schuyler, Col. Ritchie, and Lieut.-Gov. Green, are the leaders of the wide-spread Impartial League, which has among its orators Mistresses Stanton, Stone, and Susan B. Anthony. The vitality of the Kansas movement is indisputable, and whether defeated or successful in the present contest, it will still hold strongly fortified ground." ..

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