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the hydrogen would raise a balloon. (3) As you exhale, come back to the original position.

The Attitude of Attention or Respect is preliminary to the bow. In practising for public appearance, it is well to walk forward a few steps, as you would on the platform, then bring the heels together as you face your audience.

EXERCISE IV

BOWING

do so.

Standing as before, bend the head slowly, glancing from one to another of an imaginary audience as you

Do not drop the eyes to the floor. The trunk or torso should have a slight sympathetic inclination. The orator's manner should always be dignified. On the platform he first bows to the presiding officer, then to the audience. If the auditorium is of considerable size, or if he is received with especial applause, he may find it necessary to bow several times, to the right, left, balconies, etc., but without good reason he would do better to confine himself to a single simple acknowledgment.

When a lady bows, one foot is retired with the knee bent, and the body sinks back upon it, then returns to the erect position.

This action should not be overdone. The elaborate courtesy is out of place on the platform.

EXERCISE V

FOR FLEXIBILITY AND EASE OF THE BODY

(1) Slowly bend the body forward as far as possible, the arms hanging loosely at the sides. Be sure that the movement is a blend of first head, then torso, and that the torso bends in a curve, not as if the body were

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hinged or jointed at the waist and neck and rigid elsewhere. (2) Let the body remain in this position until

every joint and muscle of the torso, neck, and arms is

perfeetly free and hangs by its own weight. (3) Return slowly to an erect position. Repeat several times, or go on to (4) Bend backward in the same way. (5) Return. (6) Bend to the right side. (7) Return. (8) Bend to the left. (9) Return. (10) Circle the torso, i.e. bend forward, and then carry the torso successively to the

right, back, left, front, etc., in a circle, letting the arms go as gravitation compels them. (11) Return to the erect position, and finally (12) Bow as described above.1

EXERCISE VI

FLEXIBILITY OF THE NECK

Holding the torso erect, bow and circle the head alone in the same way. Later, combine intonation with this exercise to insure freedom of the larynx in speaking, as directed in Chapter VII.

1 In the above exercise the hip will naturally sway in the opposite direction from the chest in order to maintain the balance. Do not try to prevent this. If dizziness results, practice more gently and for a shorter time.

EXERCISE VII

THE SPEAKER'S POSITION

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Having finished your bow, carry the weight of the body to ONE FOOT ONLY by swaying the hip out at the side, until the median line of the body is over the middle of the foot. This foot is called the STRONG foot, as it supports the body. When this position is taken with perfect ease, the body is no longer stiffly erect, but has a graceful and flexible appearance. The shoulders oppose, as we say, the hip,

hip, being inclined slightly toward the weak or free side of the body, while the head again inclines slightly toward the strong side. The free foot, that is, the one which does not support the weight, should be carried outward little, either laterally or obliquely. Be sure that it rests only on the inner edge and that the free knee is perfectly relaxed. It makes no difference whether you stand on the right or left foot.

With the free foot about opposite the strong foot, the position is normal or neutral. With the strong foot retired, the free foot obliquely in front, the position is expressive of concentration, command, or repose. With the strong foot advanced, free foot obliquely retired, the attitude expresses animation, attraction.

In addressing an audience we usually reserve the last

position for moments when we are especially desirous of winning their sympathy.

Avoid unnecessary movements of the body.

We shift the weight from one foot to another only when there is a reason for it. When a new paragraph is begun or when there is a decided transition of thought, it is well to emphasize the fact by a considerable pause and by a change of the weight from one foot to another. The following exercises will aid in gaining grace and ease in attitude.

EXERCISE VIII

TESTS OF POISE

Standing as above, (1) tap the floor with the free foot, in front, behind, at the side, and across the body, and notice whether this disturbs the poise of the body. (2) Place

the free foot at the back of and around
the strong ankle, without disturbing the
poise. (3) With the free foot around
the ankle, throw the arms about freely,
or (4) Rise on one foot without change
of poise.

Be sure that, in all these exercises,
the body does not stiffen.

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Placing the hands on the hips, sway the hip out over the strong side as far as possible. Then sway to the opposite side until the hip is as far as possible over the foot. Let

the shoulders move as little as possible. Do this ip all directions, laterally and obliquely.

EXERCISE X

TRANSITION OF POISE

Change the weight from one foot to the other by gently swaying the hip. Imagine that you address various persons in different parts of the room. For example, standing on the right foot :

(1) Look toward some one or something obliquely at your left, (2) transfer the weight to the left foot, that is, the foot that is nearest the object of your attention, (3) occasionally raise the arm in the following order, upper arm, forearm, hand, as if to shake hands with the person you address. (4) Slowly relaxing the arm, turn in the opposite direction, and repeat the exercise. Be careful not to

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