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adherence to these policies was a major factor in the successful completion of the program.


Some written agreements which outline the political contours of space are reviewed for the models they set for future international space activities. Particular attention is given to the Intelsat agreement and to bilateral agreements between the USSR and the United States, such as the agreements on cooperation in the field of environmental protection, in the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes, and in the fields of medical science and public health and of science and technology. It is submitted that, although the monopoly of space technology of U.S. and USSR leads to the line of least diplomatic resistance, which is bilateralism, the larger significance of planetary exploration and near-space scientific studies and environmental monitoring requires a multilateral approach. V.P.

A74-34857 # Data management during the Navy perfor. mance test and evaluation of the F-14A airplane. W. M. Branch (U.S. Navy, Naval Air Test Center, Patuxent River, Md.). In: Flight testing today · 1973; Proceedings of the Fourth National Symposium, Las Vegas, Nev., August 21-23, 1973.

California, Md., Society of Flight Test Engineers, 1973. 7 p.

The tasks of the Naval Air Test Center with regard to the F-14A performance include the evaluation of the total system performance and the provision of Navy flight test data to decision making agencies. Flight test data for the generation of performance charts for the fleet are also to be provided. The test aircraft and the employed instrumentation are discussed along with questions of test methodology and program management, aspects of data acquisition, and details concerning the test maneuvers.


A74-33613 # Legal problems of sustaining manned spaceflights, space stations, and lunar communities through private initiative and non-public funding. G. S. Robinson. In: Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, 15th, Vienna, Austria, October 8-15, 1972, Proceedings.

Davis, Calif., University of California; South Hackensack, N.J., Fred B. Rothman and Co., 1973, p. 214.229. 12 refs.

A74-34156 # Integration of the emerging solid state microwave technology into government systems. R. H. Chilton (USAF, Rome Air Development Center, Griffiss AFB, N.Y.). In: Microwave semiconductor devices, circuits, and applications; Proceedings of the Fourth Biennial Cornell Electrical Engineering Conference, Ithaca, N.Y., August 14-16, 1973.

Ithaca, N.Y., Cornell University, 1973, p. 33-42. 5 refs.

With the exception of bipolar transistors, the Gunn device is the most mature device in the microwave semiconductor field. Other devices considered include limited space charge accumulation de vices, IMPATT devices, TRAPATT devices, and transistors. The advent of solid state microwave generators has opened the way for many new systems. Systems selected to illustrate general considerations of systems employing solid state microwave transmitters include the navigational system, the communications system, and the phase array radar system.



The contribution of civil aviation to the economic strength and well-being of the UK /29th British Commonwealth Lecturel. Mr. Boyd-Carpenter (Civil Aviation Authority, London, England). Aeronautical Journal, vol. 78, May 1974, p. 181-184.

It is maintained that civil aviation in the UK plays a considerable role in the economic life of that country and that it will play an even more important role in the future. It is asserted that Britain increasingly lacks competitive advantages in heavy manufacturing industry, which means that she will be forced to rely more and more on performance in the so-called service industries, of which air travel and air cargo form an essential part. It is pointed out, for example, that last year, Heathrow became Britain's second largest cargo port, behind the Port of London.



F-14, A-6 assembly woes seen easing. W. H. Gregory. Aviation Week and Space Technology, vol. 100, July 1, 1974, p. 34-38.

Evaluation of the current state of Navy F-14 and A-6 aircraft assembly and delivery schedules at the Grumman Calverton facility indicates an improvement of the production cost and output situation in the final stage of the assembly process. The efforts made to correct the crisis situation which existed heretofore are reviewed.



The effects of techno-economic and organiza tional factors on the adoption of NASA-innovations by commercial firms in the U.S. A. K. Chakrabarti (Northwestern University, Evanston, III.). In: Academy of Management, Annual Meeting, 33rd, Boston, Mass., August 19-22, 1973, Proceedings. Tampa, Fla., R. D. Henderson, University of Tampa, 1974, p. 469.475. 10 refs. NASA-Army-supported research.

The present work reports on the effects of several organizational and techno-economic factors which tend to facilitate or inhibit the successful transter and commercial utilization of technology generated outside the organizational setting of a potential industrial user. Innovations were regarded as either product cases or process cases, and successful adoption of these innovations was related to systematic data on the relation between innovator and user and on channels of communication.



Task kits help to speed F-14 deliveries. W. H. Gregory. Aviation Week and Space Technology, vol. 101, July 8, 1974, p. 36, 37, 40-43, 45.

The use of task kits was one of the approaches used in a reorganization of the assembly procedure of the Navy F-14 Tomcat fighter. Other improvements introduced in connection with the reorganization include advances in wiring procedures, approaches for eliminating fuel leaks, and solutions to reduce the number of avionics black box failures. A change that smoothed the work flow at least indirectly was to move air hoses and electrical lines underground.


A74-34762 Twenty commandments for managing the development of tactical computer programs. J. A. Ward (U.S. Navy, Ordnance Systems Command, Arlington, Va.). In: National Computer Conference and Exposition, Chicago, III., May 6-10, 1974, Proceedings.

Montvale, N.J., AFIPS Press, 1974, p. 803-806.

The management decisions and policies behind the development of the digital computer program for the naval shipborne anti-air warfare system AEGIS are revealed. The use of contractors, allocation of responsibilities, liaison and coordination, testing and integration of units, timetables, accounting, and security are some of the subjects in the guidelines suggested here. It is felt that strict


FAA aircraft retrofit feasibility program. J. F. Woodall (FAA, Washington, D.C.). Society of Automotive Engineers, Air Transportation Meeting, Dallas, Tex., Apr. 30-May 2, 1974, Paper 740489. 11 p. Members, $1.40; nonmembers, $2.25.

The FAA retrofit feasibility program is a success story. The cooperation of the aircraft industry in general, and the FAA's contractors in particular have made the success of the program possible. We can now state that all JT 3D. and JT8D-powered aircraft can meet reduced noise levels, such as FAR 36 levels, by means of technologically feasible and economically reasonable nacelle retrofit

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T. C. Shupert (Martin Marietta Aerospace, Denver, Colo.). In: Cost effectiveness in the environmental sciences; Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., April 28-May 1, 1974,

Mount Prospect, III., Institute of Environmental Sciences, 1974, p. 133-137. 9 refs. Contract No. NAS1-9000.

The economic aspects of thermal testing at the systems-level as applied to the Viking Lander Capsule thermal development program are reviewed. The unique mission profile and pioneering scientific goals of Viking imposed novel requirements on testing, including the development of a simulation technique for the Martian thermal environment. The selected approach included modifications of an existing conventional thermal vacuum facility, and improved testoperational techniques that are applicable to the simulation of the other mission phases as well, thereby contributing significantly to the cost effectiveness of the overall thermal test program. (Author)


0-0-1% - Q. A. by objectives. J. M. Gooch (Bell Helicopter Co., Fort Worth, Tex.). American Helicopter Society, Annual National V/STOL Forum, 30th, Washington, D.C., May 7-9, 1974, Preprint 851.5 p. Members, $1.50; nonmembers, $2.00.

A special audit concept is presented that provides the objectives and feedback methods for independent quality assurance. This 0-0-1% audit scheme is shown to have proven to be a good management tool, one which makes possible an accurate judgment of the product performance of primary part producers. M.V.E.


Helicopter reliability testing. T. L. House (U.S. Army, Air Mobility Research and Development Laboratory, Fort Eustis, Va.). American Helicopter Society, Annual National V/STOL Forum, 30th, Washington, D.C., May 7-9, 1974, Preprint 860. 14 p. Members, $1.50; nonmembers, $2.00.

Review of the technical and management issues related to helicopter reliability development testing. Special attention is given to the impact of reliability on life cycle cost, and how issues such as fleet size, program schedule, and test technique effectiveness contribute to decisions regarding development test requirements. The risk of errors in judgments is also discussed.



Cost effective tests - Or, 'more bang for the buck'. B. C. Moore (McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Co., Huntington Beach, Calif.). In: Cost effectiveness in the environmental sciences; Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., April 28 May 1, 1974.

Mount Prospect, III., Institute of Environmental Sciences, 1974, p. 378, 379.

The cooperative method of developing a test plan is a fluid, dynamic interaction between customer and laboratory. During this interactive process, many areas are discussed having to do with the customer's objectius and expectations for the test, and the capabilities of the laboratory to meet these. When test planning is approached as a cooperative creative process, significant savings can be achieved, as compared to the best efforts of the parties working separately. Costly surprises during the test can be reduced by a systematic estimate of the uncertainties ahead.


A74-37533# Development of noise-reduction concepts for the 707 airplane. M. D. Nelsen (Boeing Co., Wichita, Kan.) and V. E. Callaway (Boeing Commercial Airplane Co., Seattle, Wash.). Acoustical Society of America, Meeting, 87th, New York, N.Y., Apr. 23-26, 1974, Paper. 9 p. 14 refs. Research sponsored by the Boeing Co., U.S. Department of Transportation Contract No. FA71WA-2728.

Flyover noise characteristics are presented for the Boeing 707-300B/C equipped with standard production nacelles and with experimental quiet nacelles modified by the addition of soundabsorbing materials. Acoustic treatment theory and technology development concepts required to develop the quiet nacelles are discussed. Results from, and techniques for, noise certification flight testing to meet FAA regulations are presented. Comparisons of noise levels of a modified 707 aircraft, noise floors, and noise from other operational aircraft are provided.


A74-36137# Operational and accidental petroleum product losses and their control and prevention (2nd revised and enlarged edition/ (Ekspluatatsionnye i avariinye poteri nefteproduktov i bor'ba s nimi /2nd revised and enlarged edition/). N. D. Ivanov. Leningrad, Izdatel'stvo Nedra, 1973. 160 p. 41 refs. In Russian.

This book discusses petroleum product losses during storage, transportation, delivery and handling as such losses take place according to experience in concerned Soviet industries. Vaporization, leakage, spillage, oxidation, and accidental losses are covered, pointing out their significant level in the Soviet Union. Indicated as measures for control and prevention of losses are the reduction of the gas-filled space in storage tanks, the use of tanks with floating covers, the reduction of storage temperature fluctuation, the use of high pressure containers, and improved pumping system designs. V.Z.

A74-36335# Growing federal support for solar energy applications. L. 0. Herwig (National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C.). In: The energy crisis and energy from the sun; Proceedings of the Symposium on Solar Energy Utilization, Washington, D.C., April 30, 1974.

Mount Prospect, III., Institute of Environmental Sciences, 1974, p. 93-103.

The general objectives of the Federal Solar Energy Program are described as ones intended to provide the research and technology for economic terrestrial solar energy applications with the implementation of practical systems for commercial uses within the framework of national energy planning. The Program covers the following specific solar energy applications and technologies: heating and cooling of buildings, solar thermal energy conversion, photovoltaic conversion, biomass production and conversion, wind energy conver. sion, and ocean thermal energy conversion. It is believed that solar energy applications such as heating and cooling of buildings, wind energy conversion and biomass production and conversion will have impact on U.S. energy requirements by the early 1980's. V.Z.

A74-37534# Aircraft noise retrofit feasibility program results and applications. R. J. Koenig (FAA, Systems Research and Development Service, Washington, D.C.). Acoustical Society of America, Meeting, 87th, New York, N. Y., Apr. 23-26, 1974, Paper. 10 p. 11 refs.

Government/Industry cooperation has led to a successful noise retrofit feasibility program. Technologically feasible, economically reasonable solutions are available for the problem of quieting the JT3D and JT8D powered aircraft fleet. Results previously presented are reviewed and their potential applications are covered. Attention is given to FAA rule making activity directed toward implementation of retrofit. Acoustic treatment of nacelle inlets and exhaust ducts proved to be effective in attainment of FAA lower acoustic goals.

F.R.L. A74-37535 # Aircraft noise retrofit feasibility program objectives and scope. R. J. Koenig (FAA, Systems Research and Development Service, Washington, D.C.). Acoustical Society of America, Meeting, 87th, New York, N.Y., Apr. 23-26, 1974, Paper. 10 p. FAA-sponsored research.

Government and the air transport industry have been faced with the problem of quieting existing low-bypass-ratio turbofan-powered aircraft which constitute nearly 90% of the current U.S. air carrier fleet. A description is given of the FAA-sponsored retrofit feasibility program and related NASA and industry.funded efforts. The program was designed to provide test data for use in determining whether the older design aircraft could be modified for meaningful noise reduction. The modifications were required to be technologically practicable, economically reasonable, and appropriate for the aircraft type. The program included ground and flight tests of flight-weight hardware capable of airworthiness certification.


(Systems Technology, Inc., Hawthorne, Calif.). American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Mechanics and Control of Flight Conference, Anaheim, Calif., Aug. 5-9, 1974, Paper 74-836. 6 p. 5 refs. Members, $1.50; nonmembers, $2.00. Contract No. NAS2 6441.

Presented in this paper are the analytical and moving-base simulation results of a study to improve flight safety and operations of V/STOL type aircraft. One of the more significant and novel aspects of the work accomplished has been the concept and implementation of a configuration management flight control system designed to take the guesswork out of, and improve the operational safety of, transition flight in the region from cruise to STOL.


A74-37546 # Development of noise-reduction concepts for 727 and 737 airplanes. C. L. Arctander, C. G. Hodge, and R. B. Tate (Boeing Commercial Airplane Co., Seattle, Wash.). Acoustical Society of America, Meeting, 87th, New York, N. Y., Apr. 23-26, 1974, Paper. 16 p. 9 refs.

A review is given of various noise-reduction concepts pertinent to JT8D-powered 727 and 737 airplanes, with emphasis on acoustic technology. Two jet noise suppression concepts aimed at further 727 noise reduction are discussed. An ejector/suppressor concept that has been demonstrated in an FAA-sponsored ground and flight test program is shown to achieve 6 to 8 EPNdB suppression of jet noise at engine takeoff power. Airplane performance penalties, however, have precluded production application of this configuration. The refan concept, currently under development on a NASA contract, involves JT8D engine modifications to incorporate a higher work-extraction fan. This modification realizes lower jet noise that, when coupled with extensive acoustic treatment, results in significant noise reductions with a minimum impact on airplane performance.


A74-37894 # Impact of new MIL-F-9490D requirements on future flight control developments. J. L. Townsend (Boeing Co., Wichita, Kan.) and P. E. Blatt (USAF, Flight Dynamics Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio). American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Mechanics and Control of Flight Conference, Anaheim, Calif., Aug. 5-9, 1974, Paper 74.914. 7 p. 9 refs. Members, $1.50; nonmembers, $2.00. Contract No. F33615-72-C-1090.

The task objective was to develop a general purpose quantitative flight control specification having long-term applicability for all Air Force piloted aircraft. These aircraft span the entire range of fighters, transports, bombers, trainers, STOL, VTOL, helicopters, and utility vehicles. Mechanizations span the gamut of mechanical, electrical (both analog and digital), hydraulic, pneumatic, and optical designs with many combinations of elements. Requirements were to be specified in such a way as to provide maximum designer freedom for design, since progressive improvement in the state-of-the-art is desired. At the same time, quantitative system requirements (safety. mission reliability, stability margins, failure transients, AFCS modes, etc.) were to be established based on state-of-the-art knowledge. Past experience and recent technology development programs formulate these state-of-the-art requirements.


A74-37548* # Noise reduction programs for DC-8 and DC-9 airplanes. R. L. Frasca (Douglas Aircraft Co., Long Beach, Calif.). Acoustical Society of America, Meeting, 87th, New York, N. Y., Apr. 23-26, 1974, Paper. 18 p. 12 refs. Research supported by the Douglas Aircraft Co.; U.S. Department of Transportation Contracts No. FA72WA-3116; No. FA73WA-3161; Contracts No. NAS316814; No. NAS3-17841.

A summary review is presented of the results of current and recently completed noise-reduction programs for DC-8 and DC-9 airplanes. The relationship of these programs to other efforts by Douglas to develop quieter CTOL airplanes is briefly outlined. The engine/nacelle concepts studied were: (1) application of nacelle acoustic treatment, (2) variable-area exhaust nozzles, (3) jet exhaust noise suppressors, and (4) engines with larger-diameter new front fans. Acoustic analyses leading to the selection of certain engine/ nacelle configurations are described, as well as design constraints which limit the noise reduction capability of certain designs. Acoustic design features of the modified engine/nacelles are discussed along with estimates of the changes in aircraft community noise levels, as well as estimates of the changes in aircraft weight, performance, cost, and operational restrictions.


A74-38049 # Air transport. Volume 3 (Vozdushnyi transport. Volume 3). Z. P. Rumiantseva and N. G. Savusia. Moscow, VINITI, 1973. 132 p. 105 refs. In Russian.

The technical and economic aspects of the development of air transportation are reviewed, and methods of predicting air trans. portation over 10 to 15 year periods are discussed. The current status and developmental trends of passenger aircraft are reviewed. The irregularity and inconsistency characterizing the development of civil aviation during the past decade are noted, along with the competitive struggle for markets between regular airlines and charter organiza. tions of the western world, and the economic integration and cooperation between individual airlines.


A74-37655 # A dynamic model of interacting commercial units (Dinamicheskaia model' vzaimodeistvuiushchikh ekonomicheskikh ob'ektov). T. K. Sirazetdinov and S. K. Dzhaksybaev. Aviatsionnaia Tekhnika, vol. 17, no. 1, 1974, p. 25-30. In Russian.

A mathematical description is given for a production process performed by an industrial system consisting of n interacting units with set input and output characteristics. Expressions are derived to interrelate the output capacity, the total amount of input resources, the total working capital expenditure and the product output per unit time in one component unit of a multiunit industrial or commercial system. Particular attention is given to a mathematical model of the development of a two-unit commercial production system. The mathematical problem involved is reduced to the solution of the Cauchy problem of a system of ordinary differential. equations.



Computer analysis of airfield operations. R. Horonjeff (California, University, Berkeley, Calif.) and D. Maddison. Airport Forum, vol. 4, June 1974, p. 41-44, 46, 47, 49, 50. In English and German.

In connection with a major expansion of the apron-gate area at San Francisco International Airport the number of aircrait gates will be increased from 56 to about 90. Two alternate plans were developed for increasing the number of gates. A computer-simulation approach was used for obtaining data regarding the performance of the two terminal schemes. The computer simulation was to provide information concerning the magnitude of aircraft delays, the cause of these delays, and lengths of the lines of waiting passengers. The results of the computer simulation were one of a number of factors which led to the selection of one of the two schemes being considered.


A74-37834 * # Configuration management during transition for a powered lift STOL aircraft. W. A. Johnson and S. J. Craig


Growing concern in aviation with costs and benefits. R. F. Grosch (Berliner Flughafen GmbH, Berlin, West Germany). Airport Forum, vol. 4, June 1974, p. 54, 56, 57, 59-62, 64, 67. In English and German.

Aspects of suitable runway design for safe operation are considered along with the width of taxiways, runway pavements, runway surfaces, the provision of obstruction-free areas, lighting aids, fog dispersal, fire and rescue services, safety questions, and environmental aspects. Problems of the airlines are discussed, taking into account the world fuel crisis, world-wide inflation, and rising costs. Future developments under consideration include the development of a hydrogen-powered transport which would carry 400 to 500 passengers to anywhere on the globe within three of four hours. G.R.


Distributed avionics information systems. C. 0. Beum, Jr. and E. Levin (System Development Corp., Santa Monica, Calif.). In: NAECON '74; Proceedings of the National Aerospace and Electronics Conference, Dayton, Ohio, May 13-15, 1974.

New York, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 1974, p. 78-84, 18 refs.

The recommendations contained in a report 'Standardization of Avionics Information Processing Systems' recently completed for the Institute of Defense Analysis are analyzed and discussed. They include arrangement of digital processors in a distributed hierarchical architecture, functionally dedicated processors that trade hardware inefficiency for system simplicity, maximum use of LSI, hard wiring. and firmware, system design favoring the total systems approach, use of self-contained diagnostics and failure detection at each level, dedicated redundancy as opposed to software reconfiguration, and use of on-board testing and line replaceable units.


A74-38249 * # Management of analytical redundancy in digital flight control systems for aircraft. R. C. Montgomery and D. B. Price (NASA, Langley Research Center, Flight Dynamics and Control Div., Hampton, Va.). American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Mechanics and Control of Flight Conference, Anaheim, Calif., Aug. 5-9, 1974, Paper 74-887. 11 p. Members, $1.50; nonmembers, $2.00.

This paper presents a design method for optimal redundancy management for nonlinear systems with application to highly maneuvering aircraft. The approach taken is based on selecting the failure states to be covered by the system design and constructing a cost function that represents the cost of making an incorrect decision. The decision logic which minimizes the cost requires a bank of extended Kalman filters running in parallel. This produces a severe computational requirement. To reduce this requirement, a sub optimal logic is developed based on using a nonlinear single-stage prediction algorithm in the filters with filter gains and decision logic selected using steady-state results obtained from a linearization of the vehicle and sensor dynamics. The design process is then applied to designing a redundancy management system for the F8-C aircraft. Results indicate that the system is superior in failure detection to a system using the same structure but using a linear single-stage prediction algorithm in the filters.



Considerations in the design of a digital flight control function for a high performance aircraft. J. G. Mrazek (Texas Instruments, Inc., Dallas, Tex.) and D. P Rubertus (USAF, Flight Dynamics Laboratory, Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio). In: NAECON '74; Proceedings of the National Aerospace and Electronics Con. ference, Dayton, Ohio, May 13-15, 1974,

New York, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 1974, p. 186-193

Current interest in applying digital information management techniques to a broad spectrum of military aircraft functions has stimulated increased attention to identifying the design criteria required to achieve satisfactory dynamic performance in a digital flight control function. The investigation uses an analog, quadruple, fly-by-wire system as a model. The flight control algorithms were developed from the analog filter definitions using the Tustin transformation. A data rate was selected for each segment of the system in the interest of distributing the processor load to the best overall advantage. The computer load was assessed using the flight control algorithms and data rates associated with each loop segment It was determined that the computation cycle time was dominated by the redundancy mangement function.



Design to cost requires common understanding, clear direction. F. A. Hinrichs (U.S. Army, Aviation Systems Command, St. Louis, Mo.). Defense Management Journal, vol. 10, July 1974, p. 59-66.

It is pointed out that the design to cost concept must be viewed in the light of past DOD practice and philosophy, because it is this practice and philosophy the design to cost approach is attempting to change. The intent of the design to cost concept is to seek quality weapon systems at an affordable reduced cost through innovation and better cost management. Design to cost has been established as a requirement in several development contracts including the contracts for the advanced attack helicopter, a new main battle tank, a surface-to-air missile, and a lightweight fighter.



An approach to evaluation of a computer aided management system. W. G. James (USAF, Flight Dynamics Laboratory, Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio). In: NAECON '74; Proceedings of the National Aerospace and Electronics Conference, Dayton, Ohio, May 13-15, 1974.

New York, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 1974, p. 412-419.

A method for evaluating the model behavior of the computer. implemented resource allocation process is developed. A set of characteristics (e.g. timing, cost, risk, and payoff) which comprise model behavior is identified, and a measure of each characteristic applicable to each proposed research effort is determined. The data for all tasks is tabulated in a matrix for each of the characteristics which show the relationship between the computer-recommended resource level and the level of the variable. The model behavior for each characteristic is hypothesized and then tested with a correlation technique. Application of this method to a computer-aided decision process is described. The method can be extended to other computer management systems.



Logistic support for the Guiana Space Center (Support logistique du Centre Spatial Guyanais). La Recherche Spatiale, vol. 13, July-Aug. 1974, p. 17-22. In French.

The present work describes several main facilities at the French space center in Guiana, including fuel storage (both liquid and solid), liquid fuel preparation, payload preparation, the meteorological station, port facilities, electric power plant, water production, medical support, and professional training.



Fire control radar and airborne computer cost prediction based on technical parameters. R. W. Grimm (USAF, Avionics Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio). In: NAECON '74; Proceedings of the National Aerospace and Electronics Conference, Dayton, Ohio, May 13-15, 1974.

New York, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 1974, p. 506-513.

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