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N74-28344*# National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala.
Earl M. McNail 30 May 1974,75 Prepared in cooperation
with Martin Marietta Aerospace, Denver
(Contract NAS8-24000)
(NASA-TM-X-64850) Avail: NTIS HC $3.75 CSCL 13L

Design criteria statement applicable to a wide variety of
flight systems, experiments and other payloads, associated ground
support equipment and facility support systems are presented.
The document reflects a composite of experience gained
throughout the aerospace industry prior to Skylab and additional
experience gained during the Skylab Program. It has been prepared
to provide current and future program organizations with a broad
source of safety-related design criteria and to suggest methods
for systematic and progressive application of the criteria beginning
with preliminary development of design requirements and
specifications. Recognizing the users obligation to shape the
checklist to his particular needs, a summary of the historical
background, rationale, objectives, development and implementa-
tion approach, and benefits based on Skylab experience has
been included.









A74-37834 * # Configuration management during transition
for a powered lift STOL aircraft. W. A. Johnson and S. J. Craig -
(Systems Technology, Inc., Hawthorne, Calif.). American Institute of
Aeronautics and Astronautics, Mechanics and Control of Flight
Conference, Anaheim, Calif., Aug. 5-9, 1974, Paper 74-836. 6 p. 5
refs. Members, $1.50; nonmembers, $2.00. Contract No. NAS2-

Presented in this paper are the analytical and moving-base
simulation results of a study to improve flight safety and operations
of V/STOL type aircraft. One of the more significant and novel
aspects of the work accomplished has been the concept and
implementation of a configuration management flight control system.
designed to take the guesswork out of, and improve the operational
safety of, transition flight in the region from cruise to STOL.






a continuing literature survey

MARCH 1975


A74-10858 # Physiological, biochemical, and psychological responses in air traffic control personnel - Comparison of the 5-day and 2-2-1 shift rotation patterns. C. E. Melton, J. M. Mckenzie, R. C. Smith, B. D. Polis, and E. A. Higgins (FAA, Civil Aeromedical Institute, Oklahoma City, Okla.; U.S. Naval Material Command, Naval Air Development Center, Warminster, Pa.). In: International Congress on Aviation and Space Medicine, 21st, Munich, West Germany, September 17-21, 1973, Preprints of Lectures.

Munich, Sekretariat, Internationaler Kongress für Luftund Raumfahrtmedizin, 1973, p. 169, 170.


Rules relating to mortgage rights and to distraint in air law (Règles relatives aux droits d'hypothèque et de saisie-conservatoire en droit aérien). G. Jacquemin. Revue Générale de l'Air et de l'Espace, vol. 36, no. 2, 1973, p. 182-187. In French.

A74-10506 # Air transportation noise technology overview. B. Maggin and D. Chestnutt (NASA, Washington, D.C.). Canadian Aeronautics and Space Institute and American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Aeronautical Meeting, Montreal, Canada, Oct 29, 30, 1973, AIAA Paper 73-1152. 10 p. 11 rets. Members, $1.50; nonmembers, $2.00.

The NASA ana DOT technology program planning for quieter air transportation systems is reviewed. To put this planning in context, the nature of the noise problem and the projected nature of the air transportation fleet are identified. The technology program planning reviewed here is discussed in relation to the following areas of activity: systems analysis, community acceptance, basic research and technology, and the various classes of civil aircraft, i.e. existing and advanced transports, powered-lift transports, and general aviation.


A74-11096 # The air transport of tomorrow - Economic obstacles to surmount (Le transport aérien de demain . Des obstacles économiques à surmonter). G. Besse (Institut du Transport Aérien, Paris, France). Air et Cosmos, Oct. 20, 1973, p. 81-83. In French.

To ensure the orderly development of world air transport, accurate forecasts must be available. Any over- or underestimation of requirements could cause financial problems particularly difficult to overcome. The concept of traffic flow is subject to numerous interpretations, and the actual traffic can vary sensibly depending on the definition utilized. It is necessary to be able to monitor the fluctuations of traffic demand, to have sufficient personnel and financial resources, and to provide overall economic planning. F.R.L.

A74-11208 # Electrical interfaces in the AEROS satellite. P. Soppa. Dornier-Post (English Edition), no. 3, 1973, p. 45-50.

Among the major tasks which face a project group in handling a satellite project are the checking and control of the development of the various subsystems and their mutual compatibility within the overall system. This is naturally an iterative process in both directions, in which the positive and negative information gained in developing the subsystems will affect the overall system, and information concerning the overall system will affect the subsystems. The conversion of this information into appropriate correcting steps during the development and test phases is the job of the project group.



A new perspective on the intersectoral movement of new technology. J. P. Kottenstette and J. J. Rusnak (Denver, University, Denver, Colo.). IEEE Transactions on Engineer. ing Management, vol. EM-20, Nov. 1973, p. 102-107. 14 rets.

Analysis of NASA mission-oriented research activity and an evaluation of programs conducted by the NASA Technology Utilization Office are considered to construct a basis for intersectoral movement of new technologies from their original applications to other fields. A model is proposed to demonstrate how such shifts can be materialized by two different mechanisms - one of diffusion and one of transfer.



A review of R&D evaluation methods. D. R. Augood (Kaiser Aluminum and Chemical Corp., Pleasanton, Calif.). IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, vol. EM-20, Nov. 1973, p. 114-120. 59 refs.

R&D methods and associated techniques are reviewed, covering the uses of checklists of elements, profiles and information patterns, and the interpretation and application of the index method, including a discussion of the Olsen, Pacifico, Teal and Disman formulas. Also considered are risk analysis, credibility forecast, decision tree, impact analysis, and a combination of impact and risk analyses.


A74-11230 # Design competence · The mainspring to cost reduction. W. H. Thomas (General Motors Corp., Detroit Diesel Allison Div., Indianapolis, Ind.). American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and Society of Automotive Engineers, Propulsion Conference, 9th, Las Vegas, Nev., Nov. 5-7, 1973, AIAA Paper 73-1187. 7 p. Members, $1.50; nonmembers, $2.00.

The cost of most products has risen dramatically in the past several years. However, the cost of products required for national defense has risen more than five times the rate of inflation. At the same time, money available for these products has decreased substantially. Efforts are being made by the Department of Defense to reduce these escalating costs. One of the tools being employed is a plan called 'design to cost.' This paper deals with this philosophy as it is being applied to the U.S. Army Heavy-Lift Helicopter (HLH) Engine Program. The XT701-AD-700 engine program is the first engine program to adopt the design-to-cost philosophy from its inception. This paper also discusses some specific examples of how it is being applied in the engine design and what the payoffs are expected to be.


a new aircraft. This paper discusses examples of such applications and describes the values that can result.


A74-11318 # Cost · The emerging aerospace technology. D. K. Jorden and M. A. Siegel (United Aircraft Corp., Pratt and Whitney Aircraft Div., West Palm Beach, Fla.). American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and Society of Automotive Engineers, Propulsion Conference, 9th, Las Vegas, Nev., Nov. 5-7, 1973, AIAA Paper 73-1327.5 p. Members, $1.50; nonmembers, $2.00.

A cost management system is designed to give product cost a priority level equal to that of performance, weight and durability. The system provides cost visibility in the conceptual design phase, cost avoidance in the design phase, and cost reduction in the development and production phases. Essential in this system is a central cost management department staffed with engineering. procurement and manufacturing specialists backed by the manage ment.



The influence of design to cost and proto typing on the A-10 aircraft W. B. Trepel and G. A. Bohmann (Fairchild Republic Co., Farmingdale, N.Y.). Society of Automotive Engineers, National Aerospace Engineering and Manufacturing Meeting, Los Angeles, Calif., Oct 16-18, 1973, Paper 730890. 7 p. Members, $1.25; nonmembers, $2.00.

Increasing concern has been shown at all levels of government over the rising cost of major weapons systems. The implementation of the design to cost' approach is intended to reverse this trend by placing greater emphasis on the cost elements during systems design and by restraining the natural desire for maximum performance if the technology required involves the risk of cost escalation. These factors, however, must not detract from the basic goal · the production of a weapons system with acceptable, reliable perfor. mance within cost guidelines. The application of design to cost and the effect of prototyping are described as they apply to the A-10 close air support aircraft.



Technology transfer - Where we stand today. M. J. Cetron (Forecasting International, Ltd., Arlington, Va.). In: The impact of competitive technology on engineering management; Annual Joint Engineering Management Conference, 21st, St. Petersburg, Fla., October 25, 26, 1973, Record. Conference sponsored by ASOC, EIC, ISA, AITE, ASME, and NSPE. New York, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1973, p. 11-28. 47 rets.

A framework is suggested for consideration of technology transfer, and the present status of scientific and technological knowledge dissemination is reviewed. Following a brief definition of technology transfer and a discussion of the existing types of technology transfer, such factors are examined as the barriers and stimuli to innovation, licensing, and the multinational corporations which affect the effectiveness of transfer.



Influence of prototype concept and cost cailings on airtrame design and manufacture of the YF-16 lightweight fighter. W. C. Dietz and W. K. Bailey (General Dynamics Corp., Convair Aerospace Div., San Diego, Calif.). Society of Automotive Engineers, National Aerospace Engineering and Manufacturing Meer. ing, Los Angeles, Calif., Oct 16-18, 1973, Paper 730888. 9 p. Members, $1.25; non members, $2.00.

A74-11539. The growing importance of costs and ways to maintain cost control on a large program in today's competitive environment. J. J. Newman (RCA, Astro-Electronics Div., Princeton, N.J.), D. W. Grimes (NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.), and F. W. Gaetano (NASA, Washington, D.C.). In: The impact of competitive technology on engineering management; Annual Joint Engineering Management Conference, 21st, St. Petersburg, Fla., October 25, 26, 1973, Record. Conference sponsored by ASQC, EIC, ISA, AIIE, ASME, and NSPE. New York, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1973, p. 57-64.

Discussion of management techniques that make it possible to overcome inflationary and developmental cost rises while holding schedule and performance fixed in scientific space programs. The techniques reviewed pertain to high personnel motivation, continual review of contract rigidity for de facto modification by senior judgment, standardization vs design innovation, cooperative customer/contractor goal orientation vs task orientation, and deep real-time management visibility.



Spray cooled generators and design-to-cost at Westinghouse. A. E. King (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Aerospace Electrical Div., Lima, Ohio). Society of Automotive Engineers, National Aerospace Engineering and Manufacturing Meeting. Los Angeles, Calif., Oct 16-18, 1973, Paper 730878. 9 p. Members, $1.25; nonmembers, $2.00.

An aircraft generator development program is described that has achieved dramatic weight reductions with simultaneous improve ments in reliability and performance through application of spray-oil cooling. The program plan employed the classic requirements for achievement based on design-to-cost principles.


A74-1 1573 Metrication and planning to meet its demands in aerospace engineering and manufacturing. D. E. E. Carmody (McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Co., Huntington Beach, Calif.). Society of Automotive Engineers, National Aerospace Engineering and Manufacturing Meeting, Los Angeles, Calif., Oct. 16-18, 1973, Paper 730924. 11 p. Members, $1.25; nonmembers, $2.00.

A74-11609 # Government spending and innovation. M. L. Weidenbaum (Washington University, St. Louis, Mo.). Astronautics and Aeronautics, vol. 11. Nov. 1973, p. 32-43. 16 refs. NSF. supported research.

Shifts in the federal budget imply a relative decline in Federal support of research and development. It is pointed out that these developments make it necessary to reevaluate the role of science and technology in national priorities. The suggestion is made that 'technological innovation' should possibly be elevated to the status of an end-purpose. The characteristics of alternative expenditure mechanisms are discussed together with an analysis of the relation of government purchases to innovation, the relation of tax incentives 10 innovation, and questions regarding the relationship between government-sponsored enterprises and new technical advances.



Advantages of aircraft system maturity. W. W. Way (McDonnell Douglas Corp., Long Beach, Calif.). Society of Automotive Engineers, National Aerospace Engineering and Manu. facturing Meeting, Los Angeles, Calif., Oct 16-18, 1973, Paper 730907. 7 p. Members, $1.25; nonmembers, $2.00.

The maturing air transportation industry is finding profitability to be increasingly elusive. The cost of maintaining the aircraft of this industry has a substantial impact on profitability. It is incumbent on aircraft and system designers to minimize the cost of maintaining those aircraft to maximize profitability. Choosing mature components and systems, which have demonstrated reliability, are familiar to maintenance personnel, and for which spare inventory exists, is an effective technique for minimizing maintenance costs of

A7411610 # U.S. aerospace industry at the crossroads, R. S. Attiyeh (McKinsey and Co., Inc., Los Angeles, Calif.), E. G. Friberg (McKinsey and Co., Inc., Washington, D.C.), and R. E. Cohen (U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C.). Astronautics and Aeronautics, vol. 11, Nov. 1973, p. 44-51.

It is pointed out that for the first time in recent history Europeans significantly challenge U.S. dominance of the Free World aerospace market. The European challenge comes from the sub. stantial government funding of both military and commercial aircraft

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