« 이전계속 »
testimony on the Trans-Alaska Pipeline, development of the Outer Continental Shelf. remote sensing of mineral resources, and research in the efficient extraction, conversion, and use of geothermal energy, oil shale, coal, and natural gas. Short term considerations, intermediate tasks, and long term strategy are discussed for the Federal Energy Office. Geological Survey. Office of Coal Research, and the Bureau of Mines. Budget figures, specific programs, management structure, and contracts are described for each organization, and rationales are given for each of their various contributions towards a unified national program in energy research and development Fuel allocation, foreign trade, market considerations, oil and gas programs, and energy conservation and analysis are discussed in light of current and expected per capita energy demand in the U.S. strip mining. mine health and safety. and mine waste management are also considered along with debate concerning possible adjustment of the Federal Energy Budget.
N74-31396# Committee on Appropriations (U. S. Senate).
A report is presented from the Committee recommending a budget for the Department of Housing and Urban Development. the National Aeronautical and Space Adminstration, the National Science Foundation, the Veterans Administration and eight other independent agencies.
N74-31397# Committee on Aeronautical and Space Sciences (U. S. Senate). TECHNOLOGY RESOURCES SURVEY AND APPLICATIONS ACT Washington GPO 1974 1590 Hearings on S. 2495 before Comm. on Aeronaut. and Space Sci. and the Comm. on Commerce, 93d Congr., 20 Sess., 11 Mar., 21 Mar. 1974 Prepared in cooperation with Comm. on Commerce (U. S. Senate) (GPO-32-205) Avail: SOD HC $ 1.40
A Congressional hoaring was conducted concerning legislation to provide for more effective utilization of the scientific and tochnological resources of the United States in the solution of critical domestic problems. The organization and functions of a Federal Council for Science and Technology are discussed. The establishment of an Office of Technology Application within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is recommendech The organization, functions, and funding of the Office of Technology Application are reported.
N74-31407# Naval Research Lab., Washington, D.C.
Activities of the Naval Research Lab are reported for its use as a central information computer facility. Scientific programs include: acoustics. chemistry. communication sciences, ocean technology, and nuclear and atomic physics.
technological evolution. The missions most applicable to this interpretation are identified and include the following: (1) information transmission via shuttle-delivered and maintained satellite networks; (2) earth resources surveillance; (3) launch support for an earth services satellite network; and (4) the shuttle-compatible power relay satellite system for efficient global power transmission and distribution. Certain direct contributions of space shuttle operations to the economic posture of the U.S. in world trade are also discussed. Space shuttle capabilities are soon as instrumental to national growth and problem solving for the next two decades.
N74-31391*# Southeastern State Coll., Durant, Okla. Technology Use Studies Center. TECHNOLOGY UTILIZATION IN A NON-URBAN REGION: FURTHER IMPACT AND TECHNIQUE OF THE TECHNOLOGY USE STUDIES CENTER Final Report C. Henry Gold, A. M. Moore, Bill Dodd. and Velma Dittmar Jun. 1974 82 p (Contract NASW-2512) (NASA-CR-139565) Avail: NTIS HC $7.25 CSCL 05A
Updated information pertaining to clients who receive and use information disseminated by the Technology Use Studies Center (TUSC) is reported. Charts are provided which indicate TUSC's performance in information dissemination and technical assistance in terms of quantities of searches accomplished during several contract years. The faculty information service is described, along with details of cooperation with other agencies. Specific searches are listed according to subject, client, and client location, and a measure of client response to services provided is indicated by the included selection of transfer and impact reports. The impetus behind the formation of the general aviation news letter is also described.
N74-31393# Environmental Protection Agency. Washington, D.C.
Near and long range views are presented for water pollution control. Goals are projected for FY-75 along with a broader perspective for 1983. Water quality standards and toxic effluent standards are described with program and management planning for water pollution control.
N74-31394# Committee on Appropriations (U. S. House). SPECIAL ENERGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT APPROPRIATIONS BILL FOR 1976. PART 1: DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Washington GPO 1974 977 p rets Hearings before Subcomm. of the Comm. on Appropriations, 93d Congr., 20 Sess., 11 Feb. 1974, 4 Mar. 1974, 5 Mar. 1974 (GPO-29-514) Avail: Subcomm. on the Dept. of the Interior and related agencies
An overview of energy programs within the Department of Interior was presented in a Congressional hearing called to hear
N74-31408# Transportation Systems Center, Cambridge, Mass.
The current use of computerized management information and control systems in intercity freight transportation is examined.
N74-31461 Messerschmitt-Boelkow-Blohm G.m.b.H., Munich
Each of the four modes railroad, motor carrier, maritime and air cargo industries) is investigated. In each case, computer information systems can help improve the operational efficiency of the mode and provide management (and regulators) with more accurate data for decision making The intermodal data standard and exchange problem is also discussed. Appropriate recommendations for DOT research and development policy are made. These include development of a national railroad management system, development of terminal control systems for railroad yards and intermodal terminals. support to development of a maritime industry Information system and increased effort in the area of date facilitation
The cost aspects and schedule implications involved in a prototype development concept are compared with standardized development philosophies. The time scales of the total system development program and the time scales of the prototype development program are illustrated. The procedures involved in conducting a comparative cost analysis are reported. Diagrams are included to show the budget requirements, accumulated costs at program milestones, specifications uncertainties, and the confidence factor. Organizational charts for the total system development concept and the prototype development concept are also compared.
N7431458 Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development. Paris (France), AIRCRAFT DESIGN INTEGRATION AND OPTIMIZATION, VOLUME 1 Jun 1974 347 prets In ENGLISH; partly in FRENCH Conf. heid at Florence, Italy, 1-4 Oct. 1973 (AGARD-CP-147-Vol-1) Avail: NTIS HC $20.50
The proceedings of a conference on aircraft design integration and optimization are presented. The subjects discussed include the following (1) the preliminary design process and its impact on cost. (2) methods and approaches for balancing requirements, capabilities, and costs in aircraft design, (3) analysis, optimization, and validation testing techniques, and (4) the integration of subsystems and application of new technology.
N74-31462 Douglas Aircraft Co., Inc.. Long Beach, Calif.
N74-31459 Air Force Flight Dynamics Lab., Wright-Patterson
Advanced design decisions with an impact upon the life cycle costs of aircraft systems are discussed. The impact of advanced design decisions commences during the detail design and development phases, continues into the production phase and becomes a dominant factor during the operational life of the aircraft system. Even for a well defined mission there are many factors bearing on costs that must be considered during the advanced design phase. Several of these have been selected for examination: (1) the number of engines to be used, (2) selection of equipment and systems, (3) the simplification of design, (4) the materials to be used, and (5) the level of avionics sophistication. These advanced design decisions cannot be made solely from a technical or cost standpoint, but must consider the operational environment in which the aircraft system will function as well as the demands of the market place. There are strong indications that the more intense the advanced design effort the lower will be the detailed design, manufacturing and development costs as well as life cycle costs. During the advanced design phase, it is extremely important that the critical wind-tunnel tests be performed to avoid costly redesign after the detailed design drawings have been released. The contribution that creative Advanced Design makes to the development of effective aircraft systems has greatly increased as the result of rising costs. Errors in judgement are now more costly than ever before. Author
Methods for reducing the development, production, and operational costs of aircraft systems through preliminary design procedures are discussed. The manner in which the preliminary design process is conducted is analyzed. The critical program decisions which are made on the basis of the preliminary design process are identified. The preliminary process is further defined to show the application for assessing the payoff of technical innovations and emerging technologies on system capabilities. Diagrams are provided to show the preliminary design flow chart, system program phases, preliminary design process uses, and cost reduction methodologies.
N74-31463 Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches
N74-31460 General Dynamics/Fort Worth, Tex.
Methods for reducing the development costs of the YF-16 aircraft are discussed. The YF-16 prototype aircraft was conceived and is being developed as a low-cost, exceptionally high maneuvering-performance fighter aircraft to meet the cost/ performance objectives. a number of advanced technology features, including vortex lift, variable wing camber, wing/body blending. relaxed static stability/fly-by-wire, and high-performance normal-shock inlet, were optimized and integrated during the preliminary design phase. The basic design concept was to apply these advanced technologies in a way, first, to produce a small size aircraft and, second to achieve simplicity - both of these design objectives having a direct beneficial effect on the development, acquisition, and life-cycle cost The resulting configuration is predicted to meet all program cost/performance objectives
The requirements to be met by a research laboratory in preparation for the preliminary design phase of sophisticated aircraft development are analyzed. It is stated that the research center must forecast the main trends of aeronautical techniques in order to provide the government services and the constructors with a maximum of information The required actions of the government technical services are defined to include: (1) generation of preliminary studies for contractor use. (2) to begin basic research studies, (3) to identify technical risks. and (4) to monitor the progress of works under development and reorient the effort where required
N74-31464* National Aeronautics and Space Administration
STAGES OF VEHICLE DEFINITION
N74-31468 Boeing Commercial Airplane Co., Seattle, Wash.
The conceptual and preliminary design processes are used to provide information regarding the feasibility and selection of various approaches to aircraft mission requirements. Decisions influenced by this information often have enormous cost implications at the later stages of the development process and during vehicle operation, yet the resources expended during the early phases are usually relatively small and distributed over several alternate approaches. The information provided during these early conceptual and preliminary design phases needs to be credible and complete, even though it must be generated with limited resources. Criteria for acceptance of early design information, modern methods of providing it and suggestions for defining adequate levels of resources to accomplish the objectives of the activity are described. Specific examples of the most difficult type of early design studies, which are those requiring significant undeveloped technology, are used to discuss these points. The examples include design studies and cost estimates of liquid hydrogen fueled aircraft, oblique winged aircraft, and remotely piloted vehicles.
The intensive effons undertaken to develop an economically competitive SST are discussed. New design approaches in the areas of airplane longitudinal control and stability and flight control syetems design were developed. Extensive research work was conducted to push the state of the art as hard as possible in the development of handling qualities criteria and in the design evolution of the stability augmentation system. The end product was a control-configured vehicle employing multiple redundant electronic stability augmentation systems to mcet design requirements for both normal handling qualities and minimum-safe handling qualities. This design approach contributed substantial gains in range/payload capability over that attainable through the conventional approach that inhibits airplane design through the requirement to provide inherent aerodynamic stability. Throughout all of the design development work the effects of structural aeroelastics on aircraft stability and control played a major role in configuration design decisions. The complex engineering work involved in the aeroelastic analyses paced the configuration development design cycles and contributed substantially to the total engineering costs. The experience gained in these areas has identified the need for improved quality. automated aeroelastic analysis methods to speed the design development work and reduce the engineering costs and design risks.
N74-31466 Vereinigte Flugtechnische Werke-Fokker G.m.b.H..
The steps involved in the design of remotely piloted vehicles are discussed. Specific areas of concern are: (1) combat tactics, (2) weaponry, (3) sensors. (4) payload and range. (5) guidance and control, and (6) maintainability, storability, and vulnerability. The characteristics of a typical RPV are analyzed to provide an example of the important factors which are involved in the design procedure.
N74-31469 British Aircraft Corp., Preston (England).
Military Aircraft Div. RECENT EXPERIENCE FROM BAC AIRCRAFT FOR NATO P. J. Midgley In AGARD Aircraft Design Integration and Optimization, Vol. 1 Jun. 1974 10 p ref
N74-31466 Hawker Siddeley Aviation, Ltd., Hatfield (England).
The nature of an aircraft design team and the techniques to be integrated into the organization to improve design efficiency are discussed. The structure and implementation of new techniques which have been applied to the preliminary stages of design in Hawker Siddeley Aviation are stressed. Block diagrams are developed to show the data base nechanism. the interaction between applications programs and the data base, and the flow of typical project study activities. The costs and benefits of the system of design are analyzed.
An analysis of trends in total cost of ownership of combat aircrah was developed. The life cycle cost analysis is related to the Air Force budget and ways are considered in which the rising costs of Air Force operations may be alleviated. The subjects discussed include the following: (1) Air Force budget trends. (2) the procurement process, (3) life cycle costs. (4) launch and acquisition costs. (5) development philosophy. (6) operating costs, and (7) training costs. Charts. graphs, and diagrams are included 10 illustrate the contents of the text.
N74-31470 Aeronautical Systems Div., Wright-Patterson AFB.
N74-31467 Boeing Commercial Airplane Co., Seattle, Wash.
The major design considerations of the F-15 air superiority aircraft are traced from the initial requirements, through the design, and into the flight testing. Selection of the overall configuration is discussed with particular emphasis on the wing, inlet, and secondary power design. The ground and flight test programs are briefly reviewed.
The design activities involved in developing the Boeing 2707 supersonic transport aircraft are discussed. The history of the design activity is presented to show areas where failure and/or misconception occurred due to insufficient knowledge and to show how the shortcomings were corrected or avoided in subsequent configuration evaluations. Emphasis is placed on selected areas where preliminary design tools could be improved. The various design configurations are illustrated and their technical features are analyzed. The structural design features of various components are described and illustrated. The operational objectives on which the preliminary planning was based are defined. The functions of specific segments of the organization are reported.
N74-31471 Dornier-System Gm.b.H., Friedrichshafen (West
The battle-field air superiority fighter is an air defense aircraft with the function to gain and to hold air superiority over the combat area for limited time and limited operational area. For
given budget the fleet effectiveness can be optimized by reducing the price of the aircraft thus allowing for a higher number of aircraft. Mainly a low cost design can be achieved by minimizing the take-off weight. Design philosophy is to adjust range. payload and equipment to absolute necessary requirements thus arriving to a simple design, but not to compromise air combat capability. For the evaluation of different solutions a method is discussed which shows the role of aircraft characteristics with respect to air combat and which can be used in the preliminary design phases. In the present paper, the influence of mission and design parameters of range, combat time, wing loading and thrust/weight ratio on take-off weight, system cost and air combat effectiveness for the battle-field air superiority fighter is shown. Different versions of a battle-field air superiority fighter are presented and comparative results shown.
A survey of the possibilities of mathematical statistics for engineering evaluation of reliable data sets for design weight estimates of first level accuracy was conducted. Based on a form of regression analysis, several statements which are adapted for finding weight prediction formulas are described. The two principle statements are: (1) constraint regression for development formulas which give physically interpretable weight trends, using methods of quadratic optimization and (2) nonlinear regression statements which are solved by using iterative computer routines. Practical examples to show the possibilities of applying statistical ovaluations are included.
N74-31476 Aeronautical Systems Div., Wright-Patterson AFB.
The trade studies and design compromises to optimize the aircraft configuration for specific purposes are discussed. Typical problems involved in the aircraft design process are examined. Illustrations are provided to show the performance improvement which resulted from design modifications to various aircraft. Methods for accurately predicting the performance of an aircraft prior to flight test are reported. Design criteria based on lateral-directional static stability have been developed to reveal possible problems relative to departure characteristics and spin susceptibility. It is stated that the application of three dimensional aerodynamic analysis methods and spin prevention criteria early in the development of a new aircraft may be the key to better design optimization and improved integration of the components.
N74-31473 Boeing Aerospace Co., Seattle, Wash. Aeronautical
An analysis was conducted to determine the design and development techniques for large aircraft which would result in the least system cost. The effects of program and total life cycle costs are examined to show the effects on starting new aircraft development. Methods for designing an aircraft to maintain low cost are described and illustrated. Specific examples of aircraft designed for various missions are investigated to show the varicus approaches which were taken to keep down development costs.
N74-31477 Royal Aircraft Establishment, Farnborough (England).
The development of a computer program which can optimize the preliminary design of a subsonic, swept-wing. jet transport aircraft is discussed. The program can be used to assess rapidly the effects on the optimum design of changes in the specified performance or of advances in aerodynamic, structural. or engine technology. Compound optimization functions, including several of the aircraft characteristics. with different weighting factors can be used to produce designs in which large improvements in some characteristics have been obtained with small penalties in others.
N74-31474* National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
N74-31479 Vereinigte Flugtechnische Werke G.m.b.H., Bremen
The design process for conceptual. preliminary, and detailed design of aircraft is discussed with emphasis on structural design. Problems with current procedures are identified and improvements possible with an optimum man-computer team using integrated, disciplinary computer programs are indicated. Progress toward this goal in aerospace and other industries is reviewed, including NASA investigations of the potential development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD). The benefits expected from IPAD lead to the conclusion that increased use of the computer by a man-computer team that integrates all pertinent disciplines can create aircraft designs better, faster. and cheaper.
The design optimization procedure for the VAK 1918 fighter aircraft is discussed. The procedure of design optimization is evaluated based on the results obtained from ground and flight tests. The emphasis in the original planning was placed on aircraft performance. The results of the tradeoff studies in combination with point design studies are reported. The different approaches to the power plant selection are defined. The rationale behind the final selection of the aerodynamic configuration is explained.
N74-31476 Vereinigte Flugtechnische Werke G.m.b.H., Bremen (West Germany). PROJECT WEIGHT PREDICTION BASED ON ADVANCED STATISTICAL METHODS Wolfgang Schneider In AGARD Aircraft Design Integration and Optimization, Vol. 1 Jun. 1974 20 p
N74-31481 Boeing Co., Wichita, Kans.
and Optimization, Vol. 1 Jun. 1974 16 p refs
(NASA-CR-120398-APP-1-2) Avail: NTIS HC $13.75 CSCL 05E
The individual task durations are calculated in a series of time line realization problems, and a functional requirements data collection technique, designed to accommodate the data requirements for Spacelab payloads, is presented. A.A.D.
The control configured vehicle (CCV) aircraft design process is compared with conventional design procedures. The CCV procedure capitalizes on the potential of considering advanced flight control concepts during the initial parametric studies and trades. Formulation of the parametric aircraft can also be altered by the CCV approach, since traditional empirical design procedures no longer necessarily apply. CCV studies indicate that the most significant performance improvements are achieved in the following functions: (1) augmented stability. (2) gust load alleviation. (3) maneuver load control, (4) fatigue reduction. (5) ride control, and (6) flutter mode control.
N74-31651 Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, Md.
N74-31482 Lockheed-Georgia Co., Marietta.
A brief background provides motivation for studies in software quality. Some factors which influence software manufacture are mentioned, and measures which might quantity concepts of software quality are proposed. Several approaches to establishing program correctness receive attention Observations on software production management are included.
The preliminary design process influence on the C-5 avionic flight control system development, production, and operational cost is discussed. The design decisions made during the preliminary design phase relative to the stability augmentation systems illustrate the extent of the impact on the design, test, manufac. ture, and installation of the avionic systems. These decisions lie mainly in the areas of mission success capability, airplane safety. reliability. survivability, and human factor characteristics and, for the illustrative stability augmentation systems, the aircraft's handling qualities. The design processes, including the subsystem integration with the airframe and with other functional subsystems, influenced the cost of the C-5 program. Experience gained from this program may lead to improvements in preliminary design decision making procedures.
N74-31661# Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique,
A discussion of the technical requirements for the photographic data processing system to be installed at the French Laboratory of Spatial Astronomy is presented Various alternatives are proposed with regard to microphotometer, pilot unit and keyboard. buffer memory, interfaces, storage medium, processing speed, and 1/0 devices
N74-31483 Messerschmitt-Boelkow-Blohm G.m.b.H. Munich
An analysis of advanced design technology as applied to future fighter aircraft was conducted. The following conclusions were reached: (1) a new aircraft development can be justified if the performance of the new aircraft exceeds that of the old by 15 to 20 percent. (2) foreseeable technological air frame advances. such as CCV and composites, do not justify the development of new weapon systems, per se. (3) retent, engine technology advances allows a performance improvement which will justify new aircraft design, and (4) foreseeable air frame advances will pay off if applied to new aircraft development.
N74-31662# Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique,
A discussion on economics, budgeting, and priorities for the photographic data processing system at the French Laboratory of Spatial Astronomy, is presented The needs of the FAUST experiment and the Skylab program experiment 183 are compared, and various solutions are proposed.
N74-31861*# South Dakota State Univ. Brookings Remote
Remote sensing data obtained from aerial reconnaissance of tornado damage to the city of Pierre, South Dakota on July 23. 1973 was evaluated to determine its value as a decision making and management tool in post-disaster restoration activities The imaging techniques used are briefly discussed, and both aerial and closeup color photographs are provided which were used in the evaluation The immediate advantages of the data are dentified as a quick-look' assessment, and a list is given which outlines the additional advantages for which positive rescue and cleanup action may be initiated. Hail and flood damage evaluation, and remote sensing of crop damage due to insect of disease infestation is also briefly described.
N74-31484 Ministry of Defence, London (England).
The purposes, history and methods of budgetary estimation for military aircraft development programs conducted by the United Kingdom are discussed. The derivation of the methods are analyzed using the airframe as the main ...ample. The use of the timescale. resources, and cost essmating techniques to provide cost trade-offs for different aircraft operational capabilities is demon. strated. The main purposes served by the budgetary estimate are: (1) planning and funding. (2) project selection, appraisal. and approval, and (3) assessment of future loading on the aircraft industry for aerospace policy decisions.
N74-31579*# Essex Corp., Alexandria, Va.