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Consideration of the problem of predicting avionics develop ment and production cost before a detailed description of the hardware's physical make-up is available. Fire control radars and airborne digital computers were chosen to illustrate the techniques. The approach is to derive cost estimating relationships (CERs) which use technical design parameters of critical interest to the engineer and which incorporate a measure of the projected equipment's advancement in the state of the art. The radar and computer examples show that accurate CERs can indeed be established based on technical parameters. They are, however, subject to rather wide variances, which require care in using them to estimate costs at the low end of the scale.


The case history of a life-cycle cost study performed on the AN/ASN.101 gimbaled electrostatic gyro aircraft navigation system is presented. This study takes into account all the procurement and maintenance costs encountered in the ten year service life of the system. The validity of existing cost standards is criticized, and the need for simple, standardized life-cycle costing procedures is em. phasized. The contributions of other disciplines, among them maintenance and reliability techniques, to reducing the overall cost of ownership are discussed.



Life cycle cost comparisons of avionic system design alternatives. P. S. Kilpatrick and A. L. Jones (Honeywell, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn.). In: NAECON ‘74; Proceedings of the National Aerospace and Electronics Conference, Dayton, Ohio, May 13-15, 1974.

New York, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 1974, p. 514.520.


Orthophoto project planning. D. Hobbie (Cari Zeiss, Oberkochen, West Germany). Photogrammetric Engineering, vol. 40, Aug. 1974, p. 967.984.

It is the purpose of project planning for the production of orthophotos or photo maps to lay down the parameters to be used for the photoflight and differential rectification. After classification of the known orthoprojection instruments, the parameters of 'focal length', 'photo scale', 'flight data', 'end and side lap' as well as 'design and time of photoflight', guidelines are developed. As regards rectification, various factors affect the parameters of 'scan width' and 'scanning speed".



Avionic equipment reliability and low life cycle cost. W. R. Perrigo (USAF, Avionics Laboratory, Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio) and J. L. Easterday (Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, Ohio). In: NAECON '74; Proceedings of the National Aerospace and Electronics Conference, Dayton, Ohio, May 13-15, 1974.

New York, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 1974, p. 521-532. 12 rets.

Basic activities in the conduct of a reliability program are related to technical program aspects, management visibility and control, and philosophical concepts of a reliability program. Questions of initial or preprogram planning are examined. The program manager must make certain that a realistic, achievable goal is defined for the reliability program. A program manager's checklist is presented. Major management functions are summarized, taking into account the evaluation of the actual status of each activity in relation to the schedules, reliability task status reports, and reliability monitoring,



Air travel and economy of materials - Often too much, sometimes too little (Luftfahrt und Materialwirtschaft Oft zuviel-manchmal zuwenig). W. H. Kuhl. Flugrevue/Flugwelt International, Aug. 1974, p. 29-33. In German.

The problems encountered by large airlines in keeping themselves supplied with spare parts are described. Care is needed to ensure fast availability without wasting money on excess inventory. This problem can be alleviated somewhat by intelligent ordering procedures, and by pooling of parts, service, and warehouse facilities among major firms flying to remote airports. Modern data processing can also be effective in estimating various part lifetimes and planning inventories. Further, fast access to available spare parts can be facilitated by elaborate shelving procedures such as the Lufthansa vertical warehousing setup which uses multitiered shelves with special vehicles that move through the stacks.



Avionics cost reduction through improved tests. R. M. Genet (USAF, Aerospace Guidance and Metrology Center, Newark Air Force Station, Ohio). In: NAECON '74; Proceedings of the National Aerospace and Electronics Conference, Dayton, Ohio, May 13.15, 1974,

New York, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 1974, p. 534-538. 32 rets.

Over the past five years, new analytic techniques have been developed and applied to the evaluation of the economic significance of build and test errors in avionics repair processes. The cost of such build and test errors in one repair process accounted for 50% of the total cost of repair, and contrary to what might have been expected, the cost of test errors was much higher than the cost of build errors. It is considered that such high repair costs due to test errors are a relatively recent phenomenon associated with most of the recent very complex avionics systems, and while already a serious problem, it will become even more serious as the general level of avionics complexity increases.


A74-38726 * # Cost-effectiveness of integrated analysis/design systems /IPAD/ - An executive summary. II. R. E. Miller, Jr., S. D. Hansen, D. D. Redhed, J. W. Southall (Boeing Commercial Airplane Co., Seattle, Wash.), and A. S. Kawaguchi (Boeing Computer Services, Inc., Seattle, Wash.). American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Aircraft Design, Flight Test and Operations Meeting, 6th, Los Angeles, Calif., Aug. 12-14, 1974, Paper 74-960. 13 p. 18 refs. Contract No. NAS1-11441.

Evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of integrated analysis/design systems with particular attention to Integrated Program for Aero. space Vehicle Design (IPAD) project. An analysis of all the ingredients of IPAD indicates the feasibility of a significant cost and flowtime reduction in the product design process involved. It is also concluded that an IPAD supported design process will provide a framework for configuration control, whereby the engineering costs for design, analysis and testing can be controlled during the air vehicle development cycle.



A realistic approach to system life cycle cost. J. H. Taylor (Honeywell, Inc., Aerospace Div., St. Petersburg, Fla.). In: NAECON '74; Proceedings of the National Aerospace and Electronics Conference, Dayton, Ohio, May 13-15, 1974.

New York, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 1974, p. 539-546.

A74-38727 # Aircraft structures designed to cost [ J. Marchinski (Boeing Vertol Co., Philadelphia, Pa.). American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Aircraft Design, Flight Test and Operations Meeting, 6th, Los Angeles, Calif., Aug. 12-14, 1974, Paper 74-962 14 p

Discussion of an active step-by-step design-to-cost aircraft development program which calls for cost, weight and performance considerations in every design decision aimed at cost reduction at every design stage from top management down to the drawing board aesigner. The program also calls for the establishment of parts-count targets for each structural design and for a documentation system with a manual of design-to-cost specifications. The program implies the enhancement of cost consciousness and discipline in both government and industrial management.


The organization, management, and purposes of a large earthorbiting space station program to be established by a United Nations Earth Resources Agency with the broadest international participation is discussed. It is suggested that this agency coordinate the development of mathematical resource models, plan the science and flight mission programs, and coordinate the distribution of roles and responsibilities. A possible allocation of responsibilities to the U.S., USSR and other participating nations in presented along with a timetable for establishing such a program.


A74-38728# Design-to-cost for the A-10 close air support aircraft. C. W. Adams and U. A. Hinders (USAF, Aeronautical Systems Div., Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio). American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Aircraft Design, Flight Test and Operations Meeting, 6th, Los Angeles, Calif., Aug. 12-14, 1974, Paper 74-963. 5 p.

Discussion of the design philosophy and performance character. istics of the A-10 aircraft shown to embody the specific weapon system that fulfills the mission requirements of close air support for ground forces at an average unit flyaway cost of $1.5 million in 1970 dollars for 600 aircraft at peak rate of 20 per month. The underlying design-to-cost concept is believed to result in significantly superior cost efficiency than would otherwise be possible.



The experience of ESRO in managing international space projects. J. A. Vandenkerckhove (ESRO, Paris, France). In: Orbital international laboratory,

Tarzana, Calif., American Astronautical Society, 1974, p. 153-159.

Discussion of the various aspects of international space project management, and review of ESRO's particular experience in the management of such projects. Special attention is given to the development of scientific experiments and hardware, as well as to the cooperation this required on the part of ESRO with scientific groups, industrial contractors, and (for the launch of scientific payloads) with NASA.


A74-38883 # Information flows in control systems (Potoki informatsii v sistem akh upravleniia), V. I. Sadovnikov and V. L. Epshtein. Moscow, Izdatel'stvo Energiia, 1974. 240 p. 104 refs. In Russian.

Methods of data flow description in automatic control systems and related subjects are discussed, covering graphic methods, organization analysis, formalization methods, data structural analysis, and automatic systems synthesis. A general specification is compiled for the structural components of data flows in an attempt to optimize the existing data flow specifications. The formalization method is applied to construct an automatic data processing system. Identification and separation of given elements and characteristics from information flows are carried out by using various data treatment methods. Diagrams of these processes are included. The book is addressed to mathematicians, economists and engineers interested in the field.



Continuous maintenance and automatic reconfiguration of systems (Maintenance continue et reconfiguration automatique de systèmes). J.-L. Badault (Société ECA. AUTOMATION, Paris, France). In: Onboard computers and their applications; Workshop. Toulouse, France, June 10-12, 1974, Proceedings.

Toulouse, France, J. Lagasse, CNRS, Laboratoire d'Automatique et d'Analyse des Systèmes; Privat, Editeur, 1974, p. 305-320. In French.

Description of two techniques that have been developed to ensure a high probability of good operation of data processing systems used on board warships. The two techniques are complementary and are called automatic reconfiguration and continuous maintenance, respectively. Automatic reconfiguration consists in putting into operation degraded versions of the system when a breakdown occurs. This implies the definition of a hierarchy of operational functions which makes it possible to choose the functions to be abandoned in case of breakdown of an element of the system. Continuous maintenance consists, on the one hand, in real-time detection of hardware breakdowns and, on the other hand, in programmed localization of these breakdowns.



Arming America: How the U.S. buys weapons. Research supported by Harvard University. J. R. Fox. Boston, Graduate School of Business Administration; Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1974. 496 p. 223 refs. $15.

An overview concerning the acquisition of a major weapon system is presented, giving attention to the acquisition process and the Department of Defense budget categories. The defense market is considered along with the defense contractors, the role of the Pentagon, aspects of planning for major development and production programs, the involvement of Congress in the weapons acquisition process, program management, government representatives at con. tractor plants, types of contracts, and methods of government procurement. Other subjects discussed are related to the source selection process, questions of defense marketing, profits in the defense industry, indirect costs in the defense industry, and problems of program control.


A 74-39174 # Large Space Telescope and a low cost approach. B. R. Bulkin (Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., Inc., Sunnyvale, Calif.). In: Large Space Telescope · A new tool for science; Proceedings of the Twelfth Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Washington, D.C., January 30-February 1, 1974. New York, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., 1974, p. 103-111.

A representative cross section of areas involved in a low-cost payload approach for the Large Space Telescope (LST) system is presented. The roles of program management, future scientific instrument requirements, and system design factors (including design flexibility and universality) are explored. Low-cost system design criteria are indicated. Test requirements and concepts are discussed. An LST system integration concept is considered.



The large earth orbital space station · An international program. R. B. Demoret and G. W. Morgenthaler (Martin Marietta Aerospace, Denver, Colo.). In: Orbital international laboratory

Tarzana, Calif., American Astronautical Society, 1974, p. 39-61. 5 refs.

A74-39381 # Inside the 747. B. C. Stephens (Boeing Commercial Airplane Co., Seattle, Wash.). AIAA Student Journal, vol. 12, Feb. 1974, p. 10 17, 27, 47,

to their impact on future aircraft designs and their economic effect on the general-aviation industry. Since no type of certification requirements for noise abatement currently existed for propeller. driven aircraft (other than for those in the transport category), it was necessary to set up a testing procedure to determine how the standards could be modified for such aircraft. Discussed in detail are the noise evaluation measures, testing procedures, and maximum noise level standards.



Air traffic control of the 1980s (Flugsicherung der 80er Jahre). Flug Revue/Flugwelt International, May 1974, p. 95-98. In German

The requirements in West Germany regarding the operational capacity of the air traffic control system of the 1980s are examined together with requirements concerning the organization of the airspace, the utilization of the airspace, and the organization of the air traffic control services. A determination of the control capacity of ATC operational positions is discussed along with the concept of future ATC systems in West Germany, the utilization of electronic data processing. questions of aircraft position determination, and details regarding the ravigation techniques to be used.



Carrier designs for space shuttle orbiter being refined. D. E. Fink. Aviation Week and Space Technology, vol. 100, Apr. 29, 1974, p. 54, 55, 58, 61, 62.

Boeing Co. and Lockheed Aircraft Corp. are refining their respective design studies of the 747 and the C-5A piggyback carrier aircraft for the space shuttle orbiter under contract extensions recently awarded by NASA. Final selection between the 747 and C-5A concepts now is scheduled for mid- to late May. The C-5A and the 747 are equally capable of performing the shuttle program mission, which involves mainly airlifting the Rockwell International orbiter for initial approach and landing tests and later on crosscountry ferry flights.


A74-30059 # A project information and simulation system for aerospace management. A. C. Singhal (Engineers India, Ltd., New Delhi, India), J. J. Rosati, and G. Doen (TRW Systems Group. Redondo Beach, Calif.). Institution of Engineers (India), Journal, Mechanical Engineering Division, vol. 54, Nov. 1973, p. 55-62.

An integrated system, requiring a dynamic data base, provides management decision data related to the overall effect of typical problems in aerospace vehicle development programmes. Simulation models allowing management to determine the impact of engineering changes and delays on programme and subprogramme costs and schedules, with a technique for projects status evaluation, are

esented in this paper. Analytical simulation models permit design optimization, evaluation of competitive proposals, vehicles and system performance verification configuration tradeoff studies, and identification of potential problems. Advantages of the system to project management are discussed and several examples of simulation model usage for a hypothetical helicopter programme are given.


A74-29 106

Organization and management of large-scale research facilities in the USA, France, and Great Britain (Organisa. tion und Management von Grossforschungseinrichtungen in den USA, Frankreich und Grossbritannien). W. Grillo (Deutsche For. schungs- und Versuchsanstalt für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Rechts- und Vertragsabteilung, Porz-Wahn, West Germany), H.-D. Harig (Kernfor. schungsanlage Julich GmbH, Julich, West Germany), and D. Kutschke (Gesellschaft für Kernforschung mbH, Karlsruhe, West Germany). DFVLR-Nachrichten, Apr. 1974, p. 545-547. In German.

The organization of large-scale research projects in the U.S. is considered, taking into account NASA and USAEC. Nuclear research projects in France are conducted by the Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Projects of aeronautics and astronautics in France are distributed between two different public agencies. The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) is responsible for nuclear research in the UK, while the Royal Aircraft Establishment is concerned with aerospace-related research. Attention is given to managerial principles which, although commonly applied in the U.S., France, and the UK, have not yet found wide acceptance in West Germany.



Technology transfer: Successes and failures; Proceedings of the Conference, Seattle, Wash., November 28-30, 1972. Conference supported by Battelle Memorial Institute. Edited by G. K. Manning. San Francisco, San Francisco Press, Inc., 1974. 255 p. $7.50.

Experiences with technology transfer are described in papers detailing viewpoints, problems, successes, and failures in activities involving universities, research institutes, government agencies, and commercial enterprises. Information systems and processes involved in technology transfer are explained in several works specifically devoted to this topic. The remaining majority of papers discuss techniques and circumstances of technology development, dissemina. tion, and application in various domestic disciplines and in interna. tional cooperation efforts. Experiences gained by NASA in domestic and international technology transfer programs are summarized. Individual items are announced in this issue.


A74-29467 # Critical analyses and laboratory research work at the stage of aircraft preliminary design (Analyses critiques et recherches en laboratoire au stade de l'avant-projet d'un avion). C. Lievens (Service Technique de l'Aéronautique, Paris, France) and P. Poisson-Quinton (ONERA, Châtillon-sous-Bagneux, Hauts-de-Seine, France). (NATO, AGARD, Réunion sur l'Intégration et l'Optimisation des Projets d'Avions, Florence, Italy, Oct. 1-5, 1973.) ONERA, TP no. 1291, 1973. 27 p. In French.

Development of a procedure for performing critical analyses of preliminary designs of military aircraft, and review of the role of the laboratory in the preliminary design stage. It is noted that in the care of a military aircraft such a critical analysis is based on studies of the sensitivity of the aircraft performance to predictable or probable variations of the aerodynamic and power plant parameters. The need for an analysis of reliability and maintenance aptitude, leading to an estimate of repair and preventive maintenance costs, is stressed, as well as the need for flexibility of the design objectives. A review is made of analysis techniques based on parametric studies, prior experience, sophisticated calculations, test results, and intuition. A detailed account is given of the role of laboratory research in designing vertical-takeoff supersonic fighter, a short takeoff transport, ramjet propulsion, the Concorde SST, and a variable sweepback aircraft.



Information processes in technology transfer. J. W. Murdock (Battelle Columbus Laboratories, Columbus, Ohio). In: Technology transfer: Successes and failures; Proceedings of the Conference, Seattle, Wash., November 28-30, 1972.

San Francisco, San Francisco Press, Inc., 1974, p. 7.17.

The transfer of information and the transfer of technology are often integrally related in a manner that leads to confusion on their differences. The present paper provides a qualitative clarification of some characteristics of the technology transfe: process and illustrates certain distinguishing features between information transfer and technology transfer. Selective acquisition, storage, retrieval, and organized dissemination of information are discussed, and attention is given to functional elements and operation of an information analysis system and a technology transfer system.


A74-30118 *

Technology transfer · The NASA perspective. J. M. Carlson (NASA, Dissemination and Program Evaluation Div., Washington, D.C.). In: Technology transfer: Successes and failures; Proceedings of the Conference, Seattle, Wash., November 28-30,


San Francisco, San Francisco Press, Inc., 1974, p. 148-155.

Domestic and international NASA technology utilization experiences are described together with prospects for applying technology to problems of local and state governments. Transfer mechanisms used by NASA to introduce new technology in both the private and public sectors of the domestic scene are discussed, and attention is given to experiences gained in a pilot program designed to establish a refined methodology for the transfer of aerospacedeveloped technology to developing nations. Technical assistance to local and state governments involves applications of NASA experiences to further the constructive involvement of industry.


Dayton, Ohio). IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, vol. PC-17, Mar. 1974, p. 1-8. 8 refs. Contract No. F33615-71-C-1069.

Review of the results of an experimental program that was designed to test the effect of using various sources of index terms on retrieval effectiveness and costs and to provide quantitative data as a basis for a management decision on optimal indexing procedures for an information storage and retrieval system. The results include the finding that indexing efficiency is greatest when title and abstract are used as sources of index terms.



Transfer of commercial technology. G. R. White (Xerox Corp., Stamford, Conn.). In: Technology transfer: Successes and failures; Proceedings of the Conference, Seattle, Wash., November 28-30, 1972.

San Francisco, San Francisco Press, Inc., 1974, p. 194.207.

Description of prevailing circumstances and utilized techniques in several specific cases of commercial technology transfer between corporations, from government to corporation, from technical institute to corporation, and from university to corporation. Each of these cases is analyzed to draw general guidelines on the responsibili. ties of commercial enterprises, the government, technical institutes, and universities as efficient components of a technology develop ment and distribution system.



Organizing an R & D oriented computer activity · Management and control of an Independent Research & Development Program. I. M. Datz. Angewandte Informatik, May 1974, p. 209-218.

An analysis of the effectiveness of a research and development program is discussed, giving attention to the problems associated with management and control activities. The establishment is considered of tools and criteria which will provide management with quantitative guidelines as an aid for the maintenance of conditions conducive to creative thought and innovation.



Major advances expected from ATS-F. C. Covault. Aviation Week and Space Technology, vol. 100, May 27, 1974, p. 38-42.

Major technology innovations for communications spacecraft on board the ATS-F include passive thermal control, graphite composite materials usage, offset pointing capability, and attitude control innovations. The spacecraft's design consists of five major structural elements, including an environmental measurement package, solar arrays, the reflector, the support truss, and an earth viewing module. The ATS-F experiments are considered.


A74-30353# Federal aviation requirements for future air navigation improvements. A. B. Winick (FAA, Washington, 7.C.). In: National Radio Navigation Symposium, Washington, D.C., November 13-15, 1973, Proceedings.

Washington, D.C., Institute of Navigation, 1974, p. 13.17. 6 refs.

Aviation requirements for long distance navigation aids are based on the need to assure safe separation in high traffic density portions of the airspace. In domestic areas, a growing need appears to exist for a supplement to the standard short distance navigation system. A worldwide ground reference aid appears desirable as an adjunct to self-contained systems, and as primary device in other cases. Accuracy requirements are not extreme; reliability and suitability for cockpit operation have equal importance. The goal of a single ground-based system appears feasible, if agreement can be reached on common requirements and sufficient time is planned for an orderly transition.



Variables sampling and MIL-STD-414. E. G. Schilling (General Electric Co., Lamp Business Div., Cleveland, Ohio). Quality Progress, vol. 7, May 1974, p. 16-20.

The principal advantage of variables plans over attributes is reduction in sample size. Probably the most important consideration in applying variables sampling plans is the requirement that the shape of the underlying distribution of measurements to which the plan is to be applied must be known and stable. This means that statistical tests on past data must show that the distribution of measurements involved actually is that assumed by the plan. Control chart evidence also is desirable to indicate its stability. Military Standard 414 is an acceptable quality level (AQL) type sampling scheme that assumes underlying normality of distribution of the measurements to which it is applied. Since it is an AQL plan, it incorporates switching rules to move from normal to tightened or reduced inspection and return.


A74-30358 # Economical usage of long range navigation. W. K. Vogeler (Telcom, Inc., McLean, Va.). In: National Radio Navigation Symposium, Washington, D.C., November 13-15, 1973, Proceedings.

Washington, D.C., Institute of Navigation, 1974, p. 63-70. 5 refs.

A description of the operational requirements and economic factors which confront the low-cost user of long range navigation/ positioning systems serves as an introduction to the comparison of satellite, Omega, Decca, and Loran-C usage in the non-military area. Three categories of users are described: the direct user who desires to know his location, the analytic user who desires a documented record of his unit's track, and the controller who desires the location of other units. The four systems are then compared with respect to those considerations which are of importance from the user's viewpoint. Loran-C is selected as the system which best meets the user requirements. The manner in which Loran-C can be utilized with a description of industrial and governmental tasks concludes the paper.



Energy self-sufficiency · An economic evalua. tion. M. A. Adelman, H. D. Jacoby, P. L. Joskow, P. W. MacAvoy, D. C. White, M. B. Zimmerman (MIT, Cambridge, Mass.), and H. P. Meissner. Technology Review, vol. 76, May 1974, p. 22-58. Research sponsored by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

On the assumption that the U.S. meets all its energy demands from internal sources by 1980, forecasts are made of the prices at which supply and demand will be in equilibrium. The results indicate that prices in the range from $10.00 to $12.00 per barrel (oil-equivalent) will be necessary to bring forth enough additional supplies of fossil fuels to satisfy demands in domestic energy markets by that time. The development of special price policies is recommended for the synthetics industry. Security can be provided against import disruption by the introduction of radically new import policies. One important element would be an import storage program.



The significance of titles, abstracts, and other portions of technical documents for information retrieval. F. L. Scheffler, H. H. Schumacher, and J. F. March (Dayton, University.

A74-32319 # DOD's Space Test Program. F. A. Paparozzi and N. T. Anderson (USAF, Directorate of Space, Washington, D.C.). Astronautics and Aeronautics, vol. 12, June 1974, p. 42-47.

The Department of Defense Space Test Program provides prompt spaceflight support to developmental, preoperational, and research payloads. The program has encompassed 56 payloads on 18 different spacecraft missions, and another 31 payloads have been assigned to missions not yet flown. Although the Air Force is the executive agency, the management procedures for the program are outlined in a joint Army, Navy, and Air Force manual. Payloads may be submitted by any one of dozens of laboratories and program offices, while the Space Test Program selects the payloads and sets their priority. The general steps involved in the cost analysis of a given payload are outlined.


The Practical System for Cataloging. Indexing, and Retrieval of Remote Sensing Data developed by the Interdisciplinary Remote Sensing Group at the University of Wisconsin consists of a card catalog, a site-index

map, a site-index-file, an industry.index-file, and a project-index-file. The system is designed for retrieval of remotesensing data which include imagery, magnetic tapes, flight logs, maps, ground-truth reports, and research reports containing raw data. It can be operated by conventional library methods, but provision has been made for digitizing the system for computer retrieval. P.T.H.

A74-32320 # Mariner Venus/Mercury '73 · A strategy of cost control. J. R. Biggs (NASA, Office of Space Science and Applications, Washington, D.C.) and W. J. Downhower (California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Pasadena, Calif.). Astronautics and Aeronautics, vol. 12, June 1974, p. 48-53.

The Mariner Venus/Mercury '73 project kept within its originally established goals for schedule, performance, and cost. Underlying this development success was the availability of the Mariner technology. But meeting the goals demanded management determination, planning, and discipline to make optimum use of state-of. the-art technology. The present work points out management approaches and techniques that kept schedules and controlled costs, the intent being to stimulate thought about how to do the same with future spacecraft and payloads,


A74-33298 A proposed pricing procedure for domestic airlines. C. K. Walter (Nebraska, University, Lincoln, Neb.). Journal of Air Law and Commerce, vol. 40, Winter 1974, p. 61-74. 34 refs.

A tariff construction system for domestic airlines is proposed which it is argued is equitable to both passengers and airlines, logical, and programable for computation. The basis for determining fares would be the distance from origin airport to destination airport. A table of all commercial airports, their latitudes and longitudes, and some basic formulas would constitute sufficient information to determine the distance between any airport pair. The class of service would also be considered. This linear pricing system is simple, although possible arguments against it are also brought forward.


A74.32321 # Ground testing and simulation. I · Key to efficient development of aerospace systems. J. D. Whitfield (ARO, Inc., von Karman Gas Dynamics Facility, Arnold Air Force Station, Tenn.). Astronautics and Aeronautics, vol. 12, June 1974, p. 54, 55. 6 rets.

Future developments of aerospace systems can be carried out faster, safer, and at a lower cost through more complete and earlier ground testing and simulation. This requires a change in present development philosophies as well as the availability of more advanced facilities, such as highReynolds number transonic tunnels, large full scale subsonic tunnels, and propulsion facilities for testing very large turbine engines.



An analysis of the national transportation policy. S. D. Browne (MIT, Cambridge, Mass.). (Annual Air Law Symposium, 8th, Dallas, Tex., Mar. 14, 1974.) Journal of Air Law and Commerce, vol. 40, Winter 1974, p. 75.79.

The present work advocates greater central control of national transportation policy making, and states that Congress must address the problem of an all-mode transportation department with power to allocate resources between the modes. It is also pointed out that recent data concerning the fuel efficiency of various modes of transportation are out of line. It is argued that these data, obtained by dividing total passenger miles by total fuel, reflected badly on air transportation without taking into consideration actual trip distances, infrastructure costs, and time considerations.



European space activities since the war · A personal view. A. V. Cleaver. (British Interplanetary Society, Meeting. London, Mar, 8, 1974.) Spaceflight, vol. 16, June 1974, p. 220-238

If European collaboration is to be meaningful, an attempt must be made to subordinate national interests to the common aim. Long-term objectives must always be borne in mind; basic decisions can rarely be taken as a result of short-term cost-benefit analyses. Effective European collaboration is impracticable unless better political continuity can be assumed, with fewer changes of policy, delays in decision

making, and cycles of 'stop-go' decisions. Perhaps the only possible solution to the problem would be for European ministers to confine their own powers to laying down certain very broad but firm guidelines, thererfter leaving the implementation of such policies to the professionals within agencies and industry.



Dynamics and forecasts of R&D funding. C. E. Falk (National Science Foundation, Div. of Science Resources Studies, Washington, D.C.). Technological Forecasting and Social Change, vol. 6, no. 2, 1974, p. 171-189. 21 refs.

The relationships between U.S. R & D funding and other macroparameters are analyzed on an overall national basis and within the four major sectors of the economy. The study concentrates on the dynamics of the two largest funding sources, government and industry, which are examined at decreasing levels of aggregation, Various numerical relationships are demonstrated and explanations of observed dynamical interactions are presented. The effects of the introduction of new areas of R & D interest are investigated. Funding patterns are shown to reflect an inherent stability of R&D operations, as illustrated by lack of good, short-term correlations between R & D funding and cyclical variants such as profits in industry or science and engineering graduate enrollments in institutions of higher education. The analyses and evolved numerical relationships are utilized to develop sectoral and national R&D expenditure projections for the year 1980.


A74-33072 A catalog system for remote-sensing data. R. S. Singh and J. P. Scherz (Wisconsin, University, Madison, Wis.). Photogrammetric Engineering, vol. 40, June 1974, p. 709.720. 8 refs. Grant No. NGL-50-002-127.

A74-33612# Space law and international action. E. Brooks. In: Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, 15th, Vienna, Austria, October 8-15, 1972, Proceedings.

Davis, Calif., University of California; South Hackensack, N.J., Fred B. Rothman and Co., 1973, p. 188-196. 24 refs.

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