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Consideration of the problem of predicting avionics development and production cost before a detailed description of the hardware's physical make-up is available. Fire control radars and airborne digital computers were chosen to illustrate the techniques. The approach is to derive cost estimating relationships (CERs) which use technical design parameters of critical interest to the engineer and which incorporate a measure of the projected equipment's advancement in the state of the art. The radar and computer examples show that accurate CERs can indeed be established based on technical parameters. They are, however, subject to rather wide variances, which require care in using them to estimate costs at the low end of the scale.


The case history of a life-cycle cost study performed on the AN/ASN-101 gimbaled electrostatic gyro aircraft navigation system is presented. This study takes into account all the procurement and maintenance costs encountered in the ten year service life of the system. The validity of existing cost standards is criticized, and the need for simple, standardized life-cycle costing procedures is em. phasized. The contributions of other disciplines, among them maintenance and reliability techniques, to reducing the overall cost of ownership are discussed.



Life cycle cost comparisons of avionic system design alternatives. P. S. Kilpatrick and A. L. Jones (Honeywell, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn.). In: NAECON '74; Proceedings of the National Aerospace and Electronics Conference, Dayton, Ohio, May 13.15, 1974.

New York, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 1974, p. 514-520.


Orthophoto project planning. D. Hobbie (Carl Zeiss, Oberkochen, West Germany). Photogrammetric Engineering, vol. 40, Aug. 1974, p. 967-984.

It is the purpose of project planning for the production of orthophotos or photo maps to lay down the parameters to be used for the photoflight and differential rectification. After classification of the known orthoprojection instruments, the parameters of 'focal length', 'photo scale', 'flight data', 'end and side lap' as well as 'design and time of photoflight', guidelines are developed. As regards rectification, various factors affect the parameters of 'scan width' and 'scanning speed'.



Avionic equipment reliability and low life cycle cost. W. R. Perrigo (USAF, Avionics Laboratory, Wright. Patterson AFB, Ohio) and J. L. Easterday (Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, Ohio). In: NAECON '74; Proceedings of the National Aerospace and Electronics Conference, Dayton, Ohio, May 13-15, 1974.

New York, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 1974, p. 521-532. 12 rets.

Basic activities in the conduct of a reliability program are related to technical program aspects, management visibility and control, and philosophical concepts of a reliability program. Questions of initial or preprogram planning are examined. The program manager must make certain that a realistic, achievable goal is defined for the reliability program. A program manager's checklist is presented. Major management functions are summarized, taking into account the evaluation of the actual status of each activity in relation to the schedules, reliability task status reports, and reliability monitoring.



Air travel and economy of materials · Often too much, sometimes too little (Luftfahrt und Materialwirtschaft. Oft zuviel-manchmal zuwenig). W. H. Kuhl. Flugrevue/Flugwelt International, Aug. 1974, p. 29-33. In German.

The problems encountered by large airlines in keeping themselves supplied with spare parts are described. Care is needed to ensure fast availability without wasting money on excess inventory. This problem can be alleviated somewhat by intelligent ordering procedures, and by pooling of parts, service, and warehouse facilities among major firms flying to remote airports. Modern data processing can also be effective in estimating various part lifetimes and planning inventories. Further, fast access to available spare parts can be facilitated by elaborate shelving procedures such as the Lufthansa vertical warehousing setup which uses multitiered shelves with special vehicles that move through the stacks.



Avionics cost reduction through improved tests. R. M. Genet (USAF, Aerospace Guidance and Metrology Center, Newark Air Force Station, Ohio). In: NAECON '74; Proceedings of the National Aerospace and Electronics Conference, Dayton, Ohio, May 13-15, 1974.

New York, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 1974, p. 534-538. 32 refs.

Over the past five years, new analytic techniques have been developed and applied to the evaluation of the economic significance of build and test errors in avionics repair processes. The cost of such build and test errors in one repair process accounted for 50% of the total cost of repair, and contrary to what might have been expected, the cost of test errors was much higher than the cost of build errors. It is considered that such high repair costs due to test errors are a relatively recent phenomenon associated with most of the recent very complex avionics systems, and while already a serious problem, it will become even more serious as the general level of avionics complexity increases.



Cost-effectiveness of integrated analysis/design systems /IPAD/ · An executive summary. II. R. E. Miller, Jr., S. D. Hansen, D. D. Redhed, J. W. Southall (Boeing Commercial Airplane Co., Seattle, Wash.), and A. S. Kawaguchi (Boeing Computer Services, Inc., Seattle, Wash.). American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Aircraft Design, Flight Test and Operations Meeting, 6th, Los Angeles, Calif., Aug. 12-14, 1974, Paper 74-960. 13 p. 18 refs. Contract No. NAS1-11441.

Evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of integrated analysis/design systems with particular attention to Integrated Program for Aero. space. Vehicle Design (IPAD) project. An analysis of all the in. gredients of IPAD indicates the feasibility of a significant cost and flowtime reduction in the product design process involved. It is also concluded that an IPAD-supported design process will provide a framework for configuration control, whereby the engineering costs for design, analysis and testing can be controlled during the air vehicle development cycle.



A realistic approach to system life cycle cost. J. H. Taylor (Honeywell, Inc., Aerospace Div., St. Petersburg, Fla.). In: NAECON '74; Proceedings of the National Aerospace and Electronics Conference, Dayton, Ohio, May 13-15, 1974.

New York, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 1974, p. 539-546.

A74-38727 # Aircraft structures designed to cost. L. J. Marchinski (Boeing Vertol Co., Philadelphia, Pa.). American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Aircraft Design, Flight Test and Operations Meeting, 6th, Los Angeles, Calif., Aug. 12-14, 1974, Paper 74.962. 14 p.

Discussion of an active step-by-step design-to-cost aircraft development program which calls for cost, weight and performance considerations in every design decision aimed at cost reduction at every design stage from top management down to the drawing board aesigner. The program also calls for the establishment of parts-count targets for each structural design and for a documentation system with a manual of design-to-cost specifications. The program implies the enhancement of cost consciousness and discipline in both government and industrial management.


The organization, management, and purposes of a large earthorbiting space station program to be established by a United Nations Earth Resources Agency with the broadest international participation is discussed. It is suggested that this agency coordinate the development of mathematical resource models, plan the science and flight mission programs, and coordinate the distribution of roles and responsibilities. A possible allocation of responsibilities to the U.S., USSR and other participating nations in presented along with a timetable for establishing such a program.


A74-38728# Design-to-cost for the A-10 close air support aircraft. C. W. Adams and U. A. Hinders (USAF, Aeronautical Systems Div., Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio). American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Aircraft Design, Flight Test and Operations Meeting, 6th, Los Angeles, Calif., Aug. 12-14, 1974, Paper 74-963. 5 p.

Discussion of the design philosophy and performance characteristics of the A-10 aircraft shown to embody the specific weapon system that fulfills the mission requirements of close air support for ground forces at an average unit flyaway cost of $1.5 million in 1970 dollars for 600 aircraft at peak rate of 20 per month. The underlying design-to-cost concept is believed to result in significantly superior cost efficiency than would otherwise be possible.



The experience of ESRO in managing interna. tional space projects. J. A. Vandenkerckhove (ESRO. Paris, France). In: Orbital international laboratory.

Tarzana, Calif., American Astronautical Society, 1974, p. 153-159.

Discussion of the various aspects of international space project management, and review of ESRO's particular experience in the management of such projects. Special attention is given to the development of scientific experiments and hardware, as well as to the cooperation this required on the part of ESRO with scientific groups, industrial contractors, and (for the launch of scientific payloads) with NASA.


A74-38883 # Information flows in control systems (Potoki informatsii v sistemakh upravleniia). V. I. Sadovnikov and V. L. Epshtein. Moscow, Izdatel'stvo Energiia, 1974. 240 p. 104 refs. In Russian.

Methods of data flow description in automatic control systems and related subjects are discussed, covering graphic methods, organization analysis, formalization methods, data structural analysis, and automatic systems synthesis. A general specification is compiled for the structural components of data flows in an attempt to optimize the existing data flow specifications. The formalization method is applied to construct an automatic data processing system. Identification and separation of given elements and characteristics from information flows are carried out by using various data treatment methods. Diagrams of these processes are included. The book is addressed to mathematicians, economists and engineers interested in the field.



Continuous maintenance and automatic reconfiguration of systems (Maintenance continue et reconfiguration automatique de systèmes). J.-L. Badault (Société ECAAUTOMATION, Paris, France). In: Onboard computers and their applications; Workshop, Toulouse, France, June 10-12, 1974, Proceedings.

Toulouse, France, J. Lagasse, CNRS, Laboratoire d'Automatique et d'Analyse des Systèmes; Privat, Editeur, 1974, p. 305-320. In French.

Description of two techniques that have been developed to ensure a high probability of good operation of data processing systems used on board warships. The two techniques are complementary and are called automatic reconfiguration and continuous maintenance, respectively. Automatic reconfiguration consists in putting into operation degraded versions of the system when a breakdown occurs. This implies the definition of a hierarchy of operational functions which makes it possible to choose the functions to be abandoned in case of breakdown of an element of the system. Continuous maintenance consists, on the one hand, in real-time detection of hardware breakdowns and, on the other hand, in programmed localization of these breakdowns.



Arming America: How the U.S. buys weapons. Research supported by Harvard University. J. R. Fox. Boston, Graduate School of Business Administration; Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1974. 496 p. 223 refs. $15.

An overview concerning the acquisition of a major weapon system is presented, giving attention to the acquisition process and the Department of Defense budget categories. The defense market is considered along with the defense contractors, the role of the Pentagon, aspects of planning for major development and production programs, the involvement of Congress in the weapons acquisition process, program management, government representatives at contractor plants, types of contracts, and methods of government procurement. Other subjects discussed are related to the source selection process, questions of defense marketing, profits in the defense industry, indirect costs in the defense industry, and problems of program control.


A74-39174 # Large Space Telescope and a low cost ap. proach. B. R. Bulkin (Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., Inc., Sunnyvale, Calif.). In: Large Space Telescope · A new tool for science; Proceedings of the Twelfth Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Washington, D.C., January 30-February 1, 1974. New York, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., 1974, p. 103-111.

A representative cross section of areas involved in a low-cost payload approach for the Large Space Telescope (EST) system is presented. The roles of program management, future scientific instrument requirements, and system design factors (including design flexibility and universality) are explored. Low-cost system design criteria are indicated. Test requirements and concepts are discussed. An LST system integration concept is considered. (Author)


The large earth orbital space station · An international program. R. B. Demoret and G. W. Morgenthaler (Martin Marietta Aerospace, Denver, Colo.). In: Orbital international laboratory.

Tarzana, Calif., American Astronautical Society, 1974, p. 39-61. 5 rets.


Inside the 747. B. C. Stephens (Boeing Commercial Airplane Co., Seattle, Wash.), AIAA Student Journal, vol. 12, Feb. 1974, p. 10-17, 27, 47.

Discussion of the Boeing 747 as a complex organization of structure, accommodations and systems directed to meet certain major operational criteria, including 385 and baggage over 5000 NM, 200,000 lb containerized cargo over 3500 NM, cruise speed higher than that of available jets, community noise improvement, increased safety level through system redundancy, 97% schedule reliability, and 60,000 fatigue life. The development of the Boeing 747 is reviewed by stages. Technological, economic, air traffic aspects, safety, and comfort aspects are covered.


the procedures are discussed. It is held to be desirable that the ultimate control of the process rests in the hands of those responsible for the final implementation of the accepted design. The record of the Navy is reviewed in this area and conclusions are drawn for the existing procedures.



Data distribution system for post Apollo space vehicles. M. Falleni (Montedel-Montecatini Edison Elettronica S.p.A., Milan, Italy). IFAC, IIC, and ANIPLA, Symposium on Automatic Control in Space, 5th, Genoa, Italy, June 4-8, 1973, Paper. 35 p. 8 refs.

Preliminary studies on the possible implementations of a data distribution system (DDS) are reported. Advantages and drawbacks of several DDS configurations are noted, and the provisional choice is indicated. The open bus structure and ring bus structure are discussed as alternate bus line organizations, the ring structure being superior in several respects. The data bus interface control circuits, injection box, and distribution matrix are described in some detail. The need for further analysis and study is recognized. J.K.K.


LSI technology overview. B. Dunbridge (TRW Systems Group, Redondo Beach, Calif.). In: Communication Systems and Technology Conference, Dallas, Tex., Apr. 30. May 1, 1974, Conference Record.

New York, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 1974, p. 22-28.

This paper provides a broad survey of present and future LSI technology, and attempts to focus on the general technologies which are available, the directions these LSI technologies are taking, and the impact of LSI on electronic equipment applications. The rapid pace of technology is reviewed and the trends are projected to possible LSI and VLSI products which may exist in 1980. The advantages and disadvantages of custom LSI and its associated cost analysis tradeoffs are discussed. General considerations for the successful application of LSI to communication signal processing are briefly indicated.


A74-39499# Automation and flight management in commercial aviation. J. Rabary (Compagnie Nationale Air France, Paris, France). IFAC, IIC, and ANIPLA, Symposium on Automatic Control in Space, 5th, Genoa, Italy, June 4-8, 1973, Paper. 11 p.

As with any repetitive activity involving processes for which satisfactory mathematical models can be made, flight operations in commercial aviation are inevitably going to lead to a large use of automation. This is to achieve safety and financial management. Major attention is given to SST operations, air traffic management, and operations program simulation. It is considered that the way to success for automation in this field is an open minded system analysis concept. Owing to the wide scope covered by the various problems, automation is a condition for good financial management, usefulness, and even the existence of air transport.


A74-40181 # The starship as an exercise in economics. Parkinson. British Interplanetary Society, Journal, vol. 27, Sept. 1974, p. 692-696. 5 refs.

Construction of a quasi-statistical model for determining the ability of a society to finance an advanced technology project such as the starship. Starting from a model proposed by Woodcock (1973) for that part of the economy concerned with manufactured products, a product density function is obtained which shows that the money available for such high-value products decreases as the inverse cube of the value. Moreover, it is shown that improvement in the real per capita income is likely to be more effective in making such finance available than a simple increase in the gross national product. It is concluded that a society capable of building an in terstellar vehicle will have to possess an advanced technology and have already accumulated great experience in interplanetary flight.



Military specification for weight control pro cedural guide. J. T. Werner (General Dynamics Corp., Convair Aerospace Div., San Diego, Calif.). Society of Allied Weight Engineers, Annual Conference, 33rd, Fort Worth, Tex., May 6-8, 1974, Paper 1007. 24 p.

A specification is presented that defines the requirements and responsibilities of a contractor regarding the provision of a proper weight and balance control system. The specification provides brief general statements of requirements with respect to the organization and functioning of weight control personnel. The purpose of the specification is to determine the type of organization and the procedures by which the control function is to be carried out for optimizing the design weight and for producing the required data.


A74-40331 # Problems of cost accounting at INTERFLUG. | (Probleme der Kostenrechnung der INTERFLUG. 1). H. Uhrig (Gesellschaft für internationalen Flugverkehr mbH, Berlin, East Germany). Technisch-ökonomische Informationen der zivilen Luftfahrt, vol. 9, no. 2, 1973, p. 91-101. In German.

Factors which have to be taken into account in a cost analysis are related to questions regarding cost control, cost planning, the relation of cost to performance, and the possibility to determine exactly all costs according to their origin. Special problems are presented by cases in which cost and performance belong to different time periods. Cost accounting procedures used in connection with costs of different origin are considered, giving attention to the consumption of means of operation, the consumption of material, the consumption of productive performance values, wages, compensation payments, allocation of money to a number of special funds, the consumption of nonproductive performance values, special contributions, interest, and housekeeping obligations.



Aircraft proposal evaluation methods. G. A. Spangenberg. Society of Allied Weight Engineers, Annual Conference, 33rd, Fort Worth, Tex., May 6-8, 1974, Paper 1020. 13 p.

The design competition method now used by the Navy in the process of aircraft evaluation and contractor selection is described and defended. The workings of the system are followed from the initial decision to solicit proposals to the final signing of a contract. The combined deliberation on evaluation and selection is shown in favorable contrast with the practice of the other services, which separate these functions. The qualifications of the evaluators and the criteria of the evaluation are outlined, and the systemic aspects of

A74-40332 # Operational research in air traffic control and communications (Operationsforschung im Flugsicherungs- und Nachrichtenwesen). R. Küttner (Gesellschaft für internationalen Flug verkehr mbH, Berlin, East Germany). Technisch-ökonomische Informationen der zivilen Luftfahrt, vol. 9, no. 2, 1973, p. 102-106. In German.

The operational research considered is concerned with the analysis and the synthesis of systems for the planning, management, and control of motion procedures. The objective of the investigations conducted is the improvement of the systems. The analysis of traffic flow is discussed along with approaches for providing the required safety. Studies regarding the planning and management of traffic flows are also reported.


the Dutch aerospace and electronics industry with government support. The present work attempts to point out the advantages, both economic and technological, which will ensue from this project and the subsequent undertaking of similar projects in the future. A strong argument is the general beneficial effects that government. supported projects in large countries, the U.S., for example, have had on the national economy and the general well-being and progress of industry.


A74-40333 # Basic funds of the maintenance services (Grundfonds der Instandhaltungsbetriebe). L. Sataeva (Moskovskii Inzhenerno-Ekonomicheskii Institut, Moscow, USSR). (Grazh. dansk aia Aviatsiia, no. 7, 1972, p. 14, 15.) Technisch-ökonomische Informationen der zivilen Luftfahrt, vol. 9, no. 2, 1973, p. 107-111. In German. (Translation).

It is pointed out that an assignment of priority to the development of the basic production funds which have a direct or an indirect effect on the maintenance process in aerospace technology is indispensable for the enhancement of the effectiveness of the maintenance installations of civil aviation. The structure of the production funds in the maintenance services of civil aviation during the years from 1967 to 1970 is characterized by a great diversity. Detailed information concerning the growth of the various components of the production funds is provided and factors which improve the degree of utilization of the basic production funds are considered.



Establishing airport cost and revenue functions. R. S. Doganis (Politechnic of Central London, London, England) and G. F. Thompson (Open University. Bletchley. Bucks., England). Aeronautical Journal, vol. 78, July 1974, p. 285-304. 10 rets.

The findings of a detailed financial and economic analysis of eighteen of the larger British airports are given. These findings are a tentative step in the building up of a theory of airport economics, a field much neglected by transport economists. The analysis is based on detailed traffic and financial data compiled from questionnaires and as a result of direct visits to all the airports in the sample. In fact, the eighteen airports covered are more than a mere sample, since taken together they account for about 95% of the air transport movements, of the passengers handled and of the freight traffic of all the United Kingdom airports outside the Channel Islands. The financial background, long-run afrport cost functions, analysis of airport revenues, airport costs and revenues brought together, and the impact of competition on airport economics are considered.



Now heavy-haul freight aviation (Une nouvelle aviation de transport lourd). J. Bertin (Société Bertin et Cie., Plaisir, Yvelines, France). L'Aéronautique et l'Astronautique, no. 46, 1974, p. 2-8. In French,

Air Freight today is taken care of with aircraft whose performances are designed to suit passenger transport. Speed increase has led to fly non stop at high altitude, and thus to carry a fuel load higher than the actual payload. For freight however aircraft flying at 200 Knots would be perfectly adapted; they could then fly at low altitude, stop on the way and carry a payload much more important than their fuel capacity. To be economical such aircraft must be large (1000 ton or more) and air cushion landing will become a necessity. Numerous tests effectuated on the Bertin air cushion landing for air-drop platform have been most encouraging. To transpose this technique to aircraft landing is very straight forward. (Author)


Airport economic planning. Edited by G. P. Howard (Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, New York, N.Y.). Cambridge, Mass., MIT Press, 1974. 649 p. $27.50.

The entire range of problems associated with airport economics is covered in a sequential collection of articles and speeches dealing with demand determination and forecasting, translation of forecasts into facility requirements, general financing, financial planning and control, revenues and expenses, and economic costs and benefits. Topics include the U.S. air travel market, government data sources, survey programs at Port Authority, market research and forecasting, planning for air cargo development, determinants of general aviation activity, air passenger airport distribution models, determination of average size passenger aircraft at Port Authority, financing of big city airports, the 1970 airport and airways development act, elements of municipal debt financing, bond covenants, airport accounting. management control financial reporting systems, pricing airfield services, the BAA new pricing policy, BAA restructure charges, revenues in the terminal area, lease negotiations, concession revenues, site comparisons, environmental considerations, and airport noise.


A74-42061 * # Cluster systems integration. C. C. Hagood (NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center, Spacel ab Engineering Office, Huntsville, Ala.) and K. P. Timmons (Martin Marietta Aerospace, Denver, Colo.). American Astronautical Society, Annual Meeting, 20th, Los Angeles, Calif., Aug. 20-22, 1974, Paper 74-107. 33 p. 30 rets.

The cluster systems integration program of Skylab is reviewed with attention to its hardware, management interfaces, mission requirements control, and baseline planning documentation. The responsibilities of the interdiscipline and intercenter technical work. ing groups and panels participating in the program are discussed. The five phases of the program are identified as Wet and Dry Workshop studies and Skylab Program Specification; requirements synthesis and the start of formal configuration management; compatibility assessment and control; design verification; and prelaunch and mission support operations. It is indicated that the cluster systems integration is a vital key element in the development and implementation of the Skylab space station.


A74.42063# MSFC Skylab System Safety Program. E. M. McNail (Martin Marietta Aerospace, Denver, Colo.). American Astronautical Society, Annual Meeting, 20th, Los Angeles, Calif., Aug. 20-22, 1974, Paper 74-109. 27 p.

A summary of this program is given, including its background, policy, organization, management, development stages, and implementation. An abbreviated list of elements reflecting the scope of the overall program and a program organization and responsibility chart are provided. Emphasis is placed on system safety as related to the overall systems engineering, integration and management processes. The impact of various phases of the Skylab program on the development and progress of this safety program is noted. The progressive development and refinement of the safety program are discussed.


A74-41099# The significance of the ANS project for Dutch industry (De betekenis van het ANS-project voor de Nederlandse industrie). J. H. Spaa (Philips' Gloeilampenfabrieken, Eindhoven, Netherlands). Ruimtevaart, vol. 23, June 1974, p. 59-69. In Dutch.

The ANS (Dutch astronomical satellite) project is the first substantial research and development project to be undertaken by

A74-42079 * # Skylab Experiment M516 - Crew Activities/ Maintenance Study. R. L. Bond (NASA, Johnson Space Center, Spacecraft Design Div., Houston, Tex.). American Astronau tical Society, Annual Meeting, 20th, Los Angeles, Calif., Aug. 20-22, 1974, Paper 74-134. 15 p.

Skylab required daily movemer.t about the interior of a 340 cu m vehicle and the handling and transfer of numerous loose items. Planned and unplanned maintenance tasks were also included in the daily routine of activity. Experiment M516, Crew Activities/ Maintenance Study, involved an investigation of crew activity during routine daily operations. The overall objective was to secure in-flight data relevant to the performance of tasks in the weightless environment. This paper will present an evaluation of man's ability to handle and transport items of various sizes and masses (logistics management) and to make equipment repairs (maintenance). Results and conclusions are based on subjective crew comments, motion. picture film, and television transmissions.


The test and checkout philosophy of the test program for the Skylab ATM module and the overall test flow including in process, post-manufacturing, vibration, thermal vacuum, and prelaunch checkout activities are described. Capabilities and limitations of the test complex and its use of automation are discussed. Experiences with the organizational principle of using a dedicated test team for all checkout activities are reported. Material on the development of the ATM subsystems, the experimental program and the require. ments of the scientific community, and the integration and verification of the complex systems/subsystems of the ATM are presented. The performance of the ATM test program in such areas as alignment, systems and subsystems, contamination control, and experiment operation is evaluated. The conclusions and recom. mendations resulting from the ATM test program are enumerated.


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To perform the extensive medical experimentation on man in a long-term, zero-g environment, new medical measuring and monitor ing equipment had to be developed, new techniques in training and operations were required, and new methods of collecting and analyzing the great amounts of medical data were developed. Examples of technology transfers to the public sector resulted from the development of new equipment, methods, techniques, and data. This paper describes several of the examples that stemmed directly from Skylab technology.


The Skylab was basically a scientific program, and had the physical capacity for a large number of experiments. The number, weight, complexity, and size of these experiments far exceeded that of those on any previous manned space flight. The Apollo Telescope Mount was the most sophisticated and complex device ever to perform intensive studies of the sun above the restrictions imposed by earth's atmosphere. The demands these experiments made on Kennedy Space Center resources were varied and difficult, since each was virtually unique and imposed its own requirements. A manage ment system to handle these responsibilities was devised and implemented, based on KSC experience with the Apollo and other prior programs.



Helios cooperative solar probe. F. Unz (Gesellschaft für Weltraumforschung mbH, Porz-Wahn, West Germany) and C. White (NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.). In: International Symposium on Space Technology and Science, 10th, Tokyo, Japan, September 3-8, 1973, Proceedings.

Tokyo, AGNE Publishing. Inc., 1973, p. 657-669. 13 rets.

This paper reports on the development of the Helios Program, which has been actively pursued for approximately four years. The spacecraft is designed to carry ten experiments to within 0.3 AU of the sun to measure the interplanetary environment. Details of the design and development phase are reported.


A74-42094 * # Development innovations for Skylab student experiments. R. L. Gause (NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center, Materials and Processes Laboratory, Huntsville, Ala.). American Astronautical Society, Annual Meeting, 20th, Los Angeles, Calif., Aug. 2022, 1974, Paper 74.152. 15 p.

The Skylab Student Science Program was an effort on the part of NASA and the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) to provide the youth of America an opportunity to directly participate in space research. Students across the nation submitted proposed experiments which were scientifically evaluated by the NSTA. From the more than three thousand experiments submitted, twenty-five of the most innovative and novel experiments were selected for flight. Many of these required the development of flight hardware in order to perform the experiments aboard Skylab. The requirements placed on the hardware in terms of cost, development time, weight, volume, and crew training represented a unique challenge to the NASA engineers and scientists involved in the design, development, fabrication and testing of this hardware. To meet these stringent requirements required innovative changes in the classic Skylab approach to experiment development.


A74-42901 # Organization, planning and technical descrip. tion of the Ariano programme. J. C. Bouillot (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, Paris, France). Deutsche Gesellschaft für Luft. und Raumfahrt, Symposium über Raumfahrt Transportsysteme der Zukunft, Porz-Wahn, West Germany, June 27, 28, 1974, Paper 74-048. 6 p.

The management specifications set-up by CNES for the Ariane program and applied by all contractors and subcontractors are formalized by a set of procedures covering the different aspects of the management: industrial organization; work breakdown structure identifying all the work package in order to clarify the responsibil. ities of each contractor; technical work coordination leading to a plan for each critical item of the program; and configuration management dealing with problems of design reviews and introduction of modifications. There must also be quality assurance and reliability, work control to follow the work progress and the evolution of expenses, and documentation management. The final objective of Ariane in matter of planning is to reach operational availability at the end of 1980.


A74-42106 * # ATM test and integration. J. W. Moore and J. R. Mitchell (NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala.). American Astronautical Society, Annual Meeting, 20th, Los Angeles, Calif., Aug. 20-22, 1974, Paper 74.168. 22 p. 14 refs.

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