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not being able to cope with Achilles. Asteropams was said to be only the descendant of a river-god, but Achilles' pedigree was deduced from Jupiter." It rs easy to suppose, that when these opinions were in repute, kings and governors would be fond of ennobling themselves by the divinity of their ancestors; and they might find it no hard matter to succeed in their claims, when their statesmen and officers in the highest employ* ments might think pretences of this sort, how illgrounded soever, yet capable of promoting the public good, by the effect they might have upon both prince and people.1' Their votes or their oracles could secure them their title ;* or history and genealogies being but little known in these times, it was easy to insert a god at the head of a family. There might be no necessity of going far back to do this with security; and some families were so fortunate, as to be divine this way by both parents; Ulysses' descendants shone with this
doublo lustre.' Or, B. The gods wife iutwduccd iuto tamilies, to preserve their honour, to prevent the in* fumy of their ancestors coming down to posterity), Than Tyro the daughter of Salmoneus had two chilli ivn before she married, namely Pelias and Neleui ilu- futher of Nestor.' She loved to walk upon the tanks of Enipous;' but we uro not told, wbo the pliant wn», whom sbe so often met there. When she como to bo delivered, she took care to be in private,* and got rid of the children in lite best manner she could ;" and was afterwards reputably married.» Thus Ihe behaved in every step, like a person sensible of hnving exposed herself to infamy, but desirous to avoid it. Posterity derived honour to her descendants from the accident. Neptune was sidd to have been in love with her, and in the shape of the river Enipoua to have been the father of her two children.* Thus ajrain Dunne the daughter 0/ Aerinius played the har» lot with Freeing;* and her iither enraged at the dis* lioumir done his family. ,Id admit of no excuse for her misbehaviour,'% ..xy led at sea both her and the
infant.* In after-ages a fable was sufficient to clear her character; Jupiter was said to have been the Father of her child, and to have wrought a miracle to gain access to her.' The Greeks were not historians in the early times; and when their poets and mythologists began to dip into the registries of families, it would not have been borne to have had the vices of the ancestors of the great brought into open view; especially when writers of genius could readily, from the theology then in vogue and the fable of the age, find a reputable and secure cover for them. Now one or other of these reasons may evidently be assigned for the instances to be met with of any of the reputed gods of the heathens being engaged in gallantries with the ladies of later ages, than about the times of Moses, and in particular for the several pretences of Jupiter's having descendants later than can be consistent with the time of life above supposed to belong to him.
There is, I think, one instance, which should not be entirely passed over without taking notice of it; which would place Jupiter not later, but a great deal earlier than his true age. Jupiter is said to have been the father of Argus by Niobe daughter of Phoroneus.d This Argus succeeded Phoroneus, and was king of Argos'; and began lo reign there one hundred and ten years after the first year of Inachus,f i. e.
k Apollod. Bibl. lib. 2. c. 4. € Ibid
a Hygin. Fab. 155. c Apollod. Bib. lib. 2. c. 1.
r Vid. Castor, in Euseb. Chronic.
A. M. 2264,' which are one hundred and sixty nine vi-.ns before the birth of Moses; so that supposing Jupiter to be the father of this ArgUN, would be to place him above a century and half earlier than the times we have contended for. I might observe, that the most, exact writers took this account of Argus' descent to be rather common opinion than real fuct.*1 But there were two Argus's, one a king of Argos, who reigned there uges before Jupiter was born; the other was surnamed Panoptcs, and lived in Jupiter's time, nnd Juno is said to have committed Jo to his custody,' but neither of them wore descended from Jupiter. The former Argus was the son of Arcstor; and hence Ovid was probably led into a mistake, thinking that Panoptcs Argus, whom he colls Arcstoridcs,k was the son of this parent. Arcstor married Inachus' daughter,1 and by her had Argns, who upon Phoroneus leaving no son,TM succeeded to his kingdom. The latter Argus was son of Agcnor, the son," or perhaps brother ° of Jasus. Jasus, ns has been said,* was father of lo, one of Jupiter's concubines; so that this Argus nnd Jupiter were indeed contemporaries;
» For the first year of Inachus' reign was A. M. 2154. See Vol. ii. b. 0.
"• Vid. Pausan. in Corinlhiac. c. 2'2, c. 34.
1 Apollod. ubl sup.
kOvid. Metam. lib. 1. v. 644. Arcstorld» servandsm troditlit Argo. 'Pausan. in Corinth, c. 10.
- Ibid. c. 34. "Apol. Bib. lib. S. c. 1.
■ Pausun. in Corinth, o. 10.
though Argus was not descended from him. We must expect to meet some seeming contrarieties in the genealogies of these times.? But whoever will search may find such a concurrence in the accounts of so many different families, for tkc placing Jupiter where we have supposed him, and the solution is so easy of most, if not of all, that can be offered to contradict it; that if this of Argus or any other single instance could not be clearly refuted, yet it would not weigh against I lie number that agrees to it.
When Jupiter succeeded his father in his kingdom; he found Ii is people in some measure disposed for civil life. Saturn had reduced them to some regularity, both of diet and manners.11 Rites of religious worship were instituted, and rules thought of to promote the peace of society.' Care had been taken to form their language and their sentiments ; * by which means a sense of duty to their gods, and a good understanding, and spirit of justice and integrity were promoted amongst them towards one another.' AH this Saturn had done, not by rigour of power and