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compulsion, not by laws established with penal sanctions," without magistrates to enforce his dictates," or to execute vengeance upon, or restrain offenders. He had trained them to a simplicity of manners; and they were led by the influence and authority of his direction only, to pursue and practise what he dictated for the public good.* And th© great peace and quiet, ease and content in which they lived, sensible of no wants, but what they had a supply for, induced posterity to call their times the golden age.' When Jupiter became king, he brought in a new scene of life and action. He taught his people to build houses ;a to gather corn, which until then had grown wild among the other fruits of the earth;b and to preserve and use it for food, and after- v

"Sponte sua sine lege (idem rcctumq; colcbat, Poena mctuBq; aberant; nee vim-la minacla fixo

y£re legabantur Ovid. Met Am.

* nee supplex Turba tlmebat

.1 udii is ora sui, ged crant Bine Judice tuti. Id. ibid.

r Au ni» vitifQoKm rnt iwoiAiat, aSixn/x* /xi» //.»!>« tAut into

/Aufcmor (TWT&iioSai, <rratras $i rut viro Td» *iyni*oyioit ruru rt

Tay/xoHf (xaxafion Gm i£*ixtvai, iravys *ioomr emi/.TinSniui am

\avaii»s. Diodor. Sic. lib. 5. p. 331.

* Orid. Metam. Hosiod, i>y. **i llptp. Diodor. ubi sup.

* Tut Oikim xxlaariatm ivfuv, Diodor.

Turn primum subiere domos, domus antra fuerunt,
Et densi fruticea, et junctrc corticc virgac.

Ovid. Metam.
k Diodor. 1. 5. p. 234. In Saturn's dap.
Content! cibia nullo cogents creatis,

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upon for nursing and educating children;k music and physic were considerably advanced;' and decent rites appointed for the funerals of the dead.1" Thus by a variety of useful designs be was adding strength and beauty, ornament and politeness to his kingdom; for the increase of which he in the next place attempted a correspondence with foreign states; to which end he nssigned to one of his sons the office of embassies, and made him his herald to proclaim peace or war, and to conduct his treaties and alliances with the neighbouring kingdoms." By these arts, Jupiter endeavoured to cultivate his people; though we must not imagine that any of them were in his time carried up to perfection, like what they were brought to in aftcr-uges; nor that so many and such divers designs could be set on foot by him at once. The persons recorded as his assistants, and presided in their respective provinces over the designs committed to their management; were Neptune mid Pluto his brothers, Juno his wife, Vesta and Ceres his listers, Vulcan, Maw, Apollo, Mercury, Venus, Diana, and Minerva his children," and afterwards Bacchus became the author of inventions, which caused his name to be added to them.p Jupiter must have been of years of maturity, before lie could be ripe for forming such a kingdom as he projected; and consequently his children must be grown up for the employment he designed them. We must suppose that he did not assign them their provinces; and consequently that the arts of which they were the directors, were not remarkably advanced, until they were of age to cultivate and conduct them; and if we examine, we shall find, that a due time for all these particulars may be very well pointed out in the term of Jupiter's life, as we have above settled it. Pluto, one of' Jupiter's brothers, was appointed not only to direct what rites and ceremonies should be used at funerals, but also to declare what honours should be paid to persons deceased,q in order to convey their names, according to their deserts, down to posterity. And as Jupiter took care himself to settle the measure of his own fame,' and of the illustrious * persons engaged with him in the execution of his designs, as well as to determine, what sort of honours should be de

k Eiprtu T)iv rut nitiH* Traiiiut Sipairtiat. p. 235.

1 'I'm xiSapat iitfirnt *»ayo{i»ita,if xxi rnt X«t' avrnt /;.m>v. m it run larfiwuit iimo/un* f{i»iyxn>. Ibid.

"' AiyiTau nifi ras rapas xai ras ix<po{as xai ri//.*s rut nitwrut xaraSufai, rot irpo m Xt'n,y ("i!i/»i«i WflJ iwi/wXi/ar

*>t> avTit. Ibid.

"ru xai ,at>t>(Tcrn1it(Ti ras u roit Wqxi/jlus yitoixitat tirix*i(vxtiat Mi !i«w,ay« xai wvniat. Dlodor. Sic. I. 5, p.2J8.

0 Id.-p. 233—236.

'AiorvTot Si ix.v$o\oyts&i* tvffntt ytteaSai This ai/.rm>.u xai rnr irtgi ravrtif tfyecanzSy in St omirouas, %cti rus vioKXus raw ix rr,s viruqas xagnwv airoSno-aupi^ay, xai rxs xgaxs, xai rxt TfoQecs •netftxjKrhxi rats a&pvtrois vrrmoXvi yjfavn. Id. p. 236.

* Atytrai rifjps rut TiOvtuTm xtxlatiei$ai. Id. p. 233.

r Vid. Digdor. p. 234. 'Eund. ibid.

creed to those who came after them ; ' it might well happen, that Jupiter and his associates should come down to after-ages in a degree of honour higher than what any who lived after them could attain to, or than, what would be given to any of his ancestors or other contemporaries,; lie having thus settled both his own jind their fame in such manner and measure, as he and the person under his direction thought fit to record it. From hence it might happen, that when the ancient Greek heroes came to be reputed gods, twelve only attained the highest honours. They had their one common altar at Athens," and it was usual to swear by them.x The Romans called them the Di con* lentes^ which word is supposed to mean the same as consenlientes, and to intimate that these gods conMilted and agreed together about what was to be done, and so, as has been hinted, the twelve Cretan worthies did about their public institutions. The Cretan worthies above-mentioned were six men and six'women; and thus the Di consenles were generally distinguished, as Varro suggests.* iinnius has put the


t Ton «» Ai«, teyiTai, rots xqifois ruilt &<av Hxi »£««», tn Si «>5fo.'w rets afyxs centnciij.zt Tijj.as^ &c. Diorior. p. 234.

* n«gi rut Sufioy TovcWixa 5em. Plut. in Nicia. p. 531. • x Mae TusSwSix* Sf«r. Al'istoph.

3 Et quoniam (ut oiunt) Dei facicntcs adjuvant, priu,s iavocaboeos: nee ut ltomerus ct Eimius, Musas, sed xii Deos consenteg. Varro de re Rustica, lib. 1, c. 1, p. 3.

1 Eos urbanos, quorum imagines ad forum auratat

•tant, sex mares et foemin* totidem—Id. ibid.


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