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names of the twelve D'i consentes into the following distich,
Juno, Vesta, Mincrra, Ceres, Diana, Venus, Mars, Mcrcurius, Jovis, Neptunus, Vulcanus, Apollo.
And these are the very names of the twelve illustrious persons, by whose joint endeavours the ancient Cretan • polity was formed. They were enrolled with, and subordinate to Jupiter their president, in the roll of fame, settled for him and them in the age when they lived; and hence it came to pass, that when he in after-ages, came to have divine honours paid to him, they also, next to him, were revered above other deities.
We must not suppose that Jupiter found a ready and universal concurrence of all the Cretans to submit to his institutions. Undoubtedly he met with many oppositions, though in time he surmounted all; which, I think, we may well suppose, from the character of his times handed down to us. He was at the head of only the silver age.b The commotions which were in his days, give the poets a pretence to paint, in the best of colours, the great peace of his father's reign,
148 8ACRKD AND PIIOFANE BOOKX.
Centimani lived, as I have observed, in Tartarus.k They were in alliance with Jupiter; for he sent his captives in war to them, and they sent him out' of their dominions such persons as he migM want, or could be of service to him. The Cyclops were his artificers, and made him armour, and instruments of war fdf his soldiery."1 The only considerable families that opposed him, were the Titans, who were brothers of his father Saturn," and their dependants, and the children of Ops, who were the giants of their age and country." With the Titans, we are told, he had a ten years' war; p but that at length he took them prisoners, and sent them to Tartarus.11 Diodorus Siculus gives an excellent character of these men; r and Homer feigns that they had become the gods of the country ' into which they were thus sent as captives. Pausaiiias indeed remarks, that Homer was the first who said this of (hem ;' but probably he might be led
m Ibid. n Diodor. p. 131. Apoll. lib. 1.
* Apoll. lib. 1, c. 6. p Apoll. lib. 1, c. 2. 1 Ibid.
'. . . uv Exayov Tivtuv EvgE-mv yEveffSai roir av^gawrwr, ic
5»a rriv «r jmav7ar svE^ysautv rvyftv rt/Mav Diodor. p. 231.
* ©EHJ S OVOjLtTiff
Tt,r t/B-ora^ragsBj, 01 TirrjvEf xaXEOvrai. II. ?. v. 279.
* Tiravaj Se wgcuror ett woinuiv EtwyayEv O/^.WfOf, Seat «vai Vbso Tu x^?,»//,sv 'Fxfr?.r<->* . Pausau in A read. c. 37.
of them. There were several kingdoms growing up in these countries at this time; but the political arts were here only in their i ifancy; and so great a master of them as Jupiter, f om what has been said of him, must appear to have been, may very well be supposed to be capable of instructing others in many points conducive to their public welfare. He and his agents were at all times ready to assist, with their persons or advice, any kingdom which thought fit to apply to them; and they always acquitted themselves so honourably to the several states which had made them application, and were so signally useful and beneficial to them, that a great sense of the good they had done went down to posterity; and in after-ages when they were deified, each city took for its tutelar divinity some one of these Cretans, him or her, to whom their ancestors had been obliged in this manner. This is what Apollodorus suggests, who says, the gods chose their cities, in which each was to have their particular honours; * thus Minerva became the deity of the Athenians," Juno of Samos,1' and others the gods of other cities. I would observe, that the time which Apollodorus fixes for this choice of their favourite cities, suits exactly with the age in which we place Jupiter. He says, it was in the days of Cecrops,c probably a little before his death, about A. M. 2472.d _ • i'
Hsixs ixaror. Apollod. ]. 3, C. 13,
a Id. ibid. Plutarph. Syrapos. 1. 9, Qu, 6.
w Plutarch, ibid. c Apoll. ubi sup.
* Cecrops died A. M. 2473, Sec vol. ii. b, 8.