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In tliis manner Sir John Marsham deduces the account of the ancient kings of Egypt, down to the time of the Pastors' irruption:' the Pastors invaded Egypt in the reign of Timaeus.* Sir John Marsham supposes that Concharis was the king, whom Josephus calls Timaeus ;* and agreeably hereto Syncellus conceived that Silitcs or Salatis, who was the " first Pastor king, had succeeded Concharis, his g5 king of lower Egypt.1 Nitocris is thought to have been the last of the crowned heads of Memphis; for we find in Africanus no name of any king of this kingdom after her ;y therefore hers we are to fix the period or dissolution of it, and we find that the Pastors over-ran not only the lower Egypt; but took Memphis * and possessed themselves of this kingdom also. Nitocris was queen not only of Memphis, but likewise of Thebes; for we find her name xxTT. in Eratosthenes' Theban catalogue. Sir John Marsham observes, that her predecessor in both kingdoms reigned but one year, and the king before him in both kingdoms exactly a hundred." He judiciously concludes'from hence, that Apappus Maximus, king

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rns a, Eratosth. in Syncell. p. 104. E*t»» SwaeActm Zxm

Xum Mi/xpiTam. S <biti^ i^ams a^a(*tns ZsuriXtvut' (Siiywn

twXfis iron ('. i, MiYTi<rt>vtpi: Itos Ii. African, in Syncell. p.58.

of Thebes, and Phiops, king of Memphis, were but one and the same person, as were also Acbescus Ocaras and Mentes,upbis, who succeeded in each kingdom; and that the kingdoms of Memphis and Thebes were united.two reigns at least before Nitocris.k She is recorded to have reigned twelve years at Memphis, and six only at Thebes. I suppose that Memphis was, at Iht coming to the throne, the seat of her kingdom; she wns obliged to retire out of this country, when the Pastors invaded it, and after this retreat she reigned six years at Thebes. The kingdom of This did not last until the invasion of the Pastors; very probably the Theban kings, when they grew powerful by the accession of the kingdom of Memphis, added this little domain to their territories/ Upon these hint* and observations, Sir John Marsham has opened a prospect of coming at a history of the succession of the kings of Egypt; and that in a method so natural and easy, that it must approve itself to any person who enters truly into the design and conduct of it. He gives us Eratosthenes' Theban kings; he ranges with these, Syncellus' twenty-five kings of Mestram or lower Egypt ;d and by taking Africanus* dynasties in piecos, by separating the Thinite dynasties from the Memphtte; by collecting the kings of oach title into a

distinct catalogue', he gives us two other concurrent

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b lata regnamU oequalis ina'qualitus nimia uwolita est, ut tllam bis ct siimil fortuity contifjlsae creilamua. Marsham. p. 85. "'•Id. ibid. !J'Synroll. p.»l.

lists of the names of the kings; of the oflier two kingdoms. , ,., , ,!.,.■,

There is one difficulty, which I wish our very^ learned author had considered and discussed for us; which is, that the catalogues of the kings of three of) the four kingdoms are too long to come within, the, intervals of time, which the true chronolqgy of the world, can allow for them. For <o begin with lower Egypt :j Menes or the Mizraim of Moses ' came into this country about A. M. 1772.f It was a. fen qr marsh in hjs. time,8 and he does not seem to have made a long stay, in it- He went forward and built Memphis ;h after J wards, 124 years after the dispersion of mankind,' A. M. 1881, he went into the country of Thcbais. After haying made settlements here, he seems to have come back and formed a kingdom in lower Egypt thirty-five years before his death; for Menes stands, recorded king of this country only 35 yesirs ;k if $q$ then this kingdom was founded about A. M. 1908.' The Pastors came into Egypt about A.M. 2420.m Tie), interval is 512 years; but the twenty-five kings of. lower Egypt above mentioned reigned 701 years; i. e. 189 years longer than we can find a space of time for them. In like manner, 2. If we consider the Theban

'■ 'H '^ i <.■■' M '■' ■• ;.,..,;, i .m:

• Sec vol. i. b. 4. f Ibid. * Herodot. lib. &"c."4.'

11 Id! c. 99. 'i Apollodor. in Euseb. Chron.p. 18,"

rf i'1 'i. J . tJ'<u\- '■ "' '"''' ■' 'c:" ^Cc

Syncell. p. 147. k lilurlfauu. o xm Mrnris Itw &■. Syncel,

* . ■ i*. .■!.-' ■niiji'r. " /brio*

p. 91. l Menes died A. M. 1943- See vol. i. b. 4.

» See.Tol. u. b. 7. ;,,, , , ,)iV ,

kings; Mizraim came into this country A. M. 1881," let us from this year begin the computation of his reign or kingdom. From this year to A. M. 2420, the year of the invasion of the Pastors are 539 years; but the reigns of the Theban kings, from Menes to the is year after c the decease of Achescus Ocaras, the predecessor of Nitocris, are 682 years; so that this catalogue reaches down beyond the incursion of the Pastors 170 years. 3. The kingdom of This is recorded to begin from the §2 year before the death of Menes ;p from the year of the rise of the kingdom of Thebes A. M. 1881. The reigns of the kings of This amount to 593 years;' but from A. M. 1881 to 2420, the year of the Pastors, are, as I said, but 539 years; so that this catalogue is too long by fifty-four years. As to the kingdom of Memphis, a better account of it seems to offer itself to us. Menes entered Egypt A. M. 1772 :r he stayed but a little while in the lower Egypt, perhaps about three years, until he had formed Zoan, a little town, which was built seven years after Hebron in Canaan.' Here he might plant a few inhabitants,

• Vid. quae sup. and vol. i. b. 4. We must compute in this manner, if we allow Achescus Ocaras to have been the same person with Mentcsuphis, who was Nitocris' predecessor in the Mcmphite catalogue; and suppose Nitocris to hare reigned 12 years at Memphis, and then being obliged to quit that country by the Pastors, to have reigned afterwards 6 years at Thebes.

* African, in Syncell. p. 54. « Vid. Tab. sen. Caa.

* Vid. qua; sup. 'Numb. xiit. 22.

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