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'and her father's houskold, and all that she had, and she dwelleth in Israel to this day.h The writer was here willing to record to posterity, that Rahab had not only her life given her, but that she was so well received by the Israelites, as to continue even then to dwell among them; a remark which could not have been made after Rahab was dead;' and consequently the book which has it must have been composed whilst Rahab was yet alive. Rahab was afterwards married to Salmon, the son of Naasson,> the head of the house of Judah ;k had she been so, when the book of Joshua was composed, I imagine that the author of it, as he appears, by the hint abovementioned, inclined to intimate all the good circumstances of her condition, would not have omitted that, and consequently, by her marriage not being mentioned, we have some reason to think that the book of Joshua had been written, not late in Rahab's life. 3. "We arc expressly informed that Joshua did himself write, and add what he wrote to the book of the law of God.' 4. The words which inform us of this fact may, if taken in their natural sense, and according to the construction put upon words of the like import, when we find them
h Josh. vi. 25.
'The remark is not, that Rahab's family, descendants, or father's houshold were then in Israel; but the rcrb is [aism J in the third person feminine, and refers to Rahab in particular.
i Matt. i. 5. k Numb. i. 7. .
1 Josh. xxir. 26.
upon anticnt monuments or remains, be supposed to be Joshua's conclusion of his book, designed by him to inform posterity, that himself was the writer of it. Joshua wrote these words in the hook of the law, &c. may fairly imply, unless we have good reason to think the fact was otherwise, that all that was found written in the hook of the law, from the end of what was penned by the hand of Moses, unto the close of the period, of which these words are a part, was written by Joshua; and this was the opinion of the Talmudists.m Joshua was the only sacred penman whom we read of that the Israelites had in his age; and after he had finished the division of the land, he had many years of great leisure." In these he probably applied himself to give account of the death and burial of Moses;0 and from thence continued a narrative of what had been transacted under his own direction ;p filling it up with a general terrier of the settlements of the tribes,0 sucli as must have been expedient for the Israelites to have on record, to prevent confusion about their inheritances in future ages. After having done this, he summoned the tribes,r gave them his exhortations, and having added, to what he had before prepared, an account of the conventions which he had held, and what had passed at them, he transcribed the * whole into the book of the law, and then dismissed the
people.' Accordingly, I take the work of Joshua to begin from where Moses ended, at the xxxivth chapter of Deuteronomy, and to end with the 27ch verse of the xxxivth chapter of Joshua. As oshua thus added at the end of Deuteronomy the account of Moses death; so what we find from the 28th verse of the xxivth chapter of Joshua to the end of that book, was unquestionably not written until Joshua and all the elders his contemporaries, who out-lived him, were gone off the stage ;u and was added to the end of the book of Joshua, by some sacred penman, who was afterwards employed to record the subsequent state of the affairs of Israel.
As to the objections made against Joshua's being the writer of the book so called, they are but inconsiderable. It is remarked, that there are many short hints and intimations in divers parts of the book, which appear evidently of later date than Joshua's time. Of the stones which Joshua set up at Gilgal, it is observed that they were there ztnto this day; a remark very proper to be made in a distant age, but not likely to be hinted by Joshua, of a monument designed by him, not so much for his own times, as for the information of a late posterity, i Of the Canaanites in divers tribes it is suggested, that the Israelites did not drive them out; but admitted them to live among them, and made them pay tribute;1 and
* Joshua xxiT. 28. "Ver. 31.
, Chap, vii. 26. r iT. 21, 22.
* xiii. 9.—rri. 10.
of the tribe of Dan, that they went up against Leshem. * But this expedition was not taken until after,Joshua's death ;b nor did the tribes of Israel come to agreement with the inhabitants of Canaan, whilst Joshua was living;0 therefore all these observations must have come not from Joshua, but from a later hand. We are told, that what Joshua wrote about the sun and moon's standing still, was also found in the book of Jftsher;'' but the book of Jasher was more modern than these times. .It contained hints of what David desired the children of Judah might be taught,1 and therefore was a book probably ndt in being until David's age. In like manner, a tract of land in the xixth chapter of Joshua is called Cabul;f but this country seems not to have had this name until Hiram called it so in the days of Solomon.' I might add to these some other observations of a like sort ;h but how obvious is it to reply to all of them? 1. That the observation of Rahab's being alive' suggests that the book of Joshua had been composed long before any of these more modern intimations could be given; and consequently, that none of these could be in the original book of Joshua. 2. The learned are
* Josh. xix. 47. k xriii. * Judg. i.
*Ibid. x. 13: • 2Sam;i.l8.
'Joshua xix. 27. c 1 Kings ix. 13.
. h Vid. Cleric. Dissertat. de Scriptoribus, lib. Histor. Vet. Tcstam.
'Josh. vi. 25.
abundantly satisfied, that there are many littler strictures and observations of this nature now foand in divers parts of the sacred books, which weee not Written by the composers of the books in which they are found.k 3. Dean Prideaux says of them that they ■were additions made by Ezra, when, upon the return from the captivity, he collected and settled for the Jews a correct copy of their holy Sciptures.' What authority this most learned writer had for this opinion, I cannot say; I suspect it proceeded from a desire to preserve the same regard for these additions and interpolations which is due to the sacred writings; for he says, Ezra was assisted in making these additions by the same Spirit, by which the books were at first written.111 But, whether Ezra made his copy of the Scriptures from original books of them then extant; or rather, whether he did not make his copy from collecting and comparing such transcribed copies as were in the hands of the Israelites of his time; whether in the copies he consulted, the additions we are speaking of might not stand as marginal hints made by private hands in their copies of the sacred books; whether Ezra could ever design either to add to the sacred books, or to diminish ought from them;" though perhaps finding divers of these intimations of use to the reader for illustrating, and comparing one
* See Prideaux' Connections, part i, book v.