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N67-21816# Oak Ridge National Lab., Tenn.
At the direction of the Atomic Energy Commission, the
N67-85872 General Dynamics/Fort Worth, Tex. USE OF OPERATIONS RESEARCH IN THE EFFECTIVE PLANNING OF SPACE MISSIONS AND SPACE PROGRAMS C. B. Moore and T. E. Peace 3 Nov. 1965 89 p refs Presented at the 28th Natl. Meeting of Operations Soc. of Am., Houston, Tex., 4-5 Nov. 1965 (MR-0-120)
This paper deals with space program planning from the selection of spacecraft systems to the delineation of long-range space programs. Specific topics include the optimization of spacecraft operational and scientific payloads, the selection of mission vehicles the results of these suboptimizations and interim decisions into space program plans. The role of Operations Research techniques and the use of "expertise" and mathematical models within the analytical framework are particularly emphasized. Effectiveness criteria are discussed and used in terms of the evaluation process; these include cost, information yield, value, cost/effectiveness, timeliness, development risk, and probability of mission and program success.
N65-83225 American Univ., Washington. D. C.
The purpose of this paper is to develop a uniform systematic approach to the design and implementation of a management information system. In recent years there has been published reams of literature about various aspects of management information systems, and, some specific design considerations of these systems. However, nowhere during the course of this author's research could there be found a comprehensive guide or instructive document directed towards the design of a management information system. To this end-the creation of such a document-is this paper dedicated. The procedures developed in this paper dedicated. The procedures developed in this paper are, as most similar procedures in general, designed to guide the manager and analyst through all phases from initial inception to successful implementation of a management information system. Many factors must be considered while applying this procedure, e.g., complexity and scope of the information system. These factors are discussed throughout this paper in terms of their impact on each phase of the design process.
N67-84813 Systems Development Corp., Santa Monica, Calif. MANAGEMENT HANDBOOK FOR THE ESTIMATION OF COMPUTER PROGRAMMING COSTS E. A. Nelson 20 Mar. 1967 149 p refs (Contract F19628-67-C-0132) (TM-3225/000/01: AD-648750)
Guidelines are presented to help managers estimate the costs of computer programming. The guidelines summarize a statistical analysis of 169 computer programming efforts with equations to estimate man months, computer hours, and months elapsed, and also planning factors such as man months per thousand instructions. Opinions, rules of thumb, and experience data based upon literature search and experience supplement the statistical results. Forms with the guidelines are organized into six sections corresponding to a six-step division of the computer programming process. Advice is given on the integration of cost estimates into a cost analysis to justify and plan ADP projects.
N67-83219 System Development corp., Santa Monica, Calif. THE ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS H. Borko 10 Nov. 1966 25 p refs Presented at the Drexel Inst. of Tech, Symp. on Tech. Info. Center Admin., 29 Aug.-1 Sep. 1966 (SP-2655)
This paper provides an orientation to the procedures used in systems analysis and in the design of information systems. An information system is an organized procedure for collecting, processing. storing, and retrieving documentary information. Its structure is illustrated by means of a block diagram. The principles used in the analysis and design are derived from information science which provides a conceptual basis for understanding the functioning of information handling systems.
N67-84744 System Development Corp.. Santa Monica, Calif. CLASSIFICATION MANAGEMENT AT SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION
N67-82721 General Precision, Inc., Little Falls, N. J.
refs Prepared for Bur. of Res. and Develop., FAA
A guide prepared for Federal Aviation Agency personnel, especially those concerned with the conduct and direction of major development programs, was designed as a reference text for persons interested in the development of analytical and orderly management programs. Details are included for the specific methodologies used to test and evaluate a data processing central facility, and for the line of balance technique used during this evaluation. Following details on the evolution and application of this technique, organizing for optimum effect is discussed. Collection and display of information, gathering the facts to establish feasibility and practicability. the mechanics of preparation and flow diagrams, and the appraisal and presentation of the analysis are described. Details are included for the program as used at the data processing facility, including manpower requirements, costs, and management of the program.
facilitate management control during the progress of a computer programming effort; (2) build a data bank from which better cost-estimating relationships and planning tools can be developed; (3) accomplish the above with a minimum of interference with operating personnel. The report was designed to provide sample materials necessary for the implementation of cost reporting in any organization in which computer programming is performed; it includes a description of the steps that constitute the computer programming process, the kinds of personnel who would be involved in the cost-collection and reporting system, a recommended work flow and suggested forms for use in data collection and reporting. a work breakdown structure for associating costs with activities. and a brief discussion of the relationship of this system with several existing Department of Defense management procedures.
N67-81516 Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, D. C. Div. of Nuclear Materials Management. MATHEMATICAL APPROACHES TO INVENTORY MANAGEMENT-A SURVEY (1964) 160 p refs 10th Ann. Conf. held at Gatlinburg, Tenn., 19-21 Oct. 1964; Sponsored by AEC
Mathematical approaches to inventory management and production control were surveyed from the viewpoint of managing the use of nuclear materials. The nature and quantity of input data were considered, including both cost and noncost parameters; and the effects of inaccuracies and insufficient data were treated. Classical problems and marginal utility were investigated for single period models; and a single probability system was discussed in terms of (1) variable reorder point and constant lot size. (2) constant reorder point and variable lot size, and (3) production smoothing. Dynamic inventory models were investigated, as were parallel and series stations,
N67-39410# Herner and Co., Washington, D. C. SYSTEM DESIGN, EVALUATION AND COSTING-IN PLAIN ENGLISH Saul Herner 1 Mar. 1967 17 p Presented at the ADI Inst. on Inform. Sci., Ohio, 15 Dec. 1966 (Contract AF 49(638)-1424) (AFOSR-67-1998; AD-657788)
The concepts of system design, evaluation, and costing are among the most often discussed and widely misunderstood in the information field. This report attempts, via case illustrations, to describe and explain the steps and processes involved, so as to take some of the mystery and witchcraft out of systems and to facilitate the return of design and operation of information services to where they rightfully belong to the people who have the day-to-day job of making them go and perform. Author (TAB)
N67-40062# Carnegie Inst. of Tech., hittsburgh, Pa Management Sciences Research Group. ON THE APPLICATION OF THE THEORY OF MAXIMUM PRINCIPLE TO A PRODUCTION CONTROL PROBLEM R. Jagannathan Aug. 1967 14 p refs (Contract Nonr-760(24)) (RR-108; AD-657430)
The purpose of this paper is to solve a simple production control problem using the maximum principle theory as put forward by L. S. Pontryagin and his students. In the first section entitled Introduction, a brief description of maximum principle theory as relevant to our purpose is given. In the second section the production scheduling problem under probabilistic demand (which occurs periodically) is developed. The problem is a fairly realistic one resulting in a somewhat complicated analysis. In the final section the possibilities of relaxation of some of the underlying assumptions are indicated.
N67-28911# Electronic Systems Div., Bedford, Mass. A SYSTEMS APPROACH TO COMPUTER PROGRAMS Joseph L. Pokorney and Wallace E. Mitchell Feb. 1967 24 p refs (ESD-TR-67-205; AD-650216) CFSTI: HC $3.00/MF $0.65
Recent experience at ESD in acquiring complex computer based systems has identified a deficiency in existing systems management techniques in the area of computer programs. The systems management techniques generally in use were designed for equipment systems and need to be expanded to include computer programs. This paper describes an ESD approach to adapting existing AFSC system management techniques to computer programs. Procedures for insuring system compatibility, design integrity and technical control are discussed and a method for achieving design verification and qualification is presented. Particular emphasis is placed on the relationship of these techniques to computer programs as elements of large computer based systems. The application of these techniques is illustrated through selected examples taken from current ESD system procurements.
N67-39492# System Development Corp., Santa Monica, Calif. COST REPORTING FOR DEVELOPMENT OF INFORMATION PROCESSING SYSTEMS Edward A. Nelson and Thomas Fleishman Bedford, Mass., AFSC, Electron. Systems Div., 11 Apr. 1967 83 p refs (Contract AF 19(628-67-C-0132) (TM-3411/000/00: ESD-TR-67-452; AD-657793)
The report describes a system for the collecting and reporting on data on the resources expended in the production of computer programs. The system is intended to: (1) provide information to
N67-25119# Planning Research Corp., Los Angeles, Calif.
Volume Il of the three-volume final report on Phase II of a three-phase project on the Use of Air Force ADP Experience to Assist Air Force ADP Management is presented. The design of the data collection questionnaire was based on the ADPS model la concept of a total ADPS) and the workload model representing attributes of an ADPS. Data were collected on a stratified 18-ADPS sample, and the statistical analysis of these data produced five cost estimation equations. In addition, the data were used to produce
N66-87919 Committee on Post Office and Civil Service. (U. S.
Examples of improved manpower management plans, programs, and accomplishments developed by various departments and agencies of the Federal Government between January and June 1966 are presented. This summary, based on the semiannual reports submitted by the 26 largest departments and agencies. shows employment data and trends, manpower problems, and management improvement accomplishments. The work of main functional areas, including personnel, fiscal management, management analysis, and training, is reflected in this subcommittee report.
N67-26118# Planning Research Corp., Los Angeles, Calif.
Volume III of the three-volume final report on Phase - Il of a three-phase project on the Use of Air Force ADP Experience to Assist Air Force ADP Management, presents the concept and plan for Phase III. The operational concept for Phase III includes revised procedures for ADPS proposal submission, experience reporting, and asset reporting to an information storage and retrieval system. This system is the nucleus of a management information system that could be operational by June 1968. The major benefits will accrue from improved cost effectiveness and quality of ADP development and operations in the Air Force, from cost and time savings in large system programs that involve ADP.
N66-87320 Litton Systems, Inc., Woodland Hills, Calif. Guidance and Control Systems Div. CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT OPERATING PROCEDURES W. G. Bennett, N. P. White, and F. W. O'Green 17 Jun. 1963 206 p (PUBL-2758)
Interim procedures are outlined for a uniform specifications program, serialization, and configuration acceptance inspection as related to configuration management operations within a guidance and control systems division. Configuration control is concerned with engineering. vendor, and other control aspects; and procedures used at the various levels are included. Terms and definitions are spelled out in a glossary.
N67-24975# Planning Research Corp., Los Angeles, Calif.
Volume 1 of the three-volume final report summarizes Phase Il of a three-phase project on the Use of Air Force ADP Experience to Assist Air Force ADP Management. The history of the project is traced and the objectives. findings. conclusions, and recommendations are summarized and tabulated. The conclusions are as follows: that sufficient data can be collected to permit macrodescription of an ADPS; relationships do exist between workload descriptors and costs; the information can be distilled and organized into an indexed ADP Experience Handbook; and, for Phase III, an Air Force ADP Management Information System is necessary, feasible, and cost effective. The implementation of Phase III is recommended.
N66-85827 System Development Corp.. Santa Monica, Calif. DEVELOPMENT OF AN OPERATIONAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Ramon J. Rhine 16 Apr. 1963 27 p refs Presented at the Systems Symp., Washington, D. C., 22 Apr. 1966; Sponsored by Defense Supply Agency (SP-1175; AD-410972)
This paper describes the development of a management system which provides for a single, integrated semiautomatic system that supports top- and middle-management decision making as well as the administrative, accounting and personnel functions.
N66-82755 Arimc Research Corp., Washington, D. C.
Its Publ. No. 159-1-250 (Contract AF 33(600)-42462) (AD-261062)
The cost to the Air Force resulting from the failure equipment is considered in a model that encompasses loss of manpower, time, and missions as well of money. Methodology used in the study is to partition functions or to assign tasks to every man and every unit in the maintenance organization, and to assign weights to various discrepancies or failures that occur at each of the functions. Methods of performance of these functions and their classifications and units involved are tabulated; and time distributions for each function are considered.
N67-10583# RAND Corp., Santa Monica, Calif. OPTIMAL LINEAR INVENTORY CONTROL AND FIRST ORDER EXPONENTIAL SMOOTHING Dale M. Landi and B. Mc K. Johnson (Connecticut Univ.) Aug. 1966 13 p refs (P-3264-1; AD-638026) CESTI: HC $1.00/MF $0.50
A linear, fixed-interval stock replenishment policy that achieves an optimal cost balance between inventory and order-level variances is derived in this paper. The reorder rule relies on first order exponential smoothing to predict random components of the demand sequence, which are assumed to be pairwise uncorrelated with mean zero and variance that either grows or decays geometrically. or remains constant in time
N66-36641# Brown Engineering Co., Inc., Huntsville, Ala.
This report is aimed at management levels responsible for ensuring system compatibility and mission success. The report provides a familiarization with the philosophies of system management and the interrelationships of program management, system engineering, and management tools. Value engineering and configuration management are discussed as the catalysts to be integrated into the management network, thus assuring system compatibility and mission success at the lowest overall cost.
Although accurate estimation of computer programming costs is an important prerequisite for effective programming management, such estimates have historically been very unreliable. Some of the underlying causes of this problem are discussed, and about fifty factors that appear to contribute to the cost of computer programs are identified. Data concerning the effects of a few of these factors upon cost are presented by way of illustration. Recommendations are made for more detailed cost collection, cost analysis, and experimentation.
N66-33837# RAND Corp., Santa Monica, Calif.
The paper is addressed to three principal topics: (1) what a typical manned space flight plan looks like: (2) procedures employed in evaluating the resource impact of alternative space flight proposals, either projects or plans; (3) the resource implications of some of the major types of activities currently being considered in NASA's long-range planning.
N65-88396 Columbia Univ., New York. Statistical Engineering Group SOME FURTHER RESULTS ON INVENTORY DEPLETION MANAGEMENT Gerald J. Lieberman 15 Jan. 1958 10 p refs (Contract DA-18-108-CML-1625) (TR-3)
An alternate set of sufficient conditions on L(S), the field life of an item, is presented under which a LIFO (last in, first out) policy is optimal for inventory management. Two sets of conditions on L(S) are also given under which a FIFO (first in, first out) policy is optimal. As with the LIFO policy, only the relative age of the items must be known for FIFO; and, under the second set of conditions, it is not necessary to verify the results for the case of two items. It is noted that the problem of determining whether LIFO or FIFO is an optimal policy resolves itself into determining which is optimal for the case of n = 2.
N66-33636# System Development Corp., Santa Monica, Calif.
Decision making is discussed both in a broad economic context and in a specific definitional sense, and is then related to the information revolution, or computerization. The directional and dimensional changes in the decision making process that appear to be imminent or already underway are described, and predictions are made of the effects these changes will have upon managers' jobs in the near-term future.
N65-88394 Columbia Univ., New York. Statistical Engineer-
refs (Contract DA-18-108-CML-1625) (TR-2)
Finding the order of item issue which maximizes the total field life obtained from a stockpile is considered, as is the order of stock issue which maximizes the total expected utility obtainable from a specified number of items while meeting the given demand schedule. Sufficient conditions are given in each case under which a LIFO (last in, first out) use policy will be optimum. Brief mention is also made of FIFO (first in, first out) inventory depletion policies.
N66-24515 Joint Publications Research Service. Washington,
Reports presented at a conference on technical cybernetics cover problems arising in the development of operational management systems in various branches of industry as well as problems that arise during manufacturing procedure. Mathematical models of complex production processes and other aspects of industrial concern are presented, as are methods and programs for determining optimal solutions via general and specialized computers. Technical means of collection, transmission, and processing of information are considered; as are other aspects of automation and control processes related to mass production industries. Several contributions deal with the role of the human operator and the relationships between man and machine.
N65-32701# Army Missile Command. Huntsville, Ala. VALUE ENGINEERING SYMPOSIUM, ADVANCEMENT IN THE STATE OF THE ART (1964) 448 p Symp. Held at Redstone Arsenal, Ala.. 18-19 Nov. 1964 (AD-616516)
Papers accepted in connection with the Army Missile Com. mand's value engineering symposium are presented under 11 major categories concerned with decision making. cost analysis, statistical applications, and program management. Papers on design tradeoffs, game theory and checkout, and costs are included under value decision techniques. Various cost effectiveness approaches are described; and charts, nomographs and other estimating techniques are included. Attention is given to the mathematical analysis of value, target cost programs, and value engineering research. Various program management experiences are reported: including an approach for electronics research and development laboratory. the Air Force Logistics Command efforts, and dynamic management via PERT. Value engineering is considered in terms of paperwork operations, research and development, applications, and contracts and economics
N66-11547# System Development Corp., Santa Monica, Calif. FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE COST OF COMPUTER PROGRAMMING Leonard Farr and Burt Nanus Bedford, Mass., AFSC. Electron. Systems Div., Jul. 1964 63 p refs (Contract AF 19(628)-1648) (ESD-TDR-64-448; AD-603707)