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N62-17220 Applied Mathematics and Statistics Labs.. Stanford U., Calif. ECONOMIC MODELS FOR INDUSTRIAL WAITING LINE PROBLEMS Federick S. Hillier Aug. 27. 1962 36 p 17 refs (Contract Nonr-225(53)) (Tech. Rept. 62)
This paper provides useful applications for queueing theories by introducing a basic framework of economic models and accompanying procedures for solving industrial waiting line problems. The first model presented is for the simple case where the arrival rate and service rate are fixed and the number of servers (service channels) must be determined. Model 2 is for the case where both the arrival rate and the number of servers must be determined, i.e.. where both the number of service facilities to distribute among the entire population and the number of servers to assign to each facility must be determined. This model is inclusive of travel time costs. Model 3 is for the case where both the service rate and the number of servers must be determined. Several special cases of both Model 2 and Model 3 are analyzed. The models presented. while perhaps the most basic and most generally applicable ones, are far from exhaustive. In particular, models designed especially for specific types of industrial waiting line problems need to be developed
N68-84525 Pittsburgh Univ.. Pa. Management Research Center THE INTERFACE BETWEEN PERSONNEL AND ORGANIZA. TIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Bernard M. Bass 15 Mar. 1967 27 p refs (Contract Nonr-624(14)) (TR-13; AD-649918)
The first part of this report delineates the importance of organizational considerations to the personnel psychologist as he concentrates on recruiting, selection, training. job design and so forth. The second part deals with the converse: the importance of personnel considerations to the organizational psychologist as he deals with problems of morale, supervision, teamwork, organizational design and conflict resolution.
N62-13353 Aeronautical Systems Div., Air Force Systems
This paper covers the first Air Force application of PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) to a space programthe Dyna-Soar Piloted Glider System. The PERT technique is a working tool for management and engineers when coupled with valid reporting networks and electronic data processing. (R.C.M.)
N67-82994 Case Inst. of Tech., Cleveland, Ohio.
A comparative investigation was made of professional women and men at work in a large, defense-based research and development organization. The women are the major focus, and the men provide a base-line for comparison. The study asked: (1) whether professional men and women shared work motivations and were equally involved in their jobs; (2) whether they were equally rewarded by the organization in terms of advancement; (3) whether they attributed equal value to, were equally satisfied by and experienced similar or differing degrees of conflict between, work and home demands; (4) whether their actual job mobility and mobility values were the same or different; and (5) whether they experienced similar or differing degrees of job satisfactions. The results pointed overwhelmingly to the underlying similarities between the professional men and women within an organizational culture which provided essentially equal opportunities to both sexes. The major differences arose from the res ential immobility of the married professional woman. Other differences were attributable to ocupational group or marital status rather than to sex. Author (TAB)
M5 PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT
N67-85689 Union Carbide Corp., Oak Ridge, Tenn. Y-12 Plant FACTORS AFFECTING THE MORALE AND PRODUCTIVITY OF ENGINEERING PERSONNEL H. C. Beeson (M.S. Thesis-Tenn. Univ.) and J. W. Hodes (M.S. Thesis, Tenn. Univ.) 27 Apr. 1967 190 p refs (Contract W-7405-ENG-26) (Y-1575)
Based on results obtained from questionnaires filled out by 188 engineering personnel, it was found that morale and productivity increased when the employee's job was considered interesting and challenging; the employee received consistent consideration from his supervisor, immediate and long range reward for doing a good job, and sufficient responsibility and freedom; and the employee was made to feel part of a team and kept informed of his progress. Decreased morale and productivity resulted from lack of salary increase with insufficient explanation, the supervisor taking credit for his employee's efforts and subjecting the employee to pressure and inconsideration, and inconsistent behavior on the part of the supervisor and his failure to give adequate performance reviews. The study group consisted of first-line supervisors, engineers, and draftsmen in a large industrial complex. Copies of the preliminary and final job questionnaires are appended. M.W.R.
N67-36016# Melbourne Univ.. Parkville (Australia). DYNAMICS OF A ROLE THEORY FOR THE WORKER'S JUDGEMENT Richard C. S. Trahair Jul. 1967 46 p refs (Contract Nonr-2296(02)) (TR-18; AD-654894)
Specific illustrations are presented to show that the worker seeks a degree of control over the physical demands and intrinsic satisfaction of task performance; authority, pay and security of positions; task competence and the mateship relation of persons. The extent to which the worker seeks control over additional benefits and promotion features of positions is limited by the kind of benefit under consideration, and the success ideology which characterize the lives of men at the lower levels of industrial administration.
N67-32656# Tufts Univ., Medford, Mass. Inst. for Psychological Research RESEARCH INVOLVING COMMUNICATION PROCESSES IN TASK ORIENTED GROUPS Final Report 16 May 1967 30 p (Contract Nonr-494(15)) (AD-652390) CFSTI: HC $3.00/MF $0.65
Several theoretical articles which examine various aspects of the small group performance problem are discussed. These include: (1) An analysis of the executive process, based on the distribution of information in a group which relates to particular decisions. The general notion was that the information bearing on any action decision can be determined or estimated and that an effective executive structure is one that maximizes the amount of relevant information brought to bear on each decision. (2) An examination of phasing relationships among action units with particular emphasis on measurement. (3) A discussion of the use of computer simulation models with special reference to organization theory. (4) A survey of the possibly appropriate mathematical models for a variety of group performance subfunctions. Author (TAB)
S. B. Sells Ft. Wainwright, Alaska, Arctic Aeromed. Lab., Jun. 1962 26 p refs (Contract AF 41(657)-323) (AAL-TDR-62-35)
This presents a critical discussion and interpretation of principles of leadership and management with particular reference to the problems of AC&W sites in Alaska. It is based on a review of scientific research in the fields of psychology, sociology and management science, primarily. The major topics covered include relations of management and leadership, group-centered vs. production-centered management, organizational relations, organizational control, and leadership in formal organizations. Selected references are cited and reference is made to an annotated bibliography containing abstracts of significant studies. Author
N67-29665# Utah Univ., Salt Lake City. Dept. of Psychology. RESULTS FOR AN ADDITIONAL FOLLOW-UP CRITERION ON A SAMPLE OF AIR FORCE SCIENTISTS Calvin W. Taylor and Kan Yagi Dec. 1966 16 p refs (Grant AF-AFOSR-144-63) (AFOSR-67-0896; AD-651119) CESTI: HC $3.00/MF $0.65
The report supplements an earlier study (AD-267 832) in which 17 measures of contributions of scientists were used as criteria for validating 130 predictor scores for measuring psychological characteristics of the scientists. This report relates to an additional over-all criterion that was obtained for 80 of the original 107 subjects. The criterion was a 6-man committee rating of the scientist. The Biographical Information Blank was again the best single predictor instrument of the new criterion. Aptitude test scores ranked more significantly than previously. T-test comparisons are given for 30 empirically keyed Biographical scores. None of the scores based on a criterion of status-seeking, organization-man tendencies was significant with respect to the over-all criterion. Likeableness as a member of the research team was the most important criterion dimension with respect to the over-all criterion. Current organizational status also ranked high. Criterion dimensions of quality of product, originality of product, and creativity ratings had little effect on the over-all criterion rating. Some discussion of these findings and of the explanatory power of the profiles of a scientist's contributions is presented. An analysis of criterion intercorrelations by different sources is presented that shows the complexity of the criterion problem and differences that arise in scores of a scientist's performance dependent on the scorer (the individual himself, immediate supervisors, higher level supervisors. peers).
N66-39799# School of Aerospace Medicine, Brooks AFB. Tex. FACTORS IN JOB-SATISFACTION George K. Cantrell, Bryce O. Hartman, and Lewis S. Sims, Jr. (Mil. Airlift Command, Scott AFB, III.) May 1966 41 p ref (SAM-TR-66-46; AD-637861) CFSTI: HC $2.00/MF $0.50
A 44-item questionnaire, covering twenty-eight management problem areas, was administered to personnel at twenty different maintenance units in the Far East, Europe, and the Continental United States. Completed questionnaires from 2122 airmen were used to evaluate the relationship between each problem area and job-satisfaction. The analysis showed that job-satisfaction is most affected by those problems that could be controlled or corrected by the immediate supervisors and least affected by those problems which have to be solved at levels farther up the chain of command. Supporting evidence was obtained from interviews and a special psychiatric study.
N66-39790# School of Aerospace Medicine, Brooks AFB, Tex. FACTORS IN JOB-SATISFACTION: ANALYSIS OF SPONTANEOUS COMMENTS George K. Cantrell, Bryce 0. Hartman, and Lewis S. Sims, Jr. (Mil. Airlift Command, Scott AFB, III.) Jun. 1966 18 p ref (SAM-TR-66-57; AD-637862) CFSTI: HC $1.00/MF $0.50
Comments, spontaneously entered on 2122 questionnaires administered to maintenance airmen in 20 different military units in the Far East, Europe, and the Continental United States, were analyzed. The 4941 comments were assigned to one of 32 different categories and to one of three different levels of emphasis. The analysis supported an earlier finding that an airman's immediate supervisor has a greater capacity to affect his level of job-satisfaction than any other single factor. The more significant problems, including promotion, pay, duty time-time off. duty assignments, poor supervision, management, recognition, living conditions, and supply, are discussed in reference to airmen and to NCO's. The analysis revealed that as an airman changed his level of emphasis in making a comment, his ranking of the comment areas also changed.
N66-86457 System Research, Ltd., Richmond (England).
In this paper we discuss the interaction between a human being and an adaptive machine. It is argued that a stable, coupled system is necessarily a self organizing system. Practical and theoretical considerations are reviewed in terms of those adaptive machines used in a specific application; namely, the automatic instruction of skills. A simple laboratory system is described in detail. Finally, we consider the behavior of larger and more realistic systems.
N66-38220# Aerospace Medical Div. Personnel Research Lab. (6570th), Lackland AFB, Tex. ABSTRACTS OF PERSONNEL RESEARCH REPORTS. VI: 1954-1965 Jo Ann Elson, comp. Dec. 1965 107 p refs (PRL-TR-65-23; AD-636607). CFSTI: HC $4.00/MF $0.75
The volume includes abstracts of the 374 technical reports issued by the Personnel Research Laboratory January 1954 through December 1965. They cover studies in selection, classification, and utilization of Air Force personnel, systematizing information flow in support of personnel planning: methods of describing, evaluating, and structuring Air Force jobs; and development of procedures for improving the quality of Air Force personnel.
N66-82383 Texas Christian Univ., Fort Worth. Dept. of Psy-
to system performance as a result of training and the cost of that training. Recommendations for the conduct of these three phases and suggested working forms are presented.
N66-37629# California Univ., Los Angeles. Div. of Research. AN EVALUATION OF BARRIERS TO THE DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY IN FORMAL ORGANIZATIONS Patrick Meacham Williams (San Jose State Coll.) Jul. 1966 20 p rets (NASA-RP-13)
A number of "barriers" to effective authority delegation were grouped into categories associated with the manager, his subordinates, and his organization. Sixty-five managers were then asked to evaluate the importance of each of these obstacles by means of numerical ratings, open-end written responses, and individual interviews. The major results of this survey established the following reasons for the inability to delegate decision making: (1) The manager viewed his subordinate as the principle barrier to delegation; (2) the manager remained basically confident in himself as a decision maker and rated his own ability higher than any other barrier to delegation; (3) the manager's impatience to develop the decision making ability in others. G.G.
N64-83423 New England Consultants, Inc., Boston, Mass.
refs Prepared for ESSO Res. and Eng. Co.
Status and shortage of engineers in American industry and government institutions are surveyed, and comparisons are made with demand and supply of technically trained personnel in China and Russia. A section on becoming an engineer deals with parental attitudes, high school and college influences, mass media, career literature, and extracurricular activities of students. Industrial recruitment and selection is discussed; and attitudes of engineers toward their profession, jobs, and management are considered. Evidence of the status of the engineer and engineering in general is presented, and studies on the public understanding of the roles of the engineer and engineering are included. A bibliography of pertinent references is appended.
N66-37074# Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge.
The purpose of this study is the analysis of creativity in the context of organizations found in an advanced modern social system. The report deals with a critique of the literature related to the problems of creativity in organizations, with these criticisms in mind, the second part compares different organizations ranked by. levels of creativity. Different factors of the environments (especially those relating to organizational control and feelings of individual freedom) which influence creativity levels are analyzed. Eight environments were chosen for study to include industrial labs, government labs. and acade mic labs. The first case study analyses the severe constraints on creativity which can occur in an organization operated under public health regulation. Four labs that exhibit different levels of creativity are compared. Propositions are generated to explain these differences. These propositions are tested in three academic labs which are assumed to have more creative environments. The conclusions include recommendations for altering the theoretical framework offered by the literature, and recommendations for organizations wishing to foster creativity in their participants.
N64-21601 Federal Council for Science and Technology.
Carreer development of federal scientists and engineers, controversies in scientific personnel administration, and conflict of interest and the federal scientist were discussed at a conference designed to exchange management experiences among laboratory directors of various federal agencies. Administration problems that are common to all agencies as well as those specific to certain facilities were discussed at the various sessions.
N66-12122# Applied Science Associates, Inc., Valencia, Pa. GUIDELINES FOR TRAINING SITUATION ANALYSIS (TSA) Final Report Andrew P. Chenzoff and John D. Folley. Jr. Port Washington, N. Y., Naval Training Device Center, Jul. 1965 199 p (Contract N61339-1218) (NAVTRADEVCEN 1218-4; AD-472155)
These guidelines represent a textbook for instruction in three phases of Training Situation Analysis (TSA), a standardized procedure, developed by NTDC, for systematically gathering and interpreting the information which is relevant to the planning of training and training devices. Three phases of TSA are described in detail: System Familiarization. Task Analysis Method (TAM) and Training Analysis Procedure (TAP). System Familiarization provides an orientation to the training problem, the system structure and flow, and the equipment. Task Analysis Method produces a set of task descriptions containing the information necessary for making training device decisions. Training Analysis Procedure produces a ranking of tasks based upon the potential benefit
N62-16582 Institute for Social Research, U. of Mich., Ann Arbor. TIME AND INFLUENCE FACTORS IN LABORATORY MANAGEMENT, AS RELATED TO PERFORMANCE. Interim Technical Report, Analysis memo #18 Donald C. Plez. Sept. 1962. 53 p. refs. (Grant DA-OROID)-31-124-G160) (AROD-0010-6)
The Multiple Classification Analysis (MCA) program was applied to study the relationships of 34 questionnaire measures to five performance scores. Because of certain flaws in procedure, only part of the MCA output is meaningful, but the raw data for all measures can legitimately be examined. The data tentatively sug. gest that scientists perform better when they devote about twothirds of their time (not more) to technical work, and the rest to teaching or administration. Performance also tends to be high when some time is spent in research, some in development, and a little in technical services--in short, when time is balanced among several technical functions. Better performance occurs when influence on important decisions does not rest solely with the scientist nor any other individual, but is shared with several persons at various levels
M6 URBAN MANAGEMENT
No abstracts in this issue
M7 MANAGEMENT POLICY & PHILOSOPHY
The history of management is reviewed to point out the current status of management science and some of the possible future developments in management. The areas covered include: contribution to management by military leaders; management engineering: management concepts of Charles Babbage; current developments in methodology: and social and managerial implications for the future.
N67-19717# Texas Christian Univ.. Fort Worth. Inst. of
refs Presented at the Symp. on People, Groups, and Organ., An Effective Integration of Knowledge: Sponsored by ONR and Rutgers Univ. (Contract Nonr-3436(00)) (AD-642496) CESTI: HC $3.00/MF $0.65
The report discusses the development of a social system model. Recognition that organizational functioning reflects the interdependence of organizations and their members with the total, physical, social, and cultural environment has been amply demonstrated. The emphasis on this principle is a sign of progress in organizational theory.
N67-85937 Joint Publications Research Service, Washington,
Transl. into ENGLISH from Ekon. Gaz. (Moscow). no. 10 and 18, Mar.-May 1967 (JPRS-41188; TT-67-31-31829)
An overview of the economics of scientific research and an evaluation of the complex problems that arise is presented. Financing of scientific research in communist and capitalistic societies is treated briefly, characteristics of scientific activity are mentioned, and management and organization planning are considered. Attention is given to the evaluation of scientific research results from an economic viewpoint, and a so-called optimal parameter is presented in this regard.
N66-16001# Army Missile Command, Huntsville. Ala. Management Science and Data Systems Office. THE IMPACT OF ADP ON THE FUTURE MANAGERIAL ENVIRONMENT Bruce L. Garrett 15 Jun. 1965 82 p refs (RSIC-438; AD-472768)
A synthesis of predicted Automatic Data Processing (ADP) developments in terms of their relationships to the total management of an organization, directed primarily to managers faced with a growing demand for better ADP utilization. ADP equipment capabilities likely to be available during the next decade are outlined in detail. Current techniques for the use of ADP systems and problems involved in installing improved future applications are discussed. A timetable is shown predicting the general acceptance and use of applications leading to maximum economical computer utilization. The ADP displaced worker situation is portrayed and actions for its alleviation are suggested. Statistics covering situations where ADP actually displaced workers are shown in graphic form. Managerial approaches to coping with systems integration, personnel training, and organizational structure evolving from an ADP influenced society are presented.
N67-20591# Carnegie Inst. of Tech., Pittsburgh, Pa. Management Sciences Research Group. ECONOMIC PROGRAMMING AND THE VON NEUMANN MODEL: SOME PLANNING TECHNIQUES Roman L. Weil, Jr. Jun. 1966 149 p refs (Contract Nonr-760(24)) (Rept.-78; AD-640478) CFSTI: HC $3.00/MF $0.65
The essays are concerned with generalizations, extensions. and applications of the von Neumann model. The essays all have in common a how to approach: Chapter II shows how to decompose a von Neumann model or an input-output model and how von Neumann expansion rates can be easily found once the decomposition is known; Chapter III shows how to find the von Neumann path and expansion rate: Chapter IV shows how to get onto the von Neumann path on an optimal way given a fixed-time constraint; and Chapter V shows how to introduce consumption into the closed von Neumann model or at least one way of attempting to do so.
N65-80491 RAND Corp., Santa Monica, Calif.
It is postulated that space logistics poses few new factors or elements, but rather places increased importance on improved management of existing procedures such as fault-isolation, test, checkout, and data reduction. The potential of improved logistics management is stressed, and improved management techniques developed or planned for aircraft or missiles are discussed. Applications to space logistics are then considered; and it is emphasized that space logistics support must begin in the design phase and that increased attention must be given to the improvement of logistics processes.
N66-29268# California Univ., Berkeley. Operations Research Center. ON OPTIMAL DEVELOPMENT IN A MULTI-SECTOR ECONOMY David Gale Apr. 1966 44 p refs (Contract Nonr-222(83)) (ORC-66-11; AD-632495) CFSTI: HC $2.00/MF $0.50
An economy is considered that has n goods and k types of labor, each of which is growing at the same constant rate. Goods are produced from labor and other goods by a set of specified activities. Given an initial supply of goods and amounts of labor. All possible production programs running from the present time to infinity through discrete time periods are considered. With each program is associated a utility sequence measuring the satisfaction achieved by the program
N63-13737 Northwestern Technological Inst.. Evanston, Ill. MANAGEMENT SCIENCE AND MANAGING A. Charnes and W. W. Cooper Mar. 1962 27 p 23 refs (Contracts Nonr-1228(10) and Nonr-760101)) (ONR Res. Memo-53)
at each period of time. A program is optimal if its utility sequence overtakes all other such sequences. The paper is devoted to proving the existence of optimal programs for a wide class of economies and to deriving the properties of such programs. In particular it is shown that the optimal program approaches a certain balanced program. Essential use is made of the existence of an infinite sequence of optimal prices with respect to which the optimal program is one which maximizes the sum of profit and utility at each time period.
The report surveys classical theories of industry location and appraises their applicability in the 1970s, when very large cargo aircraft are expected to be introduced. Modifications of existing theory are considered toward the development of an extended general theory of location. Some preliminary observations are made on the effects of super-cargo aircraft on industry location. The study is one product of a program of private, self-sponsored research. The program has the objective of examining changes in industry location that could result from introduction of super-cargo aircraft such as the planned Boeing 747 subsonic jet transport.
N64-28816 RAND Corp., Santa Monica, Calif.
The managerial techniques used in the aerospace industries have been shaped by the unique conditions surrounding these industries. The demands of their most important customer (the Government), the frequent combination of large state-ofthe-art advances with great development urgency, and the large size of many projects have combined to shape management techniques and systems. It is suggested that these techniques cano
be translated or transferred into other industries without extensive modifications, and yet many similar qualities to processes, which appear in other industries, exist. Thus, a selective utilization of some parts of the managerial techniques is likely to have a very profound effect upon other industries. It is up to the managers of industries to seek out those components of the aerospace managerial systems that make sense to them.
N67-22969# Technisch Documentatie en Informatie Centrum voor de Krijgsmacht. The Hague (Netherlands). NETWORK PLANNING-SCANS/PERT-CPM/RAMPS. BIBLIOGRAPHY (NETWERKPLANNING-SCANS/PERT/CPM/ RAMPS. BIBLIOGRAPHIE] F. P. van Eck Nov. 1966 62 p refs (TDCK-46624) CFSTI: HC $3.00/MF $0.65
A bibliography with abstracts is presented of works on network analysis, its application in general, and its specific application in the construction of ships, aircraft, spacecraft, buildings, and in military operations. Included are the systems SCANS. PERT, CPM. and RAMPS. Works published from 1964 through 1966 are represented.
Transl. by K.W.
N67-21172 Joint Publications Research Service, Washington, D. C. ADMINISTRATIVE EFFICIENCY AND COMPUTERS E. A. Isayev 14 Feb., 1967 33 p Transl, into ENGLISH of the book "Effektivnosti Upravleniya i Elektronnyye Mashiny" Moscow, Znaniye Publishing House. 1966 p 3-32 (JPRS-3985; TT-67-30543) CFSTI: HC $3.00
A journalistic account of using digital control computers in systems capable of automating the administration of enterprises is presented. Types of industrial systems, and the gathering. transmitting, and processing of information are outlined. The details of production within the plant and prediction of market needs are mentioned. Computers are briefly described and flexibility in decision making is considered. Examples are discussed using a parts machining plant and a bakery as illustrations.
N67-85833 Commerce Dept., Washington, D. C.
Taxation, finance, and competition were considered as three main factors affecting invention and innovation by an advisory citizen committee convened by and reporting to the Secretary of Commerce. While no major changes were recommended with regard to present laws governing these three areas, 17 recommendations were made regarding sharing of innovation losses, stock options, acquired technological assets, communication of venture capital opportunities, various types of tax relief for inventors, and the antitrust and regulatory agencies. Emphasis was on the need for promoting a basic understanding of the innovative process in all sectors of our society: and a White House conference on understanding and improving the overall environment for technological innovation was recommended, to be followed by regional conferences through the country. Major federal policies regulating competitive activities and practices are reviewed, and examples are included of possible conflicts between federal policies on competition and various practices involving innovation. M.W.R.
N66-87784 National Science Foundation, Washington, D. C.
Summaries are presented for projects dealing with the economic and social implications of science and technology that were underway during 1965. These are presented alphabetically according to authour under the following general headings: (1) administration, organization, and management: (2) agriculture and rural sociology; (3) automation and impact on labor; (4) decision making; (5) economic development: (6) economic analysis: (7) history and philosophy of science and technology: (8) impact on selected industries: (9) innovations in and impacts of specific inventions and processes; (10) international and foreign studies: (11) patents and trademarks: (12) public policy, government, and national defense; (13) scientific and engineering manpower performance, education, and creativity; and (14) sociology and psychology. Cross references are included for projects dealing with science information, space, and state and regional studies; and contributing authors and institutions are indexed. M.W.R.
N67-37187# Analytic Services Inc., Baileys Crossroads, Va.